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Cheliabinsk

This article is about a major city in Russia. For the town previously known as Chelyabinsk-40 and Chelyabinsk-65, see Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast.

Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челябинск, IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk]Template:IPA audio link) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.[6][7][8] Population: Template:Ru-census2010 1,077,174 (2002 Census);[9] 1,141,777 (1989 Census).[10]

History

The fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was founded in the place of a Bashkir village of Chelyaby by colonel Alexey (Kutlu-Muhammed) Tevkelev to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was eventually captured for several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty that was later reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a seat of a its own uyezd and finally was granted town status and its current name in 1787.

Until the late 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the Samara-Zlatoust Railway that connected it with Moscow and the rest of European Russia was completed. At the same time, the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway started; in 1896 the city was tied with Yekaterinburg. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major trade center, its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897, 45,000 by 1913, and 70,000 by 1917.

For several months during the Russian Civil War, Chelyabinsk was held by the White movement and Czechoslovak Legions, becoming a center for splinters of the Romanian Volunteer Corps in Russia. The city later fell to Bolshevik forces. In September 1919, a new Chelyabinsk Governorate was created out of the eastern parts of Orenburg Governorate and the southwestern parts of Tobolsk Governorate. It lasted only until 1923, when it was absorbed into Ural Oblast, created during one of the Soviet administrative reforms.

During the first Five-Year Plans of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth. Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk—still essentially a small town. Several enormous facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk, which became informally known as "Tankograd" (Tank City). Chelyabinsk was essentially built from scratch during this time. A small town existed before this, signs of which can be found in the center of the city. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks; it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.

2013 meteor

Main article: Chelyabinsk meteor

Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour (34,000 mph) over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25–30 kilometers (16–19 mi)[dubious ] in a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generating a shock wave that injured over thousand people. Fragments fell in and around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident, mostly for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions. One woman suffered a broken spine.[11] Kolesnikov also said about 600 square meters (6,000 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press that there was a meteor shower, but another ministry spokeswoman was quoted by the Interfax news agency as saying it was a single meteor.[12][13][14] The size has been estimated at 17 meters (56 ft) diameter with a mass of 10,000[15][16] or 11,000[17] tonnes.

Administrative and municipal status

Chelyabinsk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Chelyabinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Chelyabinsk is incorporated as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[1]

Climate

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−7.9
(17.8)
1.0
(33.8)
10.6
(51.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75)
25.2
(77.4)
23.6
(74.5)
17.2
(63)
9.3
(48.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
8.8
(47.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.1
(6.6)
−12.5
(9.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
4.7
(40.5)
12.1
(53.8)
18.3
(64.9)
19.3
(66.7)
17.1
(62.8)
10.9
(51.6)
4.1
(39.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−11.1
(12)
3.2
(37.8)
Average low °C (°F) −19.0
(−2.2)
−18.9
(−2)
−9.3
(15.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.5
(58.1)
13.5
(56.3)
7.6
(45.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−5.9
(21.4)
−14.6
(5.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
19
(0.75)
27
(1.06)
47
(1.85)
55
(2.17)
87
(3.43)
44
(1.73)
41
(1.61)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
21
(0.83)
430
(16.93)
Avg. precipitation days 6 4 4 5 7 9 10 9 7 8 7 7 83
 % humidity 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[19]

Education

There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The oldest, Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy, was founded in 1930. It was followed by the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University in 1934. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University, and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. After World War II, Chelyabinsk became the main center of vocational education of the entire Ural region.

Economy

Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ), and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).

Transportation


Public transport of Chelyabinsk is represented by a bus lines network (since 1925), tram (1932) and trolleybus (1942) systems, as well as private marshrutka (routed cab) services.

Chelyabinsk started construction of a three-line subway network in the early 1980s. It is proceeding slowly using the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pending financing, the opening of the first section is scheduled for 2017.

The city is served by the Chelyabinsk Airport.

Sports

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Traktor Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1947 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Traktor Arena
Chelmet Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1948 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yunost Sports Palace
Belye Medvedi Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Traktor Arena
FC Chelyabinsk Football 1977 Russian Second Division 3rd Central Stadium
Sintur Chelyabinsk Futsal 1997 Futsal Supreme League 2nd USURT Sports Complex
Avtodor-Metar Chelyabinsk Volleyball 1976 Woman's Volleyball Supreme League 2nd Metar-Yunost Sports Palace

Notable people

  • Ariel, Soviet pop rock band
  • Lera Auerbach (born 1973), composer and musician, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Svyatoslav Belza (born 1942), musical scholar, critic and essayist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Yekaterina Gamova (born 1980), Olympic volleyball player, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Makhmut Gareev (born 1923), historian and military scientist, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Valery Gopin (born 1964), Olympic handball player
  • Mansur Isaev (born 1986), Olympic judoka, lives in Chelyabinsk
  • Viktor Khristenko (born 1957), politician, Russian Minister of Industry, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Igor Kurnosov (1985-2013), chess grandmaster, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Oleg Mityaev (born 1956), singer-songwriter and actor, born, grew up, and came into prominence in Chelyabinsk
  • Vladimir Nebylitsyn (1930–1972), psychologist, grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Georgy Ratner (1923–2001), surgeon, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Nelli Rokita (born 1957), Polish politician, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Eugene Roshal, software developer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Mariya Savinova, Olympic athlete, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Galina Starovoytova (1946–1998), politician and human rights activist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Maksim Surayev (born 1972), cosmonaut, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Evgeny Sveshnikov (born 1950), chess grandmaster and writer, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Anna Trebunskaya (born 1980), ballroom and Latin dancer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Ivan Ukhov (born 1986), Olympic high jumper, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Yelena Yelesina (born 1970), Olympic high jumper, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Mikhail Yurevich (born 1969), politician, born in Chelyabinsk

Ice hockey players

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Chelyabinsk is twinned with:

References

Notes

Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №1577 от 29 августа 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в перечень муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111-112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #1577 of August 29, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd. The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

External links

  • Website about Chelyabinsk
  • Chelyabinsk city portal (Russian)
  • Chelyabinsk News Agency (Russian)
  •  

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