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Chengdu J-20

J-20
Role Stealth air superiority fighter / multirole combat aircraft
National origin China
Manufacturer Chengdu Aerospace Corporation
First flight 11 January 2011[1][2]
Introduction 2018 (planned)[2]
Status In-development / flight testing[2]
Primary user People's Liberation Air Force
Number built 7 prototypes[3][4]

The Chengdu J-20 (simplified Chinese: 歼-20; traditional Chinese: 殲-20) is a Stealth, twin-engine, fifth-generation fighter aircraft prototype being developed by Chengdu Aerospace Corporation for China's Air Force (PLAAF).[5] The J-20 made its first flight on 11 January 2011, and is expected to be operational in 2018.[1][2][6][7]

China's J-20 platform has the potential to be a capable, long-range strike system in the Asia-Pacific region, but a number of technical challenges will need to be overcome before production can begin.[8]

Contents

  • Development 1
    • Origins 1.1
    • Flight testing 1.2
  • Design 2
    • Characteristics 2.1
    • Engines 2.2
    • Avionics 2.3
    • Armament 2.4
    • Stealth 2.5
  • Strategic implications 3
    • Political 3.1
    • Military 3.2
    • Cyber security 3.3
  • Specifications 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
    • Notes 6.1
    • Bibliography 6.2
  • External links 7

Development

Origins

Origins of the J-20 came from the J-XX program which was started in the late 1990s. A proposal from Chengdu Aerospace Corporation, designated Project 718, had won the PLAAF endorsement following a 2008 competition against a Shenyang proposal that was larger than the J-20.[9]

In 2009, a senior PLAAF official revealed that the first flight was expected in 2010–2011, with an service entry date by 2019.[10]

On 22 December 2010, the first J-20 prototype underwent high speed taxiing tests outside the Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute.[11][12]

Flight testing

On 11 January 2011, the J-20 made its first flight, lasting about 15 minutes, with a Chengdu J-10S serving as the chase aircraft.[13][14] After the successful flight, a ceremony was held, attended by the pilot, Li Gang, Chief Designer Yang Wei and General Li Andong, Deputy-Director of General Armaments.[15]

On 17 April 2011, a second test flight of an hour and 20 minutes took place.[16] On 5 May 2011, a 55-minute test flight was held that included retraction of the landing gear.[17]

On 26 February 2012, a J-20 performed various low-altitude maneuvers.[18] On 10 May 2012, a second prototype underwent high speed taxiing tests, and flight testing that began later that month.[19][20] On 20 October 2012, photographs of a new prototype emerged, featuring a different radome, which was speculated to house an AESA radar.

On March 2013, images of the side weapon bays appeared, including a missile launch rail.[21][22][23]

On 16 January 2014, a J-20 prototype was revealed, showing a new intake and stealth coating, as well as redesigned vertical stabilizers, and an Electro-Optical Targeting System.[24][25][26] This particular aircraft numbered '2011' performed its maiden flight on 1 March 2014 and is said to represent the initial pre-serial standard. Overall the year 2014 was quite a successful one and until the end of 2014 three more pre-serial prototypes were flown: number '2012' on 26 July 2014, number '2013' on 29 November 2014 and finally number '2015' on 19 December 2014.

On 13 Sep, 2015, a new prototype, marked '2016' begun testing. This prototype has noticeable improvements, such as apparently changed DSI bumps on the intakes, which save weight, complexity and radar signature. The apparent shape change of the 2016's DSI suggests the possibility of new engines to power the fighter. Altering the shape of the DSI suggests that this prototype may have more powerful engines than its predecessors, likely to be an advanced 14 ton thrust derivative of the Russian AL-31 or Chinese WS-10 turbofan engines, though, by 2020 the J-20 is planned to use the 18-19 ton WS-15 engine, enabling the jet to super-cruise without using afterburners. The flight booms around the engines have been enlarged, possibly to accommodate rearwards facing radars or electronic jamming equipment. It also has a stealthier bumper. The fuselage extends almost all the way to the engine's exhaust nozzles. The trapezoidal booms on sides of the nozzles are also reshaped, possibly to install rearwards facing radar or ECM equipment. Chinese engineers work overtime to optimize the J-20's performance for its projected debut. Most interesting are the J-20's engines. Compared to its "2014" and "2015" predecessors, the J-20's fuselage contains more of engine's surface area inside the stealthy fuselage, which would provide greater rear stealth for the J-20 against enemy radar.[27]

Design

Characteristics

Chengdu J-20 prototype

The J-20 has a long and wide fuselage, with the chiseled nose section and a frameless canopy resembling that of the F-22 Raptor. Immediately behind the cockpit are low observable intakes. All-moving canard surfaces with pronounced dihedral are placed behind the intakes, followed by leading edge extensions merging into delta wing with forward-swept trailing edges. The aft section features twin, outward canted all-moving fins, short but deep ventral strakes, and conventional round engine exhausts.[28][29]

One important design criterion for the J-20 describes high instability.[30][31] This requires sustained pitch authority at a high angle-of-attack, which a conventional tail-plane loose effectiveness due to stalling. On the other hand, a canard can deflect opposite to the angle-of-attack, preventing stall and thereby maintaining control. [32] Canard is also known to provide good supersonic performance, excellent supersonic and transonic turn performance, and improved short-field landing performance compared to the conventional delta wing design.[33][34]

Leading edge extensions and body lift are incorporated to enhance performance in a canard layout. This combination is said by the designer to generate 1.2 times the lift of an ordinary canard delta, and 1.8 times more lift than an equivalent sized pure delta configuration. This allows the use of a smaller wing, reducing supersonic drag without compromising transonic lift-to-drag characteristics that are crucial to the aircraft's turn performance.[30][35][31]

According to the Jamestown Foundation, the J-20 has the potential for development into a high performance stealth aircraft comparable to the F-22 Raptor, with given appropriate engines.[36]

Engines

The prototype's engine is believe to be initially powered by WS-10 and / or the AL-31F engines.[2][37] China is currently working on an advanced domestic turbofan engine similar in performance to the Pratt & Whitney F119, but there are also speculations that Saturn AL-31#117S engine may be used for the initial production of the J-20[38][39][40] At the 2012 Zhuhai Air Show, Russia approached China in an unsuccessful bid to sell the Su-35, which included the 117S engines.[41]

The production version of the J-20 is believed to be the WS-15, a turbofan engine currently under development.[38][42][43] According to Global Security, the engine core, composed of high pressure compressors, the combustion chamber, and high pressure turbines were successfully tested in 2005.[44] An image of the core appeared in the 2006 Zhuhai Air Show.[38][37][43][45][46][47]

Avionics

The aircraft features a glass cockpit, with two main large color liquid crystal displays (LCD) situated side-by-side, three smaller auxiliary displays, and a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD).[48][49][50]

A PLAAF Tupolev Tu-204 testbed aircraft was seen featuring a J-20 nose cone. It is believed to house the Type 1475 (KLJ-5) active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar with 1856 transmit/receive modules.[51]

Prototype "2011" featured a revised nose section with elements resembling a IRST/EOTS system, and a metal finish that loosely reminds the radar absorbing Haze Paint first used on F-16s, and reportedly included sensor fusion technology.[52] Chinese company A-Star Science and Technology has developed the EOTS-89 electro-optical targeting system and EORD-31 IRST for the J-20 and potentially other PLAAF fighters to detect and intercept stealth aircraft.

Armament

The main weapon bay is capable of housing both short and long-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) (PL-9, PL-12C/D & PL-21).

Two smaller lateral weapon bays behind the air inlets are intended for short-range AAMs (PL-9). These bays allow closure of the bay doors prior to firing the missile, thus enhancing stealth.[53][54]

Stealth

Analysts noted that J-20's nose and canopy use similar stealth shaping design as the F-22, yielding similar signature performance in a mature design at the front, while the aircraft's side and axi-symmetric engine nozzles may expose the aircraft to radar.[2][28][55] One prototype has been powered by WS-10G engines equipped with a different jagged-edge nozzles and tiles for greater stealth.[24]

Others have raised doubts about the use of canards on a low-observable design, stating that canards would guarantee radar detection and a compromise of stealth.[56][57] However, canards and low-observability are not mutually exclusive designs. Northrop Grumman's proposal for the U.S Navy's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) incorporated canards on a stealthy airframe.[58][59] Lockheed Martin employed canards on a stealth airframe for the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) program during early development before dropping them due to complications with aircraft carrier recovery.[60][61] McDonnell Douglas and NASA's X-36 featured canards and was considered to be extremely stealthy.[62] Radar cross-section can be further reduced by controlling canard deflection through flight control software, as is done on the Eurofighter.[63][64]

The diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) enables an aircraft to reach Mach 2.0 with a simpler intake than traditionally required, and improves stealth performance by eliminating radar reflections between the diverter and the aircraft's skin. Analysts have noted that the J-20 DSI reduces the need for application of radar absorbent materials.[65][66] Additionally, the "bump" surface reduces the engine's exposure to radar, significantly reducing a strong source of radar reflection.[67]

Strategic implications

Political

The first test flight coincided with a visit by United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates to China, and was initially interpreted by the Pentagon as a possible signal to the visiting U.S. delegation. Speaking to reporters in Beijing, secretary Gates said "I asked President Hu about it directly, and he said that the test had absolutely nothing to do with my visit and there had been a pre-planned test."[8][68] President Hu seemed surprised by Gates' inquiry, prompting speculations that the test might have been a signal sent unilaterally by the Chinese military.[69][70][71] Abraham M. Denmark of the Center for New American Security in Washington, along with Michael Swaine, an expert on the PLA and United States - China military relations, explained that senior officials are not involved in day-to-day management of aircraft development, were unaware about the test.[68]

Military

Robert Gates downplayed the significance of the aircraft by questioning how stealthy the J-20 may be, but stated the J-20 would "put some of our capabilities at risk, and we have to pay attention to them, we have to respond appropriately with our own programs."[72] The U.S. Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper testified that the United States knew about the program for a long time and that the test flight was not a surprise.[73]

Loren B. Thompson felt that J-20's combination of forward stealth and long range puts America's surface assets at risk, and that a long-range maritime strike capability may cause the United States more concern than a short range air-superiority fighter like the F-22.[37][74] In its 2011 Annual Report to Congress, the Pentagon described the J-20 as "a platform capable of long range, penetrating strikes into complex air defense environments."[75] A 2012 report by the U.S.‐China Economic and Security Review Commission suggests that the United States may have underestimated the speed of development of the J-20 and several other Chinese military development projects.[76]

Observers are not able to reach a consensus on J-20's primary role.[77][78][79] Based on initial photographs with focus on the aircraft's size, early speculations referred to as the J-20 as a F-111 equivalent with little to no air-to-air ability. Others saw the J-20 as a potential air superiority fighter once appropriate engines become available.[8][28][80] More recent speculations refer to the J-20 as an air-to-air fighter with an emphasis on forward stealth, high-speed aerodynamics, range, and adequate agility. The J-20 could threaten vulnerable tankers and ISR/C2 platforms, depriving Washington of radar coverage and strike range.[54]

Cyber security

In April 2009, a Wall Street Journal report indicated that, according to the Pentagon, information from the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II was compromised by unknown attackers that appeared to originate from China. There is some speculation that the compromise of the F-35 program may have helped in the development of the J-20.[2][8][80][81]

Specifications

Data from Aviation Week & Space Technology[82]

General characteristics
  • Crew: one (pilot)
  • Length: 20 m (66.8 ft)
  • Wingspan: 13 m (44.2 ft)
  • Height: 4.45 m (14 ft 7 in)
  • Wing area: 78 m2 (840 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 19,391 kg (42,750 lb)
  • Gross weight: 32,092 kg (70,750 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 36,288 kg (80,001 lb) upper estimate[2]
  • Fuel capacity: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × WS-10G (prototype), AL-31F (prototype) or Xian WS-15 (production) afterburning turbofans, 76.18 kN (17,125 lbf) thrust each dry, 122.3 or 179.9 kN (27,500 or 40,450 lbf) with afterburner
  • Wing loading: 410 kg/m2 (84 lb/sq ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.94 (prototype with interim engines)
Armament
  • PL-10 SRAAM[83]
  • PL-12 Medium Range AAM

See also

External images
J-20 Flight Testing
J-20 undergoing flight testing from ifeng.com, 2015.[84]
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

Notes

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  3. ^
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  27. ^ http://www.popsci.com/stealthier-stealth-seventh-upgraded-chinese-stealth-fighter-prototype-aims-to-take-flight
  28. ^ a b c
  29. ^ "Worldview Report | Vol. 14" digitalglobe.com 2 January 2013
  30. ^ a b "一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究 A High Lift Low-Aspect Ratio Aerodynamic Configuration" sina.com Retrieved 20 March 2013
  31. ^ a b "Translation of article 一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究" http://www.defence.pk Retrieved 20 March 2013
  32. ^ "Super Agile aircraft and method of flying it in supernormal flight." Google Patents. Retrieved 20 March 2013
  33. ^ Probert, B. "Aspects of Wing Design for Transonic and Supersonic Combat." NATO. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  34. ^ Neblett, Evan et al. "Canards." AOE 4124: Configuration Aerodynamics, Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, 17 March 2003. Retrieved: 28 November 2009.
  35. ^ "一种小展弦比高升力飞机的气动布局研究 A High Lift Low-Aspect Ratio Aerodynamic Configuration" baidu.com Retrieved 20 March 2013
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  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ "China claims innovation in J-20 weapons bay design" AINonline, Retrieved March 2, 2014
  54. ^ a b Sweetman, Bill. "J-20 Stealth Fighter Design Balances Speed And Agility" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 November 2014. Accessed: 5 November 2014. Archived on 5 November 2014
  55. ^ Axe, David. "Chengdu J-20: China’s First Stealth Fighter." warisboring.com, 29 December 2010.
  56. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Long March: China’s fifth-generation fighter is years away." Flight International. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  57. ^ Hodge, Nathan. "China’s J-20 Fighter: Stealthy or Just Stealthy-Looking?" The Wall Street Journal, 19 January 2011.
  58. ^ "F-23A & NATF-23" yf-23.net, 15 January 2013
  59. ^ "NATF-23 diagram in hi-rez." Aerospace Project Review 15 January 2013.
  60. ^ Sweetman, Bill. "From JAST To J-20". Aviation Week, 14 January 2011.
  61. ^ Sweetman 2005, p. 122–124.
  62. ^ "Agility+Stealth = X-36: formula for an advanced fighter " Design News. 14 January 2013
  63. ^ "Faq Eurofighter (translation)". Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  64. ^ Rosenkranz, Martin. "Austrian Eurofighter committee of inquiry." pp. 76–77. (English translation). Google. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  65. ^ Hehs, Eric. "JSF Diverterless Supersonic Inlet." LockMart, 15 July 2000.
  66. ^ "J-20's Stealth Signature Poses Interesting Unknowns." Aviation Week. Retrieved 13 January 2013
  67. ^ "Fast History: Lockheed's Diverterless Supersonic Inlet Testbed F-16" aviationintel.com, 13 January 2013
  68. ^ a b Wines, Michael and Elisabeth Bumiller. "Test Unrelated to Gates Visit, China Says." The New York Times, 12 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth and Michael Wines. "Test of Stealth Fighter Clouds Gates Visit to China." The New York Times, 11 January 2011.
  72. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth. "U.S. Will Counter Chinese Arms Buildup." The New York Times, 8 January 2011.
  73. ^ Clapper, James R. "World Wide Threats Hearing" Director of National Intelligence, 10 February 2011.
  74. ^ Thompson, Loren B. "Chinese Fighter Test Embarrasses Gates, Casts Doubt On Goals." Lexington Institute, 13 January 2011.
  75. ^ "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China, 2011." Office of the Secretary of Defense, 6 May 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  76. ^ "Indigenous Weapons Development in China’s Military Modernization." U.S.‐China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Report, 2012.
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^ a b
  81. ^ Groman, Siobhan, August Cole and Yochi Dreazen. "Computer Spies Breach Fighter-Jet Project." Wall Street Journal, 21 April 2009. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^

Bibliography

  • Kopp, Carlo. "The Strategic Impact of China's J-XX (J-20) Stealth Fighter." Air Power Australia NOTAM #70, 9 January 2011.
  • Kopp, Carlo and Peter A. Goon. "Chengdu J-XX (J-20) Stealth Fighter Prototype; A Preliminary Assessment." ausairpower.net Technical Report APA-TR-2011-0101, January 2011.
  • Rupprecht, Andreas. "Enter the Dragon: The Chengdu J-20." Combat Aircraft Monthly, (Ian Allan Publishing), Issue 12/3, March 2011, pp. 34–41.
  • Sweetman, Bill. Lockheed Stealth. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Press, 2005. ISBN 0-76031-940-5.

External links

  • AirForceWorld.com - J-20 Photos and Introduction
  • YouTube.com - The Latest J-20 Flight Test
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