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Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

 

Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

Chita (English)
Чита (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

Location of Zabaykalsky Krai in Russia
Chita is located in Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita
Chita
Location of Chita in Zabaykalsky Krai
Coordinates:
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of January 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Zabaykalsky Krai[1]
Administrative district Chitinsky District[1]
Administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai,[1] Chitinsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2009)
Urban okrug Chita Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Chita Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor Anatoly Mikhalyov
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 324,444 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 56th
Time zone IRKT (UTC+08:00)[4]
Founded 1653[5]
City status since July 11, 1851
Postal code(s)[6] 672000–672051
Dialing code(s) +7 3022
Official website
on Wikimedia Commons

Chita (Russian: Чита; IPA: ) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers (560 mi) east of Irkutsk. Population: 324,444 (2010 Census);[3] 316,643 (2002 Census);[7] 365,754 (1989 Census).[8]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Before 1825 1.1
    • 1825 to 1918 1.2
    • 1918 to 1945 1.3
    • Post-1945 1.4
  • Administrative and municipal status 2
  • Transportation 3
  • Education 4
  • Culture 5
    • Theatres 5.1
    • Museums 5.2
    • Botanical Garden 5.3
  • Military 6
  • Sports 7
  • Climate 8
  • Twin towns and sister cities 9
  • Notable people 10
  • References 11
    • Notes 11.1
    • Sources 11.2
  • External links 12

History

Before 1825

The region was originally inhabited by local Mongolic and Turkic tribes, along with various Chinese traders for several centuries before the Russians arrived there.

Chita was founded in 1653,[5] by Pyotr Beketov's Cossacks,[9] but it had been overshadowed by Nerchinsk until the 20th century.

1825 to 1918

After 1825, several of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita; thus, Chita is on occasion called the "City of Exiles". Many of the Decembrists were intellectuals and members of the middle class, and consequently their arrival had a positive effect.

Chita was granted town status on July 11, 1851.

When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one, also wooden, church. He estimated Chita's population at under 1,000, but predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. [10]

By 1885, Chita's population had reached 5,728, and by 1897 it increased to 11,500.[9]

At the end of the 19th century, many Muslims settled in Chita, attracted by its trading potential. These Muslims were mainly of Tatar origin. They settled down near the Jewish quarter and built a mosque. Many Tatars living in Chita descend from these immigrants.

Chita Mosque

After the massacre of Gapon and his workers in St. Petersburg in January 1905, Chita became a center for worker demonstrations, which led to armed revolutionaries taking control of the city and declaring the "Chita Republic". Troops sent by the Nicholas II of Russia quickly crushed the new government and its leaders were severely punished on the slope of Titovskaya Hill.

1918 to 1945

Chita railway station in 1910
Chita railway station today

Chita was occupied by the Japanese between 1918 and 1920. From 1920 to 1922, Chita served as the capital of the Far Eastern Republic. From the 1930s to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Chita was a closed city. During this period, foreigners were prohibited from traveling to Chita, as were many Russians. The basis for the closing of the city was apparently its proximity to China and military installations. During World War II, a significant number of Japanese soldiers were taken as prisoners of war and put to work in the construction industry. Chita has since been famous for hosting numerous examples of Japanese-inspired architecture, especially in the city center.

Post-1945

In 1945, Puyi, the last Emperor of China, and some of his associates were held prisoner in the city, in a former sanatorium for officers.[11]

Administrative and municipal status

Chita is the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Chitinsky District, to which it is also subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the city of Chita together with one rural locality in Chitinsky District is incorporated as Chita Urban Okrug.[12]

Transportation

The Trans-Siberian Highway passes through Chita. Two sections of the highway connect in Chita: the M55 Baikal Highway, which goes from Chita to Irkutsk, and the M58 Amur Highway, which goes from Chita to Khabarovsk.

Chita is served by the Kadala Airport.

Education

Chita is home to several facilities of higher education:

Culture

Theatres

  • Zabaikalsky Regional Drama Theatre
  • Theatre of National Cultures Zabaikalskie Uzory
  • Municipal Folk Theatre Zabaikalye
  • Song and Dance Theatre Amar Sain

Museums

  • Zabaikalsky Regional Local History Museum Named after A.K.Kuznetsov
  • Zabaikalsky Museum and Exhibition Centre
  • Siberian Military District Hall of Fame
  • Decembrists Museum
  • Transbaikal Railway Museum

Botanical Garden

  • Trans-Baikal Botanical Garden.[13]

Military

Chita Northwest air base is located nearby, as well as the 101st (Hub) Communications Brigade and the 53rd Material Support Regiment.

Sports

FC Chita is Chita's association football club.

Universitet Chita compete in the Professional Rugby League, the top division of rugby union in Russia.

SKA Zabaykalets used to play in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League.

An indoor arena for speed skating is planned.[14]

Climate

Chita experiences a borderline subarctic climate/humid continental climate (Köppen Dwc/Dwb) with very cold, very dry winters and warm, wet summers.

Climate data for Chita (1982-2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
7.4
(45.3)
18.3
(64.9)
26.5
(79.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
40.6
(105.1)
30.9
(87.6)
22.7
(72.9)
12.7
(54.9)
3.3
(37.9)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−10.9
(12.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.1
(46.6)
17.0
(62.6)
23.8
(74.8)
25.3
(77.5)
22.6
(72.7)
15.8
(60.4)
6.4
(43.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−16.2
(2.8)
5.52
(41.92)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24
(−11)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−8.4
(16.9)
1.6
(34.9)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
19.1
(66.4)
16.6
(61.9)
9.4
(48.9)
0.4
(32.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−0.81
(30.56)
Average low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.6
(36.7)
9.7
(49.5)
12.9
(55.2)
10.6
(51.1)
3.1
(37.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16.7
(1.9)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−7.09
(19.23)
Record low °C (°F) −49.6
(−57.3)
−48.0
(−54.4)
−45.3
(−49.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−13.3
(8.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
0.0
(32)
−9.2
(15.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−41.1
(−42)
−47.8
(−54)
−49.6
(−57.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.4
(0.094)
2.4
(0.094)
3.7
(0.146)
10.7
(0.421)
21.6
(0.85)
54.5
(2.146)
94.2
(3.709)
83.7
(3.295)
40.9
(1.61)
10.0
(0.394)
5.5
(0.217)
4.2
(0.165)
334.2
(13.157)
Average precipitation days 8.5 5.1 5.6 6.9 9.8 9.6 11.5 11.0 9.3 5.5 8.7 11.1 102.6
Average relative humidity (%) 77.1 71.0 60.4 46.6 46.3 54.7 64.7 67.8 62.6 59.7 72.0 78.4 63.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.2 180.6 244.9 247.5 269.7 283.5 263.5 238.7 217.5 190.6 138.0 116.3 2,535
Source #1: climatebase.ru (1933-2011)[15]
Source #2: weatheronline (only temperature 1982-2013)

Twin towns and sister cities

Chita is twinned with:

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai
  2. ^ a b Law #316-ZZK
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^
  11. ^ S. I. Kuznetsov and S. V. Karasov, "The Last Emperor of China: Internment in the Soviet Union", The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 18(2), 207-226 (2005). doi:10.1080/13518040590944430
  12. ^ The Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities lists one city, three urban-type settlements, and fifty-four rural localities in Chitinsky District. The city of Chita and one rural locality are listed as a part of Chita Urban Okrug in Law #316-ZZK.
  13. ^
  14. ^ http://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=http://news.chita.ru/44490/&prev=search
  15. ^
  16. ^ Zabinfo: CHITA and ULAN UDE is twin towns
  17. ^ Encyclopedia of Transbaikal Region. Twinning towns
  18. ^

Sources

  • Министерство территориального развития Забайкальского края. 1 января 2014 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края», в ред. Распоряжения №209-р от 10 июня 2014 г.. (Ministry of the Territorial Development of Zabaykalsky Krai. January 1, 2014 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Directive #209-r of June 10, 2014. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #316-ZZK of December 18, 2009 On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Law #770-ZZK of December 26, 2012 On Amending the Law of Zabaykalsky Krai "On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Materials on Jewish life were taken from the Chita Oblast State Archives but most accountable and reliable ones are still in the local KGB Archives.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain

External links

  • Official website of Chita (Russian)
  • Account of Englishman's life in Chita, 2005-2006
  • Old Chita, website of local history (Russian)
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