World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Christie Brinkley

Article Id: WHEBN0000265415
Reproduction Date:

Title: Christie Brinkley  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Edition models, Cheryl Tiegs, Billy Joel, Carol Alt, Ann Simonton
Collection: 1954 Births, 20Th-Century American Actresses, 21St-Century American Actresses, Actresses from Los Angeles, California, Actresses from Michigan, American Female Models, American Film Actresses, American Humanitarians, American Television Actresses, Animal Rights Advocates, Anti-Nuclear Movement in the United States, Billy Joel, Living People, New York Democrats, People from Amagansett, New York, People from Bridgehampton, New York, People from Monroe, Michigan, People from Sag Harbor, New York
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Christie Brinkley

Christie Brinkley
Brinkley at the Tribeca Film Festival, April 25, 2007
Born Christie Lee Hudson
(1954-02-02) February 2, 1954
Monroe, Michigan, U.S.
Occupation Model, actress, designer
Years active 1973–present
Home town Los Angeles, California
Net worth $80 million (2008)[1]
Height 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) (5' 9")
Spouse(s) Jean-François Allaux (1973–1981)
Billy Joel (1985–1994)
Richard Taubman (1994–1995)
Peter Cook (1996–2008)
Children Alexa Ray Joel (b. 1985)
Jack Paris Brinkley Cook (b. 1995)
Sailor Lee Brinkley Cook (b. 1998)
Website .com.christiebrinkleywww

Christie Brinkley (born Christie Lee Hudson; February 2, 1954) is an American model and actress. Brinkley gained worldwide fame beginning in the late 1970s with three consecutive Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue covers through 1981. She spent twenty five years as the face of CoverGirl (the longest running cosmetics contract of any model in history), has appeared on over 500 magazine covers, and has signed contracts with major brands—both fashion and non-fashion.

Brinkley went on to work as an actress, illustrator, television personality, photographer, writer, designer, and activist for human and animal rights and the environment.

Brinkley has been married four times, most notably to musician Billy Joel, several of whose music videos she appeared in. Her fourth marriage, to architect Peter Cook, ended in a much-publicized 2008 divorce.

With a career spanning more than three decades, magazines such as Allure, Playboy, and Men's Health have named Brinkley one of the most attractive women of all time. Her financial holdings in 2008 were worth an estimated USD $80 million, primarily as the owner of real estate. In February 2012, she was ranked third in the Daily Mail list "World's 20 richest models."


  • Early life 1
  • Career 2
  • Personal life 3
    • Marriages 3.1
    • Family 3.2
    • Interests 3.3
  • Awards and achievements 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Early life

Brinkley was born Christie Lee Hudson in Monroe, Michigan,[2] the daughter of Marjorie (née Bowling) and Herbert Hudson. Her family moved to Canoga Park, Los Angeles, California, where her mother Marjorie later met and married television writer Don Brinkley in Bel Air, Los Angeles. Don adopted Christie and her brother Gregory Donald Brinkley. During this time, the family lived in Malibu and then the Brentwood neighborhoods of Los Angeles. Brinkley was educated at Paul Revere Junior High School and attended Le Lycée Français de Los Angeles from 9th to 12th grade.[3] After graduation in 1973 she moved to Paris, France to study art.[2][4]


Brinkley was discovered in 1973 by American photographer Errol Sawyer in a post office in Paris.[5] He took her first modeling pictures and introduced her to John Casablancas of Elite Model Management agency in Paris.[6] Brinkley stated later: "I was basically a surfer girl from California. I never looked like a model."[4] After being introduced to Elite, where Brinkley met the fashion photographers Patrick Demarchelier and Mike Reinhardt[7] who called Eileen Ford and told her about Brinkley,[5] she returned to California, and by the end of a lunch meeting with Nina Blanchard (Eileen Ford affiliate in Los Angeles) she had been booked for three national ad campaigns.[4] Multiple appearances on the cover of Glamour soon followed, along with a record 25-year contract with cosmetics brand CoverGirl, one of the longest modeling contracts in history.[4][8][9] In 2005, CoverGirl again signed Brinkley, using her in ads in magazines and TV commercials for mature skin products.[10]

External images
Sports IllustratedBrinkley's Swimsuit Issue cover from February 5, 1979
Sports IllustratedBrinkley's Swimsuit Issue cover from February 4, 1980
Sports IllustratedBrinkley's Swimsuit Issue cover from February 9, 1981
magazineLifeBrinkley's cover from February 1982

Brinkley appeared on three consecutive Danskin, Nu Skin, Yardley of London, Halston, Vogue Patterns, Gottex and Black Velvet, among others.[14][17][17] Brinkley has been photographed in 6 continents in more than 30 countries.[16]

At the Metropolitan Opera opening, September 2008

Brinkley played her first role as an actress in the 1983 film National Lampoon's Vacation as "The girl in the red Ferrari" opposite Chevy Chase; she reprised that role in the 1997 sequel Vegas Vacation.[18] and later spoofed it in a 2008 DirecTV commercial interspliced with footage from Vacation,[19] and again in a 2015 Infiniti commercial as the wife in the Infiniti. (The blonde in the convertible for this spoof is model Scarlett Burke.)[20] In 2011, she appeared as herself in the documentary, King of the Hamptons, which was produced by filmmaker, Dennis Michael Lynch. The film premiered at the 2010 Hamptons International Film Festival. On April 8, 2011, in New York, Brinkley made her stage debut as Roxie Hart in the long-running musical Chicago.[21] In August, she completed a one-month engagement in the London's production at Cambridge Theatre and reprised the role on Broadway and continued with 182 total performances with the National Touring Company of Chicago in cities including Los Angeles, San Diego, Boston and Hartford.[22][23] Brinkley's appearance on NBC's Mad About You was the broadcaster's highest rated half-hour episode since the finale of The Cosby Show.[14] She hosted Celebrity Weddings InStyle, the highest rated special in Lifetime's history. Brinkley appeared on the Today Show in 1983 in a four-part segment featuring beauty tips and, in 1992, began her own television series Living in the 90's — With Christie Brinkley, a daily half-hour show on CNN.[24] Brinkley made further television appearances, including Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue Specials[18] and music videos for Billy Joel (Uptown Girl, Keeping the Faith, All about Soul, River of Dreams, A Matter of Trust and Leningrad) and Mick Jones Just Wanna Hold.[17] Brinkley appears with Chuck Norris in a long-running series of cable TV infomercials promoting Total Gym home fitness equipment.[17] In 2008, Brinkley and Dr. Carlon Colker promoted National Family Fitness Day with Xbox 360 at the Boy's and Girl's Club.[25]

In 1983, Brinkley wrote and illustrated a book on health and beauty titled Christie Brinkley's Outdoor Beauty and Fitness Book, which topped the New York Times best seller list.[17] In 1989 Brinkley was, along with Cheryl Tiegs and Beverly Johnson, one of the three models featured as dolls produced by Matchbox Toys called The Real Model Collection.[26] Brinkley illustrated the cover art for Billy Joel's 1993 triple platinum album River of Dreams. For this, Rolling Stone awarded her the honor of "Best album cover of the year".[10] Brinkley has designed clothing patterns for Simplicity Pattern[24] and in March, 1994 helped design, for brand Nouveau Eyewear, her line of prescription glasses and sunglasses called Christie Brinkley Perspectives with worldwide sales.[14][17] In Spring 1998 she released her own signature fragrance, Believe.[4] Her jewelry collection is manufactured by Swank.[14]

In 1991 Brinkley was considered to have the ideal, all-American look with her blonde hair, blue eyes, slim figure, and soft features, when Allure first conducted a survey taking the pulse of the average American (men and women) searching for their beauty perceptions and preferences.[27] In 1998 Playboy readers voted Brinkley one of the 100 Sexiest Women of the 20th century.[28] Brinkley is ranked third in the Top 10 Supermodels Of All Time.[29] In 2011, Men's Health named her one of the "100 Hottest Women of All-Time", ranking her at No. 16.[30] named her No. 1 on their list of "10 Hottest Hollywood Women In Their 50's" in 2013.[31]

Brinkley had a guest role in December 2012 on the hit comedy sitcom Parks and Recreation. In the episode "Ron and Diane" she played Gayle Gergich, wife of Jerry Gergich played by Jim O'Heir.[32] In December 2012, Brinkley co-hosted Anderson Cooper Live and also danced with DWTS alumnus Gilles Marini during the show. Brinkley's financial holdings were worth an estimated USD $80 million in 2008, primarily as the owner of real estate, much of it in the Hamptons.[1] Brinkley was ranked third in the Daily Mail list "World's 20 richest models," released in February 2012.[33]

Personal life

In 1982, Brinkley had a romantic relationship with Olivier Chandon de Brailles, heir to the Moët-Chandon Champagne fortune. The two met at Studio 54 in New York City at a party promoting a calendar in which Brinkley appeared.[34] Chandon died a year later in an auto-race car crash during a private pre-season practice session.[35][36][37]


Modeling a dress by Calvin Klein at the 2005 Red Dress Collection fashion show in New York's Bryant Park
  • In 1973, to French artist Jean-François Allaux; the marriage ended in 1981 without children.[34]
  • In 1985, to musician Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949); the marriage ended in 1994 and produced one child, Alexa Ray Joel.[38] Brinkley and Joel met in 1983 on the Island of St Barts, in the Caribbean and were married on March 23, 1985 on a yacht on the Hudson River, the second marriage for both. Joel was 35 and Brinkley 31 and took their vows in a private ceremony attended by 175 family members and friends, including Paul Simon and the Stray Cats.[34]
  • In 1994, to real estate developer Richard Taubman (born 1948). Brinkley and Taubman met in 1994 when a mutual friend introduced them. He proposed to her in May 1994, although she and Billy Joel were still married. She married Taubman on December 22, 1994, in Telluride, Colorado, near the area where they were both in a helicopter crash in March 1994. Brinkley was 40 years old and Taubman 46 and she announced at their wedding that they were expecting a baby boy. The marriage ended in 1995 with one child, Jack Paris Taubman.[34]
  • In 1996, to Peter Halsey Cook (born January 1, 1959), an architect. Cook and Brinkley first met in 1979 when he was modeling; their paths also crossed a few times after that. They were later reintroduced by a mutual friend, NBC's Jill Rappaport, and announced their engagement in August 1996. They married on September 21, 1996 at a ranch in Bridgehampton, New York. Brinkley was 42 and Cook 37. They had nearly 120 guests at their wedding, including Billy Joel. They had one child, Sailor Brinkley Cook.[34] They divorced on October 3, 2008.[39] The divorce proceedings, held in 2008, attracted media attention after Cook admitted that he had committed adultery with eighteen-year-old Diana Bianchi. Press and public interest increased with Cook's revelations that he had paid a large sum of money to Bianchi in the hopes of forestalling a lawsuit, and had spent thousands of dollars each month on internet pornography.[40][41] Brinkley and Cook settled out-of-court in July 2008, with Brinkley granting her fourth husband $2.1 million in exchange for custody of their two children and the retention of 18 disputed properties in the Hamptons. Additionally, Cook was granted parenting time with the children. Further details of the settlement were kept private.[10][42] The children became a focus of public attention when Brinkley contended that Cook used "overwhelming" physical force when unhappy with or disciplining the children. Alexa Ray Joel, Brinkley's daughter with ex-husband Billy Joel, testified about such behavior toward her, which Cook denied.[43] Cook wanted a judge to appoint a parenting coordinator, demand Brinkley enroll in anger management classes and order her to cover his legal expenses.[44] In July 2008, a court-appointed psychiatrist, speaking during child custody proceedings in Brinkley's fourth divorce, testified that while he believed Brinkley should gain custody of her and Cook's children, both she and Cook needed therapy.[45] Her divorce from Cook was officially finalized on October 3, 2008.[39]


  • Alexa Ray Joel, (born December 29, 1985), with Billy Joel.[46] The name "Ray" was given to Alexa in honor of Ray Charles.[47]
  • Jack Paris Taubman, (born June 2, 1995), with Richard Taubman. He was later adopted by Peter Cook and named Jack Paris Brinkley Cook.[48][49]
  • Sailor Lee Brinkley Cook (born July 1, 1998), with Peter Cook.

Brinkley and her children are fans of the New York Islanders ice hockey team. Brinkley began doing promotions for the team after being noticed at games.[50] In 2007, she showed her support by writing a blog for and filming a commercial.[51]

Brinkley has one brother, Gregory Donald Brinkley.

Brinkley became a vegetarian when she was 13 years old and then got her entire family to become vegetarians.[52][53] She lives on Long Island in Sag Harbor, New York; she previously lived in Bridgehampton and Amagansett, Long Island.[24][54] Brinkley's parents, Marjorie and Don Brinkley, died in Sag Harbor in the summer of 2012 within seven weeks of each other, after a 50-plus year marriage. Both suffered from long-term illnesses. TV writer and producer Don died in July, and Marjorie in September.


Brinkley winds up to throw an autographed football into the audience during a USO show in the Eagle Sports Complex at Tuzla Air Base, Bosnia and Herzegovina (December 22, 1999)

Brinkley helped found a club for cutting, an equestrian sport in which a rider has two and one half minutes to cut as many cattle from a herd as they can.[24]
Since 1998, Brinkley has given nearly $100,000 to organizations and candidates of the

External links

  1. ^ a b "Catching up with Christie Brinkley's Hamptons properties". 
  2. ^ a b "Christie Brinkley biography". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008. 
  3. ^ Dan Rattiner (May 23, 2013). "Who’s Here: Christie Brinkley, Model/Activist". Retrieved October 17, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "How Christie Brinkley Kept Her Megawatt Smile Over the Past Year".  
  5. ^ a b Dan Rattiner (May 23, 2013). "Who’s Here: Christie Brinkley, Model/Activist". Retrieved May 29, 2013. 
  6. ^ Gross, Michael (1995). Model:The ugly business of beautiful women. William Morrow and Company, Inc., New York. pp. 317–319. ISBN 0-688-12659-6.
  7. ^ "Christie Brinkley & Sailor Brinkley Cook". Into The Gloss, Inc. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "Christie Brinkley biography". Premiere Global Sports. Premiere Athlete & Celebrity. 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  9. ^ Amy Larocca (August 2008). "This Year’s Model".  
  10. ^ a b c d "Christie Brinkley — Model Profile".  
  11. ^ "SI Cover Search: Christie Brinkley". Time Inc. 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2007. 
  12. ^ "SI Cover Search: Christie Brinkley". Time Inc. 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2007. 
  13. ^ "SI Cover Search: Christie Brinkley". Time Inc. 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2007. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Christie Brinkley biography in William Morris agency)" (PDF). 
  15. ^ "Talent profile: Christie Brinkley". William Morris Agency. 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b Edward Lewine (August 3, 2012). "Christie Brinkley’s Model Home". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Christie Brinkley official web site". 
  18. ^ a b "Christie Brinkley filmography in The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008. 
  19. ^ "Christie Brinkley Takes It Off For DirecTV". 
  20. ^ "Next / Los Angeles". Next Management. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  21. ^ Georgina Littlejohn (April 9, 2011). "The name on everybody's lips is gonna be... Christie! Miss Brinkley wows New York as she makes her Broadway debut in Chicago". Daily Mail. Retrieved April 12, 2011. 
  22. ^ Nadia Mendoza (July 22, 2011). "Queen of the stage door: After Chicago, eternally youthful Christie Brinkley puts on another dazzling show". Daily Mail. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  23. ^ Nancye Tuttle, Sun Correspondent (October 25, 2012). "Boston's hottest date". Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c d Pener, Degen (September 13, 1992). "EGOS & IDS; It's the Christie Brinkley Show". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008. 
  25. ^ The Children's Aid Society Website. Retrieved 6/4/2009
  26. ^ "Christie Brinkley biography at IMDB". 
  27. ^ "Allure Marks Twentieth Anniversary with March 2011 Issue".  
  28. ^ Century seen by a one-track mind, The Independent, Paul Vallely (Nov. 25, 1998)
  29. ^ Top 10 Supermodels Of All Time
  30. ^ "The 100 Hottest Women of All-Time".  
  31. ^ J.D. Lombardi (February 21, 2013). "The Top 10 Hottest Hollywood Women In Their 50's". Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Parks and Recreation: Christie Brinkley to play Jerry's wife". Entertainment Weekly. October 10, 2012. 
  33. ^ Chris Hall (February 6, 2012). "Kate Moss to Heidi Klum: The world's 20 richest models worth — and they're worth £579 million between them".  
  34. ^ a b c d e "The Relationships and Marriages of Christie Brinkley". 
  35. ^ Cherie Burns, Louise Lague (March 8, 1982). "Supermodel Christie Brinkley Gets her Kick from Champagne Heir Olivier Chandon".  
  36. ^ Blake, Patricia; (March 14, 1983). "Rootless Cosmopolitan of the Age". Time. 
  37. ^ Christie Brinkley Full Bio at
  38. ^ "Joel, Brinkley make splash with wedding". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 24, 1985. p. A2. Joel, 35, and Brinkley, 31, took their vows in a private ceremony attended by 175 family members and friends, including Paul Simon and the Stray Cats. 
  39. ^ a b Algar, Selim; Crowley, Kieran (July 2008). "Christie crushes cheater re-Peter". The New York Post. Retrieved August 22, 2009. 
  40. ^ Serpe, Gina (July 2, 2008). "Brinkley Case Turns to Porn, Hush Money".  
  41. ^ "'"Brinkley: Breakup was a 'nightmare. CNN. Associated Press. July 7, 2008. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. 
  42. ^ Selim Algar; Kieran Crowley (July 11, 2008). "Christie crushes cheater re-peter". New York Post. 
  43. ^ Kathy Ehrich Dowd; Emmet Sullivan (July 7, 2008). "Christie Brinkley: Cook Used 'Overwhelming' Force with Kids". People. 
  44. ^ Karoliszyn, Henrick; Boyle, Christina (October 13, 2009). "Christie Brinkley and Peter Cook sign divorce settlement". Daily News (New York). 
  45. ^ "Brinkley divorce lawyers go head-to-head". CNN. July 9, 2008. 
  46. ^ "Brinkley, Joel Parents of 'Uptown Girl'". Los Angeles Times. December 30, 1985. p. 2. The 6½-pound girl, as yet unnamed, was born in a Manhattan hospital at about 11:45 pm Sunday, said the spokeswoman, Geraldine McInerney. 
  47. ^ "Billy Joel biography". 
  48. ^ "Downfall of an Uptown girl: How Christie Brinkley was betrayed by her fourth husband's sordid affairs". DailyMail. July 4, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  49. ^ "Who's My Model Mama?". June 18, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  50. ^ Dropping the puck for the opening game between the Buffalo Sabres and the New York Islanders, October 6, 2007 in the New York Magazine
  51. ^ "Christie Brinkley NYI Spot now Available". New York Islanders. August 31, 2007. 
  52. ^ Christie Brinkley Is 'Energized' About 2009 – People Magazine, January 18, 2009
  53. ^ Chung, Samantha. "Christie Brinkley, 61, Dishes Anti-Aging Vegan Diet, Beauty, Makeup and Yoga Workout Tips". Celebrity Health and Fitness. Girard Media. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  54. ^ a b "Donor Lookup: Find Individual and Soft Money Contributors".  
  55. ^ New York Times-September 1, 2000
  56. ^ PETA anti-circus page said quoted her as saying she would not return to the circus.
  57. ^ "'"Christie Brinkley: Ringling's Abuse of Animals 'Absolutely Appalling.  
  58. ^ Hist. Stud. Phys. Bio. Sci, 31, 41, 2000
  59. ^ Physics World; Governing Science
  60. ^ "Christie Brinkley: A Model Mom!". February 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2009. 
  61. ^ "American Heart Association". 
  62. ^ a b "Christie Brinkley social work". 
  63. ^ "Mother's Voices web site". 
  64. ^ "Christie Brinkley to Receive HBA's Positively Beautiful Award". 
  65. ^ "Christie Brinkley Presented with Posivitively Beautiful Award in New York". September 28, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Love Our Children USA Mothers Who Make A Difference Awards 2011". April 15, 2011. 
  67. ^ "Nick Jonas And Christie Brinkley Honoured At Broadway Beacon Awards". June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  68. ^ "SOFO meets SOHO Gala honor's Christie Brinkley". June 17, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012. 
  69. ^ "2013 Pet Hero Award Winner - Christie Brinkley Actress & Supermodel Humanitarian of the Year". Pet Philanthropy Circle. June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 


  • Top Picks, in 1993 by Rolling Stone for the artistic work Brinkley did on the cover of Billy Joel's album River of Dreams.[14][17]
  • 2001 Merit Award, given by Sarajevo, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia and Italy entertaining the peacekeeping forces and visiting aircraft carriers and refugee camps. After participating in Secretary of Defense William Cohen's Christmas tour to Kosovo, she was given the award in Washington DC for her efforts on behalf of American troops.[14][17]
  • Spirit of Achievement Award, at 2003 by "The Women’s Division" of Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University presented Brinkley for her charity work.[14][17]
  • Christie Brinkley Scholarship, at February, 2007 by The Ross School in East Hampton, Long Island, New York. This scholarship allow students interested in art or environment sciences get four free years at Ross High School.[60]
  • Heart Award, special honor from the [61]
  • Smart Cookie Award, April 21, 2008, honored her and three other amazing charitable mothers in New York at the "Second Annual Smart Cookie Awards Gala", voted by Cookie Magazine readers.[62]
  • Humanitarian Award, given by premature birth, and infant mortality through research, community services, education and advocacy.[63]
  • Merit Award, by the non-profit USA national organization Mothers Voices which mission is strengthens family communication about sex, sexual health and HIV/AIDS/STD prevention through education and awareness, mobilize parents and caregivers to become their child’s frontline sexual health educator.[14][64]
  • Mother of the Year, given by The National Mothers Day committee at a ceremony held in New York City.[17]
  • Merit Award, given by Make-A-Wish Foundation in New York. They work granting the wishes of children with life-threatening medical conditions to enrich the human experience with hope, strength, and joy.[14][63]
  • Americas Mothers and Shakers, named by Redbook Magazine for her involvement in "STAR — Standing for Truth About Radiation".[17]
  • HBA's Positively Beautiful Award, named by HBA Global Expo on behalf of her work with the international charity Smile Train.[65][66]
  • Mothers Who Make A Difference Award, given by Love Our Children USA on the 2011 Sixth Annual edition, recognizing and supporting four celebrity moms for balancing motherhood, work and causes.[67]
  • Broadway Beacon Award for her portrayal of Roxie Hart in the hit musical Chicago (June 4, 2012).[68]
  • Honor by the South Fork Natural History Museum and Nature Center for her many years of work to raise awareness about nuclear radiation and the safety of the oceans.(June 16, 2012).[69]
  • 2013 Pet Hero Award - Humanitarian of the Year by the Pet Philanthropy Circle for her strong advocate for animals, environment and wildlife.[70]
December 1999, during a Christmas visit to the USO

Awards and achievements

[59][58].Brookhaven National Laboratory She has also been involved in anti-nuclear activities and campaigned against the restarting of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) located at the [57][56].Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus having previously spoken out against the [10],PETA Brinkley supports
[55] In the New York delegation, Brinkley served as a delegate on the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles.[54]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.