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Chronic pain

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Chronic pain

Chronic pain
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 R52.1-R52.2
ICD-9-CM 338.2
eMedicine article/310834
MeSH D059350

Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset,[1] though some theorists and researchers have placed the transition from acute to chronic pain at 12 months.[2] Others apply acute to pain that lasts less than 30 days, chronic to pain of more than six months duration, and subacute to pain that lasts from one to six months.[3] A popular alternative definition of chronic pain, involving no arbitrarily fixed duration, is "pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing".[1] Epidemiological studies have found that 10.1% to 55.2% of people in various countries have chronic pain.[4]

Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. It is difficult to treat, and is often handled by a pain management team. Some people with chronic pain benefit from opioid treatment and others do not; some are harmed by the treatment.[5][6] Various nonopioid medicines are also used, depending on whether the pain originates from tissue damage or is neuropathic.[7][8] Psychological treatments including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy have been shown effective for improving quality of life in those with chronic pain.

Severe chronic pain is associated with increased 10 year mortality, particularly from heart disease and respiratory disease. People with chronic pain tend to have higher rates of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and neuroticism; these are correlations and it is often not clear which factor causes another. Chronic pain may contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of exacerbating pain, often resulting in weight gain. Pain intensity, pain control, and resiliency to pain are influenced by different levels and types of social support that a person with chronic pain receives.

Contents

  • Classification 1
  • Pathophysiology 2
  • Management 3
    • Alternative medicine 3.1
  • Epidemiology 4
  • Outcomes 5
  • Psychology 6
    • Personality 6.1
    • Social support 6.2
    • Effect on cognition 6.3
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Classification

Chronic pain may be divided into "nociceptive" (caused by inflamed or damaged tissue activating specialised pain sensors called nociceptors), and "neuropathic" (caused by damage to or malfunction of the nervous system).[9]

Nociceptive pain may be divided into "superficial" and "deep", and deep pain into "deep [10]

Neuropathic pain[11] is divided into "peripheral" (originating in the peripheral nervous system) and "central" (originating in the brain or spinal cord).[12] Peripheral neuropathic pain is often described as "burning", "tingling", "electrical", "stabbing", or "pins and needles".[13]

Pathophysiology

Under persistent activation nociceptive transmission to the dorsal horn may induce a pain wind-up phenomenon. This induces pathological changes that lower the threshold for pain signals to be transmitted. In addition it may generate nonnociceptive nerve fibers to respond to pain signals. Nonnociceptive nerve fibers may also be able to generate and transmit pain signals. The type of nerve fibers that are believed to propagate the pain signals are the C-fibers, since they have a slow conductivity and give rise to a painful sensation that persists over a long time.[14] In chronic pain this process is difficult to reverse or eradicate once established.[15] In some cases, chronic pain can be caused by genetic factors which interfere with neuronal differentiation, leading to a permanent reduction in the threshold for pain.[16]

Chronic pain of different etiologies has been characterized as a disease affecting brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormal anatomical[17] and functional connectivity, even during rest[18][19] involving areas related to the processing of pain. Also, persistent pain has been shown to cause grey matter loss, reversible once the pain has resolved.[20][21]

These structural changes can be explained by the phenomenon known as allodynia and/or hyperalgesia. Brain activity in individuals with chronic pain, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), has been demonstrated to be altered, suggesting pain-induced neuroplastic changes. More specifically, the relative beta activity (compared to the rest of the brain) is increased, the relative alpha activity is decreased, and the theta activity both absolutely and relatively is diminished.[22]

Management

Pain management is the branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach to the relief of pain and improvement in the quality of life of those living with pain.[23] The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners (particularly anesthesiologists), clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners.[24] Acute pain usually resolves with the efforts of one practitioner; however, the management of chronic pain frequently requires the coordinated efforts of the treatment team.[25][26][27]

Complete and sustained remission of many types of chronic pain is rare, though some can be done to improve quality of life.[28]

Some people with chronic pain benefit from opioid treatment and others do not; some are harmed by the treatment.[5] Possible harms include reduced sex hormone production, hypogonadism, infertility, impaired immune system, falls and fractures in older adults, neonatal abstinence syndrome, heart problems, sleep-disordered breathing, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, physical dependence, addiction, and overdose.[29]

Various nonopioid medicines are also used, depending on whether the pain originates from tissue damage or is neuropathic. Limited evidence suggests that chronic pain from tissue inflammation or damage (as in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain) is best treated with opioids, while for neuropathic pain (pain caused by a damaged or dysfunctional nervous system) other drugs may be more effective,[7][8][30][31] such as tricyclic antidepressants,[32] serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors,[33] and anticonvulsants.[33] Because of the weakness of the evidence, it is not clear which are the best approaches to treating many types of pain, and doctors must rely on their own clinical experience.[32] Doctors often cannot predict who will use opioids just for pain management and who will go on to develop addiction, and cannot always distinguish between those who are and those who are not seeking opioids due primarily to an existing addiction. Withholding, interrupting or withdrawing opioid treatment in people who benefit from it can cause harm.[5]

Interventional pain management may be appropriate, including techniques such as trigger point injections, neurolytic blocks, and radiotherapy.

Psychological treatments including cognitive behavioral therapy[34][35] and acceptance and commitment therapy[36][37][38] have been shown effective for improving quality of life in those with chronic pain.

Alternative medicine

Hypnosis, including self-hypnosis, has tentative evidence.[39] Evidence does not support hypnosis for chronic pain due to a spinal cord injury.

Epidemiology

A systematic literature review of chronic pain found that the prevalence of chronic pain varied studies in various countries from 10.1% to 55.2% of the population, affected women at a higher rate than men, and that chronic pain consumes a large amount of healthcare resources around the globe.[4]

A large-scale telephone survey of 15 European countries and Israel, 19% of respondents over 18 years of age had suffered pain for more than 6 months, including the last month, and more than twice in the last week, with pain intensity of 5 or more for the last episode, on a scale of 1 (no pain) to 10 (worst imaginable). 4839 of these respondents with chronic pain were interviewed in depth. Sixty six percent scored their pain intensity at moderate (5–7), and 34% at severe (8–10); 46% had constant pain, 56% intermittent; 49% had suffered pain for 2–15 years; and 21% had been diagnosed with depression due to the pain. Sixty one percent were unable or less able to work outside the home, 19% had lost a job, and 13% had changed jobs due to their pain. Forty percent had inadequate pain management and less than 2% were seeing a pain management specialist.[40]

In the United States, the prevalence of chronic pain has been estimated to be approximately 35%, with approximately 50 million Americans experiencing partial or total disability as a consequence.[41] According to the Institute of Medicine, there are about 116 million Americans living with chronic pain, which suggests that approximately half of American adults have some chronic pain condition.[42][43] The Mayday Fund estimate of 70 million Americans with chronic pain is slightly more conservative.[44] In an internet study, the prevalence of chronic pain in the United States was calculated to be 30.7% of the population: 34.3% for women and 26.7% for men.[45]

Outcomes

Chronic pain is associated with higher rates of depression and anxiety.[46] Sleep disturbance, and insomnia due to medication and illness symptoms are often experienced by those with chronic pain.[47] Chronic pain may contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of exacerbating pain, often resulting in weight gain.[46] Such comorbid disorders can be very difficult to treat due to the high potential of medication interactions, especially when the conditions are treated by different doctors.

Severe chronic pain is associated with increased 10 year mortality, particularly from heart disease and respiratory disease.[48] Several mechanisms have been proposed for the increased mortality, e.g. abnormal endocrine stress response.[49] Additionally, chronic stress seems to affect cardiovascular risk by acceleration of the atherosclerotic process. However, further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between severe chronic pain, stress and cardiovascular health.[48]

Psychology

Personality

Two of the most frequent personality profiles found in people with chronic pain by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) are the conversion V and the neurotic triad. The conversion V personality, so called because the higher scores on MMPI scales 1 and 3, relative to scale 2, form a "V" shape on the graph, expresses exaggerated concern over body feelings, develops bodily symptoms in response to stress, and often fails to recognize their own emotional state, including depression. The neurotic triad personality, scoring high on scales 1, 2 and 3, also expresses exaggerated concern over body feelings and develops bodily symptoms in response to stress, but is demanding and complaining.[50]

Some investigators have argued that it is this neuroticism that causes acute pain to turn chronic, but clinical evidence points the other way, to chronic pain causing neuroticism. When long term pain is relieved by therapeutic intervention, scores on the neurotic triad and anxiety fall, often to normal levels.[51][52][53][54] Self-esteem, often low in people with chronic pain, also shows striking improvement once pain has resolved.[54]

It has been suggested that catastrophizing may play a role in the experience of pain. Pain catastrophizing is the tendency to describe a pain experience in more exaggerated terms than the average person, to think a great deal more about the pain when it occurs, and/or to feel more helpless about the experience.[55] People who score highly on measures of catastrophization are likely to rate a pain experience as more intense than those who score low on such measures. It is often reasoned that the tendency to catastrophize causes the person to experience the pain as more intense. One suggestion is that catastrophizing influences pain perception through altering attention and anticipation, and heightening emotional responses to pain.[56] However, at least some aspects of catastrophization may be the product of an intense pain experience, rather than its cause. That is, the more intense the pain feels to the person, the more likely they are to have thoughts about it that fit the definition of catastrophization.[57]

Social support

Social support has important consequences for individuals with chronic pain. In particular, pain intensity, pain control, and resiliency to pain has been implicated as outcomes influenced by different levels and types of social support. Much of this research has focused on emotional, instrumental, tangible and informational social support. People with persistent pain conditions tend to rely on their social support as a coping mechanism and therefore have better outcomes when they are a part of larger more supportive social networks. Across a majority of studies investigated, there was a direct significant association between social activities and/or social support and pain. Higher levels of pain were associated with a decrease in social activities, lower levels of social support, and reduced social functioning.[58][59]

Effect on cognition

Chronic pain's impact on cognition is an under-researched area, but several tentative conclusions have been published. Most people with chronic pain complain of cognitive impairment, such as forgetfulness, difficulty with attention, and difficulty completing tasks. Objective testing has found that people in chronic pain tend to experience impairment in attention, memory, mental flexibility, verbal ability, speed of response in a cognitive task, and speed in executing structured tasks.[60]

References

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  55. ^ Van Damme, S., Crombez, G., Bijttebier, P., Goubert, L., & Houdenhove, B. V. (2001). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: invariant factor structure across clinical and non-clinical populations. International Association for the Study of Pain, 96(3), 319-324. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304395901004638
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External links

  • Chronic Pain Syndromes at DMOZ
  • Chronic Pain Relief: New Treatments on WebMD
  • Chronic Pain on MedicineNet
  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
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