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Cipriano Mera

Cipriano Mera
Birth name Cipriano Mera Sanz
Nickname(s) El Viejo (The Old Man)
Born (1897-11-04)November 4, 1897
Madrid, Spain
Died October 24, 1975(1975-10-24)
Saint-Cloud, France
Allegiance Confederal militias (1936)
Spanish Republic (1936-1939)
Service/branch Spanish Republican Army
Years of service 1936-1939
Rank General
Commands held Commander of Mera Column (1936), Commander of the 14th Division (1937), Commander of the IV Corps of the Army (1937-1939)
Battles/wars

Spanish Civil War

Other work Anarchist activist, Bricklayer

Cipriano Mera Sanz (November 4, 1897, Madrid – October 24, 1975) was a Spanish military and political figure during the Second Spanish Republic.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Spanish Civil War 2
  • The end of the war 3
  • Exile and death 4
  • Films 5
  • References 6
  • Sources 7
  • External links 8

Early life

He had two sons (Floreal and Sergio) with his partner Teresa Gómez. A bricklayer,[1] he joined the anarchist movement and presided over the construction union of Madrid of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). During the congress celebrated in Zaragoza three months before the beginning of the Spanish Revolution, he was in favor of the most radical, collaborating sectors of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI). Mera led a strike of construction workers, electricians, and elevator operators in Madrid in June 1936. As a result, he was imprisoned in early July.[2]

Spanish Civil War

When the Spanish Civil War exploded he was released, and led a column that put down the uprising in Guadalajara, Alcalá de Henares and Cuenca.[3] Next, he defended the dams of Lozoya, which supplied Madrid, and fought in the mountain ranges of Ávila and the valley of the Tiétar river. He was given command of the 14ª Division and it acted in the defense of Madrid, the Battle of Guadalajara (March 1937)[4] and in the battle of Brunete (July 1937).[5] He replaced Juan Perea Capulino in command of the IV Army Corps of the Center. In April 1938 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel.[6]

The end of the war

By 1939 Mera was convinced that the Republicans would be defeated.[7] When Juan Negrín refused to surrender to Francisco Franco, Mera decided to support Segismundo Casado, commander of the Republican Army of the Center, and Julián Besteiro of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to stage a coup d'etat and establish an anti-Negrin, anti-Stalinist National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa). In March 1939 he joined the rising of Casado to accelerate the end of the war and to restrain Communist Party of Spain control of the Republican zone.[8] His forces were fundamental in the victory of Casado in Madrid against the 1st Corps of the Army of the Center sent to defeat the rising.[9]

Exile and death

He marched to Valencia at the end of the war and soon by plane went to Oran and Casablanca, but he was extradited to Spain[10] in February 1942. In 1943 he was condemned to death, a sentence that was exchanged for 30 years in prison, but he was set free in 1946.[11] In 1947, he emigrated to Paris, where he worked as a bricklayer until his death in St. Cloud, France in 1975.[12]

Films

He appeared as himself in the 1936 CNT film production "Castilla Libertaria". In 2009, a documentary entitled "Vivir de Pie. Las Guerras de Cipriano Mera" (Living on Your Feet: The Struggles of Cipriano Mera) was released.[13]

References

  1. ^ Beevor 2006, p. 410
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. pag. 48
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. p.77
  4. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. pp.219-220
  5. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. p.283
  6. ^ Christie 2003, p. 12
  7. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. pp.388-389
  8. ^ Beevor 2006, pp. 391–392
  9. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. London, 2006. p.298
  10. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. p. 410
  11. ^ Beevor 2006, p. 492
  12. ^ Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939. Penguin books. London. 2006. p. 410
  13. ^ Vivir de pie. Las guerras de Cipriano Mera IMDB

Sources

  • Beevor, Antony (2006). The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939.  
  • Christie, Stuart (2003). General Franco Made Me a 'terrorist'. Christie Books.  
  • Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. London, 2006.

External links

  • Cipriano Mera Page from the Anarchist Encyclopedia
  • A video of his funeral in Paris
  • Cipriano Mera: Portrait of a Battler by Julián Vadillo Muñoz
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