World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Common gamma chain

Article Id: WHEBN0003596536
Reproduction Date:

Title: Common gamma chain  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Type I cytokine receptor, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, CXCR6, CCR9, IL3RA
Collection: Immune System, Type I Cytokine Receptors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Common gamma chain

Interleukin 2 receptor, gamma
Crystallographic structure of IL-2 (center alpha helices) complexed with the common gamma chain (IL2RG; 10 O'Clock to 1 O'Clock), IL2RA (4 O'Clock), and IL2RB (7 O'Clock to 9 O'Clock). Each protein is individually rainbow colored (N-terminus = blue, C-terminus = red).[1]
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; CD132; CIDX; IL-2RG; IMD4; P64; SCIDX; SCIDX1
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

The common gamma chainc) (or CD132), also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG, is a cytokine receptor sub-unit that is common to the receptor complexes for at least six different interleukin receptors: IL-2, IL-4,[2] IL-7,[3] IL-9, IL-15[4] and interleukin-21 receptor. The γc glycoprotein is a member of the type I cytokine receptor family expressed on most lymphocyte (white blood cell) populations, and its gene is found on the X-chromosome of mammals.

This protein is located on the surface of immature blood-forming cells in bone marrow. One end of the protein resides outside of the cell where it binds to cytokines and the other end of the protein resides in the interior of the cell where it transmits signals to the cell's nucleus. The common gamma chain partners with other proteins to direct blood-forming cells to form lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). The receptor also directs the growth and maturation of lymphocyte subtypes: T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. These cells kill viruses, make antibodies, and help regulate the entire immune system.

Contents

  • Gene 1
  • Structure 2
  • Function 3
    • Ligands 3.1
    • Signalling 3.2
  • Clinical significance 4
    • X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency 4.1
    • Schizophrenia 4.2
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Gene

Cytokine receptor common subunit gamma also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RG gene.[5] The human IL2RG gene is located on the long (q) arm of the X chromosome at position 13.1, from base pair 70,110,279 to base pair 70,114,423.

IL-7 receptor and signaling, common γ chain (blue) and IL-7 receptor-α (green)

Structure

The γc chain is an integral membrane protein that contains extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular domains.

Function

Lymphocytes expressing the common gamma chain can form functional receptors for these cytokine proteins, which transmit signals from one cell to another and direct programs of cellular differentiation.

Ligands

The γc chain partners with other ligand-specific receptors to direct lymphocytes to respond to cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21.[6]

Signalling

IL2RG has been shown to interact with Janus kinase 3.[7][8]

Clinical significance

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is caused by mutations in the IL2RG gene. More than 200 different mutations in the IL2RG gene have been identified in people with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).[9] Most of these mutations involve changes in one or a few nucleotides (DNA building blocks) in the gene. These changes lead to the production of a nonfunctional version of the common gamma chain protein or no production of protein.[10] Without the common gamma chain, important chemical signals are not relayed to the nucleus and lymphocytes cannot develop normally. A lack of functional mature lymphocytes disrupts the immune system's ability to protect the body from infection. Sufferers have no functional immunity and can die within months after birth without successful bone marrow transplantation or alternatively, isolation from exposure to pathogens. Without important developmental signals from IL-7 and IL-15, T-cell and NK cell populations respectively fail to develop.

Experiments in animal models have shown X-SCID to occur similarly in dogs, but not in mice.[11]

Schizophrenia

Alterations in the immune response are involved in pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Distinct gene variants of a number of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines together with their receptors associate with this disorder. IL2RG represents an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors and so far, no data on the functional state of this receptor in schizophrenia have been reported. Over-expression of the IL2RG gene may be implicated in altered immune response in schizophrenia and contribute to the pathogenesis of this disorder.[12]

References

  1. ^ Wang X, Rickert M, Garcia KC (November 2005). "Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors". Science 310 (5751): 1159–63.  
  2. ^ Russell SM, Keegan AD, Harada N, Nakamura Y, Noguchi M, Leland P, Friedmann MC, Miyajima A, Puri RK, Paul WE (December 1993). "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-4 receptor". Science 262 (5141): 1880–3.  
  3. ^ Noguchi M, Nakamura Y, Russell SM, Ziegler SF, Tsang M, Cao X, Leonard WJ (December 1993). "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-7 receptor". Science 262 (5141): 1877–80.  
  4. ^ Giri JG, Kumaki S, Ahdieh M, Friend DJ, Loomis A, Shanebeck K, DuBose R, Cosman D, Park LS, Anderson DM (August 1995). "Identification and cloning of a novel IL-15 binding protein that is structurally related to the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor". EMBO J. 14 (15): 3654–63.  
  5. ^ Takeshita T, Asao H, Ohtani K, Ishii N, Kumaki S, Tanaka N, Munakata H, Nakamura M, Sugamura K (July 1992). "Cloning of the gamma chain of the human IL-2 receptor". Science 257 (5068): 379–82.  
  6. ^ Asao H, Okuyama C, Kumaki S, Ishii N, Tsuchiya S, Foster D, Sugamura K (July 2001). "Cutting edge: the common gamma-chain is an indispensable subunit of the IL-21 receptor complex". J. Immunol. 167 (1): 1–5.  
  7. ^ Miyazaki T, Kawahara A, Fujii H, Nakagawa Y, Minami Y, Liu ZJ, Oishi I, Silvennoinen O, Witthuhn BA, Ihle JN (November 1994). "Functional activation of Jak1 and Jak3 by selective association with IL-2 receptor subunits". Science 266 (5187): 1045–7.  
  8. ^ Russell SM, Johnston JA, Noguchi M, Kawamura M, Bacon CM, Friedmann M, Berg M, McVicar DW, Witthuhn BA, Silvennoinen O (November 1994). "Interaction of IL-2R beta and gamma c chains with Jak1 and Jak3: implications for XSCID and XCID". Science 266 (5187): 1042–5.  
  9. ^ Vihinen M, Arredondo-Vega FX, Casanova JL, Etzioni A, Giliani S, Hammarström L, Hershfield MS, Heyworth PG, Hsu AP, Lähdesmäki A, Lappalainen I, Notarangelo LD, Puck JM, Reith W, Roos D, Schumacher RF, Schwarz K, Vezzoni P, Villa A, Väliaho J, Smith CI (2001). "Primary immunodeficiency mutation databases". Adv. Genet. 43: 103–88.  
  10. ^ Schmalstieg FC, Leonard WJ, Noguchi M, Berg M, Rudloff HE, Denney RM, Dave SK, Brooks EG, Goldman AS (March 1995). "Missense mutation in exon 7 of the common gamma chain gene causes a moderate form of X-linked combined immunodeficiency". J. Clin. Invest. 95 (3): 1169–73.  
  11. ^ Henthorn PS, Somberg RL, Fimiani VM, Puck JM, Patterson DF, Felsburg PJ (September 1994). "IL-2R gamma gene microdeletion demonstrates that canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is a homologue of the human disease". Genomics 23 (1): 69–74.  
  12. ^ Ghazaryan H, Petrek M, Boyajyan A (2014). "Chronic schizophrenia is associated with over-expression of the interleukin-2 receptor gamma gene". Psychiatry Res 217 (3): 158–62.  

Further reading

  • Buckley RH (2004). "Molecular defects in human severe combined immunodeficiency and approaches to immune reconstitution". Annu Rev Immunol 22: 625–55.  
  • Kalman L, Lindegren ML, Kobrynski L, Vogt R, Hannon H, Howard JT, Buckley R (2004). "Mutations in genes required for T-cell development: IL7R, CD45, IL2RG, JAK3, RAG1, RAG2, ARTEMIS, and ADA and severe combined immunodeficiency: HuGE review". Genet Med 6 (1): 16–26.  
  • Ellery JM, Nicholls PJ (2002). "Alternate signalling pathways from the interleukin-2 receptor". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (1): 27–40.  
  • Takeshita T, Asao H, Ohtani K, Ishii N, Kumaki S, Tanaka N, Munakata H, Nakamura M, Sugamura K (July 1992). "Cloning of the gamma chain of the human IL-2 receptor". Science 257 (5068): 379–82.  
  • Burton J, Goldman CK, Rao P, Moos M, Waldmann TA (September 1990). "Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (18): 7329–33.  
  • Oyaizu N, Chirmule N, Kalyanaraman VS, Hall WW, Pahwa R, Shuster M, Pahwa S (March 1990). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 produces immune defects in CD4+ T lymphocytes by inhibiting interleukin 2 mRNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (6): 2379–83.  
  • Kornfeld H, Cruikshank WW, Pyle SW, Berman JS, Center DM (September 1988). "Lymphocyte activation by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein". Nature 335 (6189): 445–8.  
  • Bamborough P, Hedgecock CJ, Richards WG (1995). "The interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 receptors studied by molecular modelling". Structure 2 (9): 839–51.  
  • Clark PA, Lester T, Genet S, Jones AM, Hendriks R, Levinsky RJ, Kinnon C (October 1995). "Screening for mutations causing X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in the IL-2R gamma chain gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis". Hum. Genet. 96 (4): 427–32.  
  • Pepper AE, Buckley RH, Small TN, Puck JM (September 1995). "Two mutational hotspots in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene causing human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57 (3): 564–71.  
  • Ohbo K, Takasawa N, Ishii N, Tanaka N, Nakamura M, Sugamura K (March 1995). "Functional analysis of the human interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain gene promoter". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (13): 7479–86.  
  • Puck JM, Pepper AE, Bédard PM, Laframboise R (February 1995). "Female germ line mosaicism as the origin of a unique IL-2 receptor gamma-chain mutation causing X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency". J. Clin. Invest. 95 (2): 895–9.  
  • DiSanto JP, Rieux-Laucat F, Dautry-Varsat A, Fischer A, de Saint Basile G (September 1994). "Defective human interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain in an atypical X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with peripheral T cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (20): 9466–70.  
  • Russell SM, Johnston JA, Noguchi M, Kawamura M, Bacon CM, Friedmann M, Berg M, McVicar DW, Witthuhn BA, Silvennoinen O (November 1994). "Interaction of IL-2R beta and gamma c chains with Jak1 and Jak3: implications for XSCID and XCID". Science 266 (5187): 1042–5.  
  • Ishii N, Asao H, Kimura Y, Takeshita T, Nakamura M, Tsuchiya S, Konno T, Maeda M, Uchiyama T, Sugamura K (August 1994). "Impairment of ligand binding and growth signaling of mutant IL-2 receptor gamma-chains in patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency". J. Immunol. 153 (3): 1310–7.  
  • Johnson K, Choi Y, Wu Z, Ciardelli T, Granzow R, Whalen C, Sana T, Pardee G, Smith K, Creasey A (1994). "Soluble IL-2 receptor beta and gamma subunits: ligand binding and cooperativity". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 5 (1): 23–34.  
  • Markiewicz S, Subtil A, Dautry-Varsat A, Fischer A, de Saint Basile G (May 1994). "Detection of three nonsense mutations and one missense mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene in SCIDX1 that differently affect the mRNA processing". Genomics 21 (1): 291–3.  
  • Kondo M, Takeshita T, Ishii N, Nakamura M, Watanabe S, Arai K, Sugamura K (December 1993). "Sharing of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor gamma chain between receptors for IL-2 and IL-4". Science 262 (5141): 1874–7.  

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.