Counterculture of the 1960s

The peace sign (or peace symbol), designed and first used in the UK during the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, later became synonymous with opposition to the Vietnam War.[1][2]

The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United States and in the United Kingdom and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the early 1960s and the early 1970s. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the African-American Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and became revolutionary with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam.[3][4][5]

As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream.

New cultural forms emerged, including the music of the UK band The Beatles, films by directors who were far less restricted by censorship, and the rise of hippie and other alternative lifestyles. As the era unfolded, a dynamic subculture celebrating creativity, experimentation and modern incarnations of bohemian lifestyles emerged. In addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists, authors, and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, contributed to the counterculture movement.

Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the anti-authoritarian movements of previous eras. The post-World War II "baby boom"[6][7] generated an unprecedented number of potentially disaffected young people as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of American and other democratic societies.[8] Post-war affluence allowed many of the counterculture generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents.[9] The era was also notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were quickly assimilated within mainstream society, particularly in the US.[10][11]

In the broadest sense, 1960s counterculture grew from a confluence of people, events, issues, circumstances, and technological developments which served as intellectual and social catalysts for exceptionally rapid change during the era.


  • Background 1
    • Post-war geopolitics 1.1
    • Sociological issues and calls to action 1.2
    • Emergent media 1.3
      • Television 1.3.1
      • New cinema 1.3.2
      • New radio 1.3.3
    • Changing lifestyles 1.4
      • Emergent middle-class drug culture 1.4.1
    • Law enforcement 1.5
    • The Vietnam War 1.6
    • In Western Europe 1.7
    • In Australia 1.8
    • In Latin America 1.9
  • Movements 2
    • Civil Rights 2.1
    • Free Speech 2.2
    • The New Left 2.3
    • Anti-war 2.4
    • Anti-nuclear 2.5
    • Feminism 2.6
    • Environmentalism 2.7
    • Gay liberation 2.8
  • Culture and lifestyles 3
    • Hippies 3.1
    • Marijuana, LSD, and other recreational drugs 3.2
      • Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters 3.2.1
      • Other psychedelics 3.2.2
    • Sexual revolution 3.3
    • Alternative media 3.4
    • Alternative disc sports (Frisbee) 3.5
    • Avant-garde art and anti-art 3.6
    • Music 3.7
    • Film 3.8
    • Technology 3.9
    • Religion, spirituality and the occult 3.10
  • Criticism and legacy 4
  • Key figures 5
  • Timeline: chronology of events and milestones 6
    • Pre-1950 6.1
      • 1909 6.1.1
      • 1919 6.1.2
      • 1920 6.1.3
      • 1938 6.1.4
      • 1942 6.1.5
      • 1944 6.1.6
      • 1945 6.1.7
      • 1946 6.1.8
      • 1947 6.1.9
      • 1948 6.1.10
      • 1949 6.1.11
    • 1950s 6.2
      • 1950 6.2.1
      • 1951 6.2.2
      • 1952 6.2.3
      • 1953 6.2.4
      • 1954 6.2.5
      • 1955 6.2.6
      • 1956 6.2.7
      • 1957 6.2.8
      • 1958 6.2.9
      • 1959 6.2.10
    • 1960s 6.3
      • 1960 6.3.1
      • 1961 6.3.2
      • 1962 6.3.3
      • 1963 6.3.4
      • 1964 6.3.5
      • 1965 6.3.6
      • 1966 6.3.7
      • 1967 6.3.8
      • 1968 6.3.9
      • 1969 6.3.10
    • 1970s 6.4
      • 1970 6.4.1
      • 1971 6.4.2
      • 1972 6.4.3
      • 1973 6.4.4
      • 1974 6.4.5
      • 1975 6.4.6
      • 1977 6.4.7
      • 1978 6.4.8
      • 1980 6.4.9
  • References 7
  • Sources 8
  • External links 9


Post-war geopolitics

Underwater atomic test "Baker", Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean, 1946.

The [20][21] Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in Southeast Asia (SEATO), especially in Vietnam, and debate as to how other communist insurgencies should be challenged, also created a rift of dissent within the establishment.[22][23][24] In the UK, the Profumo Affair also involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism.[25] The Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was largely fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union.[26][27] The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, and the attendant theories concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people.[28][29][30]

Free Speech activist Mario Savio on the steps of Sproul Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 1966.

Sociological issues and calls to action

Many sociological issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional civil rights illegalities, especially regarding general racial segregation, longstanding disfranchisement of blacks in the South by white-dominated state government, and ongoing racial discrimination in jobs, housing, and access to public places in both the North and the South.

External video
Mario Savio's "Bodies Upon The Gears" Speech (excerpt) on YouTube

On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights, especially freedom of speech and freedom of assembly.[31]

Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, and anti-poverty programs, particularly in the South and within inner city areas in the United States.[32][33]

Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, and the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population.[34] Authors such as Rachel Carson played key roles in developing a new awareness among the global population of the fragility of planet earth, despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries.[35]

The need to address minority rights of women, gays, the handicapped, and many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number of primarily younger people broke free from the constraints of 1950s orthodoxy and struggled to create a more inclusive and tolerant social landscape.[36][37]

The availability of new and more effective forms of birth control was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution. The notion of "recreational sex" without the threat of unwanted pregnancy radically changed the social dynamic and permitted both women and men much greater freedom in the selection of sexual lifestyles outside the confines of traditional marriage.[38] With this change in attitude, by the 1990s the ratio of children born out of wedlock rose from 5% to 25% for Whites and from 25% to 66% for African-Americans.[39]

Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington.

Emergent media


For those born after World War II, the emergence of television as a source of entertainment and information - as well as the associated massive expansion of consumerism afforded by post-war affluence and encouraged by TV advertising - were key components in youthful disillusionment and the formulation of new social behaviours, even as ad agencies heavily courted the "hip" youth market.[40][41] In the US, nearly real-time TV news coverage of the civil rights era's Birmingham Campaign, the "Bloody Sunday" event of the Selma to Montgomery marches, and graphic news footage from Vietnam brought horrifying, moving images of the bloody reality of armed conflict into living rooms for the first time.

New cinema

The breakdown of enforcement of the US Hays Code[42] concerning censorship in motion picture production, the use of new forms of artistic expression in European and Asian cinema, and the advent of modern production values heralded a new era of art-house, pornographic, and mainstream film production, distribution, and exhibition. The end of censorship resulted in a complete reformation of the western film industry. With new-found artistic freedom, a generation of exceptionally talented New Wave film makers working across all genres brought realistic depictions of previously prohibited subject matter to neighborhood theater screens for the first time, even as Hollywood film studios were still considered a part of the establishment by some elements of the counterculture.

New radio

By the later 1960s, previously under-regarded FM radio replaced AM radio as the focal point for the ongoing explosion of rock and roll music, and became the nexus of youth-oriented news and advertising for the counterculture generation.[43][44]

A family watches television, c. 1958

Changing lifestyles

Communes, collectives, and intentional communities regained popularity during this era.[45] Early communities, such as the Hog Farm, Quarry Hill, and Drop City[46] in the US were established as straightforward agrarian attempts to return to the land and live free of interference from outside influences. As the era progressed, many people established and populated new communities in response to not only disillusionment with standard community forms, but also dissatisfaction with certain elements of the counterculture itself. Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international Green Movement.

The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief.[47]

The "Generation Gap", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era.[48] A large measure of the generational chasm of the 1960s and early 1970s was born of rapidly evolving fashion and hairstyle trends that were readily adopted by the young, but often misunderstood and ridiculed by the old. These included the wearing of very long hair by men,[49] the wearing of natural or "Afro" hairstyles by Blacks, the donning of revealing clothing by women in public, and the mainstreaming of the psychedelic clothing and regalia of the short-lived hippie culture. Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts (often tie-dyed, or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans[50] became the enduring uniform of the generation. The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the Disco and Punk Rock eras in the later 1970s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jean pants, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.

Emergent middle-class drug culture

In the western world, the ongoing criminal legal status of the recreational drug industry was instrumental in the formation of an anti-establishment social dynamic by some of those coming of age during the counterculture era. The explosion of marijuana use during the era, in large part by students on fast-expanding college campuses,[51] created an attendant need for increasing numbers of people to conduct their personal affairs in secret in the procurement and use of banned substances. The classification of marijuana as a narcotic, and the attachment of severe criminal penalties for its use, drove the act of smoking marijuana, and experimentation with substances in general, deep underground. Many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments.[52][53]

Anti-war protesters

Law enforcement

The often violent confrontations between college students (and other activists) and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era. Many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as "fuzz" and "pig" as derogatory epithets for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon. The distrust of police was based not only on fear of police brutality during political protests, but also on generalized police corruption - especially police manufacture of false evidence, and outright entrapment, in drug cases. In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City,[54][55][56] the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago,[57][58][59] the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan,[60] and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio.[61] Police malfeasance was also an ongoing issue in the UK during the era.[62]

The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, and the protracted national divide between supporters and opponents of the war, were arguably the most important factors contributing to the rise of the larger counterculture movement.

Jerry Rubin, University at Buffalo, March 10, 1970.

The widely accepted assertion that anti-war opinion was held only among the young is a myth,[63][64] but enormous war protests consisting of thousands of mostly younger people in every major US city effectively united millions against the war, and against the war policy that prevailed under five congresses and during two presidential administrations.

The counterculture era essentially commenced in earnest with the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy. It ended with the termination of US combat military involvement in the communist insurgencies of Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, and ultimately with the resignation of disgraced President Richard M. Nixon in August 1974.

Many key movements were born of, or were advanced within, the counterculture of the 1960s. Each movement is relevant to the larger era. The most important stand alone, irrespective of the larger counterculture.[65]

In Western Europe

Revolutionary poster, France: "May 1968: The beginning of a prolonged struggle"
The counterculture movement took hold in Western Europe, with London, Amsterdam, Paris, Rome and West Berlin rivaling San Francisco and New York as counterculture centers.
Carnaby Street, London, 1969.

The UK Underground was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs. Underground figure Barry Miles said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict."[66]

In the Netherlands, Provo was a counterculture movement that focused on "provoking violent responses from authorities using non-violent bait."[67]

In France, the General Strike centered in Paris in May 1968 united French students, and nearly toppled the government.[68]

Kommune 1 or K1 was a commune in West Germany, and was known for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between satire and provocation. These events served as inspiration for the "Sponti" movement and other leftist groups. In the late summer of 1968, the commune moved into a deserted factory on Stephanstraße in order to reorient. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music and drugs. Soon, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, including Jimi Hendrix.[69][70]

In Australia

Oz number 31 cover.

Oz Magazine was first published as a satirical humour magazine between 1963 and 1969 in Sydney, Australia, and, in its second and better known incarnation, became a "psychedelic hippy" magazine from 1967 to 1973 in London. Strongly identified as part of the underground press, it was the subject of two celebrated obscenity trials, one in Australia in 1964 and the other in the United Kingdom in 1971.[71][72]

In Latin America

Three radical icons of the sixties. Encounter between Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre and Ernesto "Che" Guevara in Cuba, in 1960

In Mexico, rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the 1960s. Mexico City, as well as northern cities such as Toluca, a town neighboring Mexico City, and became known as "The Mexican Woodstock". Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the US flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. This occurred during the era of President Luis Echeverría, an extremely repressive era in Mexican history. Anything that could be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the student protests of 1968. Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind (now El Tri), remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following. While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mid-1980s, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until 1989.[73]

The Cordobazo was a civil uprising in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, in the end of May 1969, during the military dictatorship of General Juan Carlos Onganía, which occurred a few days after the Rosariazo, and a year after the French May '68. Contrary to previous protests, the Cordobazo did not correspond to previous struggles, headed by Marxist workers' leaders, but associated students and workers in the same struggle against the military government.[74]


US Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-MN), anti-war candidate for President in 1968.

Civil Rights

The US Civil Rights Movement, a key element of the larger counterculture movement, involved the use of applied nonviolence to assure that equal rights guaranteed under the US Constitution would apply to all citizens. Many states illegally denied many of these rights to African-Americans, and this was successfully addressed in the early and mid-1960s in several major nonviolent movements.[75][76]

Free Speech

Much of the 1960s counterculture originated on college campuses. The 1964 Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley, which had its roots in the Civil Rights Movement of the US South, was one early example. At Berkeley a group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. Other rebellious young people, who were not students, also contributed to the Free Speech Movement.[77]

The New Left

The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe identity politics or alternative lifestyles, or became politically inactive.[78][79][80]

Herbert Marcuse, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory, was an influential libertarian socialist thinker on the radical student movements of the era[81] philosopher of the New Left[82]
The emergence of the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism.[83] The New Left's critique of the Old Left's authoritarianism was associated with a strong interest in personal liberty, autonomy (see the thinking of Cornelius Castoriadis) and led to a rediscovery of older socialist traditions, such as left communism, council communism, and the Industrial Workers of the World. The New Left also led to a revival of anarchism. Journals like Radical America and Black Mask in America, Solidarity, Big Flame and Democracy & Nature, succeeded by The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy,[84] in the UK, introduced a range of left libertarian ideas to a new generation. Social ecology, autonomism and, more recently, participatory economics (parecon), and Inclusive Democracy emerged from this.

A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s.[85] Anarchism was influential in the counterculture of the 1960s[86][87][88] and anarchists actively participated in the Émile Armand.

The New Left in the United States also included anarchist,

  • The Guardian, 15 March 2008Power to the People,John Hoyland,
  • magazine, Aug. 2002, 58--61.Vietnam"Perspectives," (extensive information on the origins of the counterculture)
  • 1960s archive with photographs of be-ins and protests
  • The 1960s: Years that Shaped a Generation
  • Online archive of underground publications from the 1960s counterculture

External links

  • Jackson, Rebecca. "The 1960s: A Bibliography".  
  • Lemke-Santangelo, Gretchen (2009). Daughters of Aquarius: Women of the Sixties Counterculture. University Press of Kansas.  
  • Roche, Nancy McGuire, "The Spectacle of Gender: Representations of Women in British and American Cinema of the Nineteen-Sixties" (PhD dissertation. Middle Tennessee State University, 2011). DA3464539.
  • Street, Joe, "Dirty Harry's San Francisco," The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics, and Culture, 5 (June 2012), 1–21.
  • "American Experience: Primary Resources: Truth about Indochina, 1954".  
  • Shribman, David (November 9, 2013). "If JFK had lived".  
  • Roberts, Sam (September 21, 2008). "A Spy Confesses, and Still Some Weep for the Rosenbergs". New York Times. 
  • Weber, Bruce (March 24, 2011). "Leonard I. Weinglass, Lawyer, Dies at 77; Defended Renegades and the Notorious". New York Times. 
  • Perrone, James E. (2004). Music of the Counterculture Era. Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  • Miller, Richard J. (2013). "Timothy Leary's liberation, and the CIA's experiments! LSD's amazing, psychedelic history (Excerpt)". 
  • Weekes, Julia Ann (2008-10-31). "Warhol's Pop Politics". Smithsonian Magazine. 
  • Rasmussen, Cecilia (2007-08-05). "'"Closing of club ignited the `Sunset Strip riots.  
  • Kitchell, Mark,  


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  52. ^ "A Social History of America's Most Popular Drugs". [Frontline]. Retrieved 2014-04-23. from 1951 to 1956 stricter sentencing laws set mandatory minimum sentences for drug-related offenses. In the 1950s the beatniks appropriated the use of marijuana from the black hepsters and the drug moved into middle-class white America in the 1960s. 
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  251. ^ Moise, Edwin E. (1998). "The Vietnam Wars, Section 4: The Geneva Accords". Retrieved 2014-07-07. The Geneva Accords stated that Vietnam was to become an independent nation. Elections were to be held in July 1956, under international supervision, to choose a government for Vietnam. During the two-year interval until the elections, the country would be split into two parts; the North and the South. The dividing line chosen, at the seventeenth parallel a little north of the city of Hue, was quite close to the line that had separated the two halves of Vietnam in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but this was purely a coincidence. This line no longer corresponded to any natural division in Vietnamese society, in economy, political structure, religion, or dialect. It was an arbitrary compromise between French proposals for a line further north and Viet Minh proposals for a line further south. 
  252. ^ "Brown v. Board of Education (1954)". The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  253. ^ "Brown v. Board of Education". The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights/The Leadership Conference Education Fund. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-18. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that "separate but equal" public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. The Brown case served as a catalyst for the modern civil rights movement, inspiring education reform everywhere and forming the legal means of challenging segregation in all areas of society. After Brown, the nation made great strides toward opening the doors of education to all students. With court orders and active enforcement of federal civil rights laws, progress toward integrated schools continued through the late 1980s. Since then, many states have been resegregating and educational achievement and opportunity have been falling for minorities. 
  254. ^ Krock, Arthur (1968). Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 411.  
  255. ^  
  256. ^ Callard, Abby (2009-11-01). "Emmett Till's Casket Goes to the Smithsonian: Simeon Wright recalls the events surrounding his cousin's murder and the importance of having the casket on public display". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2014-11-21. In 1955, Emmett Till—a 14-year-old African-American visiting Mississippi from Chicago—was murdered after whistling at a white woman. His mother insisted that her son be displayed in a glass-topped casket, so the world could see his beaten body. Till's murder became a rallying point for the civil rights movement, and his family recently donated the casket in which he was buried to the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture. 
  257. ^ Walljasper, Jay (September–October 1996). "Remembering Dan Wolf, the cofounder and original editor of The Village Voice"The Father of Alternative Journalism . Ogden Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  258. ^ Corley, Cheryl (2005-10-25). "Audio: Civil Rights Icon Rosa Parks Dies, A Remembrance". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  259. ^ Max Décharné (9 December 2010). A Rocket in My Pocket: The Hipster's Guide to Rockabilly Music. Profile Books. pp. 56–.  
  260. ^ Wesley K. Wark (13 September 2013). Twenty-First Century Intelligence. Routledge. pp. 121–.  
  261. ^ Churchill, Ward; Vander Wall, Jim (1990), The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent, Boston: South End Press.
  262. ^ Hopkins Tanne, Janice (2004-03-20). "Humphry Osmond". British Medical Journal (BMJ via US National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health) (328(7441): 713.). Retrieved 2014-07-07. Short abstract Psychiatrist who investigated LSD, “turned on” Aldous Huxley, and coined the word “psychedelic” 
  263. ^ "SCLC:Our History". Southern Christian Leadership Council. Retrieved 2014-05-16. 
  264. ^ Andito (2012-09-05). On the Road" Published 55 Years Ago Today""".  
  265. ^ Jack Kerouac (16 August 2007). On the Road: The Original Scroll: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). Penguin Group US.  
  266. ^ "Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (1957)". The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  267. ^ Garber, Steve (2007-10-10). "Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age". US National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  268. ^ Bergaust, Erik; Beller, William (1957). Satellite! (Bantam, 1957-11 ed.). New York: Doubleday. 
  269. ^ a b "History". Peace Action. 
  270. ^ Abbe A. Debolt; James S. Baugess (12 December 2011). Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture [2 volumes]: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 504–.  
  271. ^ "Elvis Presley is inducted into the U.S. Army". History Channel/A&E Networks. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  272. ^ Hamlin, Jesse (1995-11-26). "How Herb Caen Named a Generation". San Fransciso Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved 2014-07-31. Chronicle columnist Herb Caen coined the word "beatnik" on April 2, 1958, six months after the Soviets launched the Sputnik satellite into space. 
  273. ^ John Hostettler (2012). Dissenters, Radicals, Heretics and Blasphemers: The Flame of Revolt that Shines Through English History. Waterside Press. pp. 239–.  
  274. ^ "Early defections in march to Aldermaston". 1958-04-05. Retrieved 2014-07-31. The march bore the signs of careful planning. The column with its banners - "Which is to be banned, the H-bomb or the human race?" - got off on time, and the long snake that slid down Piccadilly, Kensington High Street, and Chiswick High Road, managed with only discreet help from the police, not to obstruct what little traffic there was. 
  275. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle: National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE)". The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 2014-08-16. On 15 November 1957, SANE ran a full-page advertisement in the New York Times warning Americans: ‘‘We are facing a danger unlike any danger that has ever existed.’’ Inspired by the enthusiastic response to its Times advertisement, SANE redefined itself as a mass membership organization, gaining 130 chapters and 25,000 members by the following summer. 
  276. ^ "SLATE Digital Archives". SLATE Archives Committee. Retrieved 2014-07-31. SLATE officially organizes. Temporary SLATE Coordinating Committee includes Charleen Rains, Owen Hill Pat Hallinan, Peter Franck, Fritjof Thygeson and Mike Miller. 
  277. ^ a b c W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (4 May 1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. pp. 15–.  
  278. ^ Randall Balmer (13 May 2014). Redeemer: The Life of Jimmy Carter. Basic Books. pp. 95–.  
  279. ^ Robert B. Ekelund, Jr.; Robert F. Hébert (30 August 2013). A History of Economic Theory and Method: Sixth Edition. Waveland Press. pp. 499–.  
  280. ^ "Fidel Castro- Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973)". PBS Online/WGBH/The American Experience. 2004-12-21. Retrieved 2014-07-09. He was called El Hombre, "the Man," and for three decades he was one of Cuba's most controversial leaders. It would take Fidel Castro and the Cuban revolution to unseat him. 
  281. ^ "CUBA'S REPRESSIVE MACHINERY: Human Rights Forty Years After the Revolution". Human Rights Watch. 1999. Retrieved 2014-07-09. ISBN 1-56432-234-3 ; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 99-63561 
  282. ^ Kemp, Susan. "Human Rights in Cuba". Human Rights & Human Welfare (University of Denver). This section provides General Background inform ation on the recent human rights situation in Cuba. The subcategory of Spanish Resources includes eight books on human rights in Cuba. The Socialism subcategory includes sources discussing th e changing political environment in Cuba since the Cold War and the impact of the instability of Cuba's socialist system. 
  283. ^ Suddath, Claire (2009-02-03). "The Day the Music Died (A Brief History)". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  284. ^ "George Reeves Biography". All Movie Guide via New York Times. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  285. ^ Patterson, John (2006-11-17). "Who killed Superman?". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  286. ^ Reid, Jefferson (September–October 2002). "The Revolution Will Be Televised: The top 10 counterculture characters in TV history.". Ogden Publications, Inc.,. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  287. ^ Kim Howard Johnson (1 April 2008). The Funniest One in the Room: The Lives and Legends of Del Close. Chicago Review Press. pp. 262–.  
  288. ^ Drury, Jeffrey P. (2006). "Paul Potter, "The Incredible War" (17 April 1965)". JP Drury via Central Michigan University. Retrieved 2014-09-22. Although the beginnings of the 1965 March on Washington can be located in a number of places, it is perhaps best to begin with the origins of the chief organization behind the march: the Students for a Democratic Society. As a social movement organization, the SDS grew out of a parent group founded in 1905 called the League for Industrial Democracy (LID). The LID embraced a largely socialist orientation toward democratic governance; the organization was initially called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society before changing its name in 1921. Many prominent political thinkers were members of the LID, including Upton Sinclair, Walter Lippmann, Michael Harrington, and John Dewey (who was president for a short time). Growing out of the larger organization, the student section of the LID--aptly titled the Student League for Industrial Democracy, or SLID--existed in early 1960 on only three campuses: Yale, Columbia, and the University of Michigan. As SDS historian Kirkpatrick Sale notes, the chapters at Columbia and Yale called themselves the "John Dewey Discussion Club," and all three existed with minimal recognition. 
  289. ^ Walker, Jack (1983-06). "The Origins and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America" (pdf). American Political Science Association. Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2014-09-22. From: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, (Jun., 1983), pp. 390-406 
  290. ^ Whicker, Alan; Jones, Wizz, et al (1960). "(Nominal) BBC Interview". BBC. Retrieved 2014-09-22. The original broacast air date of the report has not been verified. 
  291. ^ Thompson, Nathan (2014-06-08). "True secrets of psychedelics: Are they everything they’re cracked up to be?". Salon Media Group. Retrieved 2014-07-01. 
  292. ^ Sigel, Efrem (1962-12-12). "Psilocybin Expert Raps Leary, Alpert on Drugs". The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-01. Original article was updated on 2014-01-27 
  293. ^ "Freedom Struggle - Sitting for Justice: Woolworth’s Lunch Counter". A collective effort of the staff of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center via Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2014-09-22. On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their passive resistance and peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South. (text and photos) 
  294. ^ "Investigation is Ordered in Sit-In Demonstration". via wire service. 1960-03-26. Retrieved 2014-09-22. Governor Buford Ellington ordered today a full investigation into the activities of a television network camera crew... 
  295. ^ "SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)". North Carolina History Project via John Locke Foundation. Retrieved 2014-09-22. SNCC evolved out of that Easter weekend at Shaw University. Students in the SCLC had wished, for some time, for a student-led organization. (There were student chapters within the SCLC, but Martin Luther King, Jr. had not been pushing for an official student organization). Students wanted leadership opportunities and had different strategies than the SCLC leadership, which they believed moved toward progress at a glacial speed. At the 1960 Shaw meeting, students also expressed a fear that a strong centralized organization (even if student-led) would be a foe of democracy. Therefore, Baker and others established SNCC as a decentralized organization, with the national headquarters providing support and literature, including a newspaper, but not the strategy and leadership. 
  296. ^ Wise, David; Ross, Thomas (1962). The U-2 Affair (Bantam, 1962-11 ed.). New York: Random House / Bantam. Here, told for the first time, is the remarkable story behind the most explosive espionage case of the 20th century... 
  297. ^ Fink, Brenda (2011-09-29). "The pill and the marriage revolution". Clayman Institute / Stanford University. Retrieved 2014-11-26. The birth control pill arrived on the market in 1960. Within two years, 1.2 million American women were “on the pill.” By 1964, it was the most popular contraceptive in the country. Looking back, Americans credit—or blame—the pill with unleashing the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The pill is widely believed to have loosened sexual mores, including the double standard that sanctioned premarital sex for men but not for women. But, according to historian Elaine Tyler May, this idea is largely a myth. As May explained to a Stanford audience, the pill’s impact on the sexual revolution is unclear. What is clear is that the drug had a far greater impact within marriage itself. - See more at: 
  298. ^ "The Sixties: House Un-American Activities Committee" at
  299. ^ Carl Nolte (May 13, 2010). Black Friday,' birth of U.S. protest movement"'".  
  300. ^ Stack, Barbara. "HUAC Black Friday Police Riot - May 13, 1960 (Archival Material: Free Speech Movement)". Barbara Toby Stack. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  301. ^ Wooley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Election of 1960". Gerhard Peters - The American Presidency Project via University of California-Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  302. ^ "Key Counties May Indicate Closest Election Since 1916". AP via The Milwaukee Journal (Google capture). 1960-10-20. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  303. ^ Shribman, David (2010-10-24). "Nixon v. Kennedy: 50 years ago America chose between two men who were dramatically different -- and eerily similar". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette/PG Publishing Co. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  304. ^ White, Theodore H. (1961). The Making of the President 1960 (First ed.). New York: Atheneum House. p. 386.  
  305. ^ Jones, Carolyn (2010-01-07). "Human potential pioneer George Leonard dies". San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  306. ^ Martin, Douglas (2010-01-18). "George Leonard, Voice of ’60s Counterculture, Dies at 86". (The New York Times Co.). Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  307. ^ """President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961): On January 17, 1961, in this farewell address, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex.. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  308. ^ "President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)". The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  309. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address". Transcription as posted by  
  310. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  311. ^ Gunston, Bill (1973). Bombers of the West. New York: Scribner. p. 254.  
  312. ^ a b "International Drug Control Conventions". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  313. ^ Glines, Jr., Carroll V (1963). The Compact History of the United States Air Force (New & Revised, May, 1973 ed.). New York: Hawthorn Books. pp. 319–320.  
  314. ^ "The Bay of Pigs". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved 2014-09-22. Before his inauguration, John F. Kennedy was briefed on a plan by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) developed during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that the Cuban people and elements of the Cuban military would support the invasion. The ultimate goal was the overthrow of Castro and the establishment of a non-communist government friendly to the United States. 
  315. ^ Cia History Office Staff; Jack B. Pfeiffer (September 2011). CIA Official History of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Volume IV: The Taylor Committee Investigation of the Bay of Pigs. Military Bookshop.  
  316. ^ "The Freedom Rides: CORE Volunteers Put Their Lives on the Road". Congress of Racial Equality. Retrieved 2014-09-22. In 1961 CORE undertook a new tactic aimed at desegregating public transportation throughout the south. These tactics became know as the "Freedom Rides". The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten. Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders only two blocks from the sheriff's office. With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans. John Lewis, a former seminary student who would later lead SNCC and become a US congressman, stayed in Birmingham. CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country. They reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued. The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery they were savagely attacked by a mob of more than 1000 whites. The extreme violence and the indifference of local police prompted a national outcry of support for the riders, putting pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence. The riders continued to Mississippi, where they endured further brutality and jail terms but generated more publicity and inspired dozens more Freedom Rides. By the end of the summer, the protests had spread to train stations and airports across the South, and in November, the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities. 
  317. ^ "Berlin Crises". US Department of State. Retrieved 2014-09-22. At the Vienna Summit in June 1961, Khrushchev reiterated his threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany if the West did not come to terms over Berlin by the end of the year. Rather than submit to such pressure, President John F. Kennedy replied that it would be a "cold winter." When he returned to the United States, Kennedy faced instead a summer of decision. On July 25 he announced plans to meet the Soviet challenge in Berlin, including a dramatic buildup of American conventional forces and drawing the line on interference with Allied access to West Berlin. This warning, in fact, contained the basis for resolving the crisis. On August 13 the East German Government, supported by Khrushchev, finally closed the border between East and West Berlin by erecting what eventually became the most concrete symbol of the Cold War: the Berlin Wall. Although the citizens of Berlin reacted to the wall with outrage, many in the West--certainly within the Kennedy administration--reacted with relief. The wall interfered with the personal lives of the people but not with the political position of the Allies in Berlin. The result was a "satisfactory" stalemate--the Soviets did not challenge the legality of Allied rights, and the Allies did not challenge the reality of Soviet power. 
  318. ^ Kennedy, John F. "Report on the Berlin Crisis (July 25, 1961) by John F. Kennedy". Miller Center / University of Virginia. Retrieved 2014-09-22. So long as the Communists insist that they are preparing to end by themselves unilaterally our rights in West Berlin and our commitments to its people, we must be prepared to defend those rights and those commitments. We will at all times be ready to talk, if talk will help. But we must also be ready to resist with force, if force is used upon us. Either alone would fail. Together, they can serve the cause of freedom and peace. 
  319. ^ "The construction of the Berlin Wall". Governing Mayor of Berlin - Senate Chancellery. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  320. ^ Brian J. Collins (January 2011). NATO: A Guide to the Issues. ABC-CLIO. pp. 73–.  
  321. ^ File:EUCOM Checkpoint Charlie Standoff 1961.jpg
  322. ^ "Women Strike foir Peace". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 2014-09-22. On November 1, 1961, Women Strike For Peace (WSP) was inaugurated with a day-long strike by an estimated 50,000 women in 60 cities, all pressing for nuclear disarmament. The organization was composed primarily of mothers who feared the effects of nuclear proliferation on the short- and long-term health of their children. They were particularly concerned with levels of irradiation in milk and the increase in nuclear testing. WSP had the slogan “End the Arms Race – Not the Human Race,” as well as “Pure Milk, Not Poison.” Bella Abzug joined the group in its early organizational stages as an active participant in the New York contingent and as creator and chairperson of WSP’s legislative committee. By pushing the organization to incorporate legislative lobbying into its efforts, she helped it to become an effective political force. By 1964, the emphasis of Women Strike for Peace had shifted to focus as much on the Vietnam War as on disarmament, protesting against the draft and the war’s effects on Vietnamese children. Abzug remained active in WSP until she was elected to Congress in 1970. 
  323. ^ Marder, Dorothy. "Photographs of Dorothy Marder - Women Strike for Peace, 1961-1975". Elizabeth Matlock and Wendy Chmielewski via Swarthmore College (Swarthmore College Peace Collection). Retrieved 2014-09-22. Women Strike for Peace (WSP) was formed in 1961 after over 50,000 women across the country marched for peace and against above ground testing of nuclear weapons. By the mid 1960s the focus of the organization shifted to working against the Vietnam war. Dorothy Marder took photographs at many WSP demonstrations on the East Coast and her images appeared in WSP publications. Her photographs show the women behind WSP who wanted to protect their families from nuclear testing and a male-dominated militarism. Leaders of the organization include Dagmar Wilson, Bella Abzug, Amy Swerdlow, Cora Weiss, and many more are featured in Dorothy Marder's photography. 
  324. ^ "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation and Associated Documents". US Government via George Washington University. 1962-02-16. Retrieved 2014-11-26. 
  325. ^ Lansdale (1962-02-20). "[Internal Memo] The Cuba Project". US Government via George Washington University. p. 1. Retrieved 2014-11-26. 
  326. ^ "Betty Friedan and the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women". Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study / Harvard University. 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2014-11-26. Text & Video 
  327. ^ "American Women: Report of The President's Commission on the Status of Women. 1963" (PDF). US Government via University of Michigan via 1963. Retrieved 2014-11-26. Google digitized pdf from U-M library 
  328. ^ Buckingham, Jr., William (1983). "Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia". Air University Review. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  329. ^ "UN Session Seen as Help to U.S., Red Space Ties". AP via Schenectady Gazette. 1962-02-27. Retrieved 2014-06-03. 
  330. ^ "The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers of America". UFW. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  331. ^ "The Statement". University of Michigan Department of History. 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-21. The Port Huron Statement was the declaration of principles issued June 15, 1962, by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a major radical student organization in the United States during the 1960s. Having only a few hundred members across the country at the time the Statement was drafted, SDS drew tens of thousands of students into its ranks as the movement against the Vietnam War grew—before a deep factional split destroyed the organization in 1969. During SDS’s history of activism, 60,000 copies of the Statement were distributed. It has become a historical landmark of American leftwing radicalism and a widely influential discourse on the meaning of democracy in modern society. 
  332. ^ Lopez-Munoz, Francisco; Ucha-Udabe, Ronaldo; Alamo, Cecilio (2005-12). "The History of Barbiturates a Century after their Clinical Introduction". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (Dove Press via US National Institutes of Health) 1 (4): 329–343. Retrieved 2014-09-25. In relation to the frequent cases of death by overdose, given the small therapeutic margin of these substances, it should be pointed out that this was a common method in suicide attempts. It suffices to recall, in this regard, the famous case of Marilyn Monroe, on whose death certificate it clearly states “acute poisoning by overdose of barbiturates” (Figure 7). The lethal effect of these compounds was such that a mixture of barbiturates with other substances was even employed in some USA states for the execution of prisoners sentenced to death. Furthermore, there are classic reports of fatal overdose due to the “automatism phenomenon”, whereby the patient would take his or her dose, only to forget that he or she had already taken it, given the amnesic effect of the drug, and take it again, this process being repeated several times (Richards 1934). Figure 8 shows the evolution of number of deaths (accidental or suicide) by barbiturate overdose in England and Wales for the period 1905–1960. In this regard, and in the city of New York alone, in the period 1957–1963, there were 8469 cases of barbiturate overdose, with 1165 deaths (Sharpless 1970), whilst in the United Kingdom, between 1965 and 1970, there were 12 354 deaths attributed directly to barbiturates (Barraclough 1974). These data should not surprise us, since in a period of just one year (1968), 24.7 million prescriptions for barbiturates were issued in the United Kingdom (Plant 1981). In view of these data, the Advisory Council Campaign in Britain took measures restricting the prescription of these drugs. Meanwhile, the prescription of prolonged-acting sedative barbiturates was strongly opposed through citizens’ action campaigns such as CURB (Campaign on the Use and Restrictions of Barbiturates), especially active during the 1970s. 
  333. ^ "Top 10 Mistresses: #4, Marilyn Monroe". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-09-25. Monroe died later in 1962 of a drug overdose, but tales about her alleged fling with the President grew increasingly tall. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover tried to prove that the man on a secret FBI sex tape of Monroe was Kennedy, but he lacked definitive proof. Others claim Kennedy was involved in her death. Needless to say, the rumors are even less substantiated than the affair itself. 
  334. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Moon Speech - Rice Stadium". US National Aeronautical & Space Administration. 
  335. ^ Griswold, Eliza (2012-09-21). "How ‘Silent Spring’ Ignited the Environmental Movement". The New York Times Co. Retrieved 2014-06-03. 
  336. ^ James Meredith (7 August 2012). A Mission from God: A Memoir and Challenge for America. Simon and Schuster.  
  337. ^ "The Integration of Ole Miss (Historical video and text resources)". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  338. ^ "The Beatles' 'Love Me Do' Hits the Public Domain in Europe". Rolling Stone. 2013-01-12. 
  339. ^ "Aerial Photograph of Missiles in Cuba (1962): Instrumental in the early stages of the Cuban missile crisis, these photographs showed that the Soviet Union was amassing offensive ballistic missiles in Cuba. President John F. Kennedy warned that any attempt by the Soviet Union to place nuclear weapons in Cuba would be seen as a threat to the United States.". The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  340. ^ Schwartz, Stephen (August 1998). "Skybolt Air-Launched Ballistic Missile (AGM-48A) (Archive Document)". The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  341. ^ Anderson, Walter Truett. The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the American Awakening, Addison Wesley Publishing Company (1983, 2004) p. 64
  342. ^ Isserman, Maurice (2009-06-19). "Essay Michael Harrington: Warrior on Poverty". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Among the book’s readers, reputedly, was John F. Kennedy, who in the fall of 1963 began thinking about proposing anti­poverty legislation. After Kennedy’s assassination, Lyndon Johnson took up the issue, calling in his 1964 State of the Union address for an “unconditional war on poverty.” Sargent Shriver headed the task force charged with drawing up the legislation, and invited Harrington to Washington as a consultant. 
  343. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (2001-11-11). "Ken Kesey, Author of 'Cuckoo's Nest,' Who Defined the Psychedelic Era, Dies at 66". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-07. Ken Kesey, the Pied Piper of the psychedelic era, who was best known as the author of the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, died yesterday in a hospital in Eugene, Ore., said his wife, Faye. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore. 
  344. ^ a b Cochrane, Kira (2013-05-06). "1963: the beginning of the feminist movement - Fifty years on, we look back at the year that signalled the beginning of the modern era". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2014-06-03. 
  345. ^ Jesse Walker (1 June 2004). Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America. NYU Press. pp. 91–.  
  346. ^ Hinckley, David (2012-09-20). "Documentary 'Radio Unnameable' captures the wee-hour WBAI broadcasts of Bob Fass". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 2014-07-24. Legendary jock entertained and informed New Yorkers in the '60s and '70s by bringing on guests like Bob Dylan and Abbie Hoffman. 
  347. ^ Paul Lovelace & Jessica Wolfson (2012). Radio Unnameable (Film Documentary). New York: Lost Footage Films. 
  348. ^ File:President Kennedy American University Commencement Address June 10, 1963.jpg
  349. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Loengard, John. "Behind the Picture: Medgar Evers’ Funeral, June 1963 (Story and Photos)". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-25. In its June 28, 1963, issue, LIFE confronted the assassination with a combination of scorn (for the Klan and for white supremacists in general), anger (at the waste of such a life as Evers’) and an occasionally sardonic venom. 
  350. ^ Suarez, Ray. "Martin Luther King Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" Remembered". Public Broadcasting Service (US). Retrieved 2014-05-16. 
  351. ^ "Test Ban Treaty (1963):On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water.". The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  352. ^ Richard A. Reuss (2000). American Folk Music and Left-wing Politics, 1927-1957. Scarecrow Press. pp. 2–.  
  353. ^ Lane, Mark (1966). Rush to Judgment (Paperback, 1992 ed.). New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 7.  
  354. ^ Marrs, Jim (1989). "Preface". Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy (1st Paperback, 1990 ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf.  
  355. ^ "The Beatles". SOFA Entertainment. 2010. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  356. ^ Bronson, p. 145.
  357. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Sheraton Palace Demonstration, May 1964". University of California. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  358. ^ Green; Nicholas J. Karolides (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Censorship. Infobase Publishing. pp. 301–.  
  359. ^ "Jacobellis v. Ohio - 378 U.S. 184 (1964)". Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  360. ^ Stafford, Katrease (2014-07-22). "Grosse Pointe attorneys to look at legality of Metro Times ban". The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  361. ^ Krock, p.411
  362. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Filthy Speech Rally, Spring, 1965". University of California. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  363. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (20 May 2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 775–.  
  364. ^ Raasch, Chuck (2014-05-16). "Never trust anyone over 30? A second thought". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  365. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Vietnam Day, Spring, 1965". University of California. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  366. ^ "Unforgettable Change: 1960s: 1960s in Vietnam and in Berkeley (Text and Audio Content)". Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  367. ^ William E. Hudson (28 December 2007). The Libertarian Illusion: Ideology, Public Policy and the Assault on the Common Good. SAGE Publications. pp. 191–.  
  368. ^ "Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)". Harvard University Library. Retrieved 2014-08-13. In 1965, the Supreme Court decision in Griswold v. Connecticut legalized contraception for married couples. 
  369. ^ CNN (2014-08-07). "The Times they are a Changin'". The Sixties (Documentary Series). CNN.
  370. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (2005-06-13). "Snapshot: Allen Ginsberg at the Albert Hall". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  371. ^ Howard Smead (1 November 2000). Don't Trust Anyone Over Thirty: The First Four Decades of the Baby Boom. iUniverse. pp. 155–.  
  372. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (1963-06-11). "Dorothy Kilgallen's Voice of Broadway". Syndicated column via The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2014-07-10. New York hippies have a new kick - baking marijuana in cookies... 
  373. ^ Kathleen Fearn-Banks (15 November 2005). Historical Dictionary of African-American Television. Scarecrow Press. pp. 90–.  
  374. ^ Donna E. Alvermann (2002). Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. Peter Lang. pp. 68–.  
  375. ^ "The Who and the New Generation". University of Richmond (Digital Scholarship Lab). Retrieved 2014-07-26. “Things they do look awful c-cold,” Daltry continued stuttering, “Hope I die before I get old.” Daltry then screamed, drilling the purpose of the song into everyone’s heads, “This is my generation!” And this truly was the youths’ generation. All the years of old men from bygone eras had to pave way to Roger Daltry’s generation, for the young men and women of the Western world were finally speaking up and letting their voices be heard. “It’s my generation, baby,” Daltry repeated his mantra. 
  376. ^ ""The Mamas and the Papas, 'California Dreamin. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 2014-07-11. #89 of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time 
  377. ^  
  378. ^ Alan Clayson (2002). The Yardbirds: The Band that Launched Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page. Backbeat Books. pp. 107–.  
  379. ^ Gray, Madison (2011-08-11). "The Autobiography of Malcolm X"All-TIME 100 Nonfiction Books: #13, . Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-09-21. Malcolm X predicted that he would not live to see its publication, a prophecy fulfilled as friction between himself and the Nation of Islam, and a subsequent falling-out culminated in his 1965 assassination. But the pages chronicling the years leading up to it reveal the world of a man who had gone from being a hustler to being one of history’s most controversial civil rights icons. 
  380. ^ Manning, Marable; Goodman, Amy (2007-05-21). "Manning Marable on "Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention" (transcribed from radio program)". Retrieved 2014-09-21. But what we do know that is true is that when Malcolm is assassinated on February 21, 1965, within two-and-a-half weeks the original publisher, Doubleday, exes the deal on the book. And in early March '65, they cancel the contract. That's why the book is published at the end of the year by Grove, not Doubleday. It was the most disastrous decision in corporate publishing history. They lost millions of dollars on this. 
  381. ^ Hyde, Justin. "June 24: Ralph Nader wins Senate passage of Highway Safety Act on this date in 1966". Yahoo News / Motoramic. Retrieved 2014-06-25. Article includes video of Nader reflecting on auto safety legislation. 
  382. ^ Nader, Ralph (1965). Unsafe at Any Speed. New York: Grossman Publishers.  
  383. ^ US NHTSA. "Highway Safety Act of 1966, 23 USC Chapter 4, As Amended by SAFETEA-LU Technical Corrections Act of 2008, Revision June 2008". US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  384. ^ E .F. Schumacher: His Life and Thought by Barbara Wood. Harper & Row, 1984. ISBN 0-06-015356-3, (p. 348–349).
  385. ^ William S. McConnell (14 May 2004). The Counterculture Movement of the 1960s. Greenhaven Press.  
  386. ^ "Archived: Grateful Dead Live at Fillmore Auditorium on 1966-01-08". 1967. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  387. ^ Tom Wolfe (19 August 2008). The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 353–.  
  388. ^ William McKeen (2000). Rock and Roll is Here to Stay: An Anthology. Norton. pp. 173–.  
  389. ^ R. Serge Denisoff (1 January 1975). Solid Gold: The Popular Record Industry. Transaction Publishers. pp. 339–.  
  390. ^ "Song Stories: Eight Miles High". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  391. ^ Shapiro, Fred (2006). Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press.  
  392. ^ Bronson, p. 201
  393. ^ "Miranda v. Arizona; et al, Facts and Case Summary". Administrative Office of the US Courts. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  394. ^ Richie Unterberger (2002). Turn! Turn! Turn!: The '60s Folk-rock Revolution. Backbeat Books. pp. 234–.  
  395. ^ "Lenny Bruce, Uninhibited Comic, Found Dead in Hollywood Home". AP via New York Times Co. 1966-08-03. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  396. ^ Matier, Phillip; Ross, Andrew (2014-04-24). "Paul McCartney to play Candlestick's final show (with photo album including 1966 show)". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  397. ^ Ghosh, Palash (2012-08-29). "Beatles Last Concert At Candlestick Park: The Dream Is Over (Analysis)". International Business Times/IBT Media. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  398. ^ "Love Pageant". American Experience/PBS. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  399. ^ Caswell, Tasha (2014-09-14). Free Bobby, Free Ericka": The New Haven Black Panther Trials""". WNPR / Connecticut Public Broacasting. Retrieved 2014-10-06. The Black Panther Party, formed in 1966 in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, was a revolutionary socialist organization that strove to end the oppression of black people in the United States. It adopted a ten-point plan that called for autonomy, employment, free healthcare, decent housing, financial reparations for slavery, the end of police brutality against black people, the release of black prisoners from jails, fair trials, and black nationalism. In practice, the Panthers focused much of their attention on policing the police, often resorting to violence. The FBI had taken notice. J. Edgar Hoover said in 1968 that the Black Panther Party was “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country." By 1969, the Black Panther Party was well known nationally and had spread across the country. 
  400. ^ United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security (1970). The Black Panther Party, its origin and development as reflected in its official weekly newspaper, the Black panther: black community news service; staff study, Ninety-first Congress, second session. U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
  401. ^ "On this day in 1966: John meets Yoko". MacNeil / Lehrer Productions. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  402. ^ Rasmussen, Cecilia (2007-08-05). "'"Closing of club ignited the `Sunset Strip riots. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-10-06. Young rock fans take to the streets after the shuttering of Pandora's Box in 1966. The unrest inspired Stephen Stills' landmark anthem. 
  403. ^ John Einarson (1 January 2004). For What It's Worth: The Story of Buffalo Springfield. Cooper Square Press. pp. 125–.  
  404. ^ "Film Censorship: Noteworthy Moments in History". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2014-08-11. Rather than cut nude scenes from Blow-Up, Michelangelo Antonioni chooses to release it without an MPAA seal. 
  405. ^ "The Year of the Hippie/Summer of Love". American Experience/PBS. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  406. ^ Sanking, Aaron (2012-09-11). "Human Be-In Planned In Golden Gate Park This Weekend (PHOTOS)"., Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  407. ^ "Human Be-In". Amateur Footage Uploaded to Youtube by Author. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  408. ^ Wheeler Winston Dixon (1 December 2013). Cinema at the Margins. Anthem Press. pp. 36–.  
  409. ^ David Marc (1 January 2011). Demographic Vistas: Television in American Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 78–.  
  410. ^ Haripada Adhikary (2012). Unifying Force of Hinduism: The Harekrsna Movement. AuthorHouse. pp. 213–.  
  411. ^ File:1967 Mantra-Rock Dance Avalon poster.jpg
  412. ^ "Jefferson Airplane: Surrealistic Pillow". Rolling Stone. 1987-08-27. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  413. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1967-02-23). "A Special Supplement: The Responsibility of Intellectuals". NYREV, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  414. ^ Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  415. ^ Jeff Land (1999). Active Radio: Pacifica's Brash Experiment. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 118–.  
  416. ^ Scott, A.O. (2012-09-18). "Rekindling the Spirit of the ’60s, Even for Those Who Can’t Remember". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-26. On the night of Feb. 11, 1967, hundreds — maybe thousands — of people congregated in the international terminal of Kennedy Airport, not to embark on flights to far-flung places but rather, well, it isn’t entirely clear or relevant. The gathering was an impromptu party, a nonpolitical demonstration, a happening named, in the spirit of the times, a fly-in. Now we might be inclined to see it as a prehistoric flash mob, an example of the power of communication technology to create instantaneous, ephemeral but nonetheless meaningful communities. 
  417. ^ Christopher H. Sterling; Cary O'Dell (9 February 2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 311–.  
  418. ^ Greenfield, Robert (1971-08-19). "Keith Richard: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-07-03. From the Archives 
  419. ^ Sheila Whiteley (2 September 2003). The Space Between the Notes: Rock and the Counter-Culture. Routledge. pp. 66–.  
  420. ^ "Life Magazine Cover February 17, 1967". Life Magazine. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  421. ^ Ratliff, Ben (2012-01-11). "Present at the Counterculture's Creation". (The New York Times Co.). Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  422. ^ Horwitz, Jane (2006-09-05). "Backstage: She Hopes 'MacBird' Flies in a New Era". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  423. ^ McNeill, Don (1967-03-30). "'"The 1967 Central Park Be-In: A 'Medieval Pageant. Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  424. ^ Wainwright, Loudon (1967-03-31). The Strange New Love Land of the Hippies. (Time, Inc. (original article)). pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2014-10-05. Life Magazine via Google Books 
  425. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle (sourced)". Martin Luther King, Jr. Research & Education Center. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  426. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: The Pill". April 7, 1967. Retrieved 2010-03-20. 
  427. ^ "Photos: Nashville race riots 1967". Gannett ( 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  428. ^ """The MOBE: "What are we waiting for?. PBS / Independent Television Service (ITVS). Retrieved 2014-08-11. After the elections, the committee became the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which organized major anti-war demonstrations that took place in April 1967. In New York City, 400,000 protesters marched from Central Park to the United Nations, with speakers including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Stokely Carmichael. 75,000 gathered for a similar rally in San Francisco. 
  429. ^ Hlavaty, Craig (2014-04-28). "47 years ago today, Muhammad Ali refused the draft in Houston". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-10-05. (Report with photos) Forty-seven years ago today, Muhammad Ali made headlines for refusing to be drafted into the U.S. Army on the grounds of being a conscientious objector, and it all happened here in Houston. It would set off a chain of events that wouldn't cease until a 1971 Supreme Court decision reversed his conviction. 
  430. ^ Barry Miles (1 March 2010). London Calling: A Countercultural History of London since 1945. Atlantic Books, Limited. pp. 142–.  
  431. ^ Winkler, Adam (2011-07-24). "The Secret History of Guns". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 2014-10-10. It was May 2, 1967, and the Black Panthers’ invasion of the California statehouse launched the modern gun-rights movement. 
  432. ^ "Yarrowstalks Archives". Temple University. 1977. Retrieved 2014-10-14. Twelve issues of Yarrowstalks were published in Philadelphia from 1967 until 1975. Most of the activity was concentrated at the beginning of the period, in the heyday of underground press activity. The “summer of love” in 1967 saw the birth of about 100 underground publications nationwide, and Yarrowstalks was one of the first. It was the most physically appealing of the first wave in its creative use of color and artwork. In contrast to the other Philadelphia papers, Yarrowstalks leaned away from the politics. Like New York’s East Village Other and the San Francisco Oracle, Yarrowstalks was among the first underground paper to explore the graphic possibilities of cold-type offset printing. Color was splashed over pages with sketches and text. The Oracle, particularly, was responsible for making newspaper graphics an art form, and it published some of the most beautiful and trend-setting psychedelic art of the 1960s.Yarrowstalks was Philadelphia’s Oracle. It was the first of the undergrounds to publish the cartoons of Robert Crumb, an ex-Hallmark illustrator who has become the leading artist of underground “commix.” In his character, Mr. Natural, he captured the feeling of the movement. Mr. Natural graced Yarrowstalks that summer and subsequently appeared in most of the alternative publications in the country. 
  433. ^ Peter Hitchens (3 January 2013). The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment's Surrender to Drugs. A&C Black. pp. 107–.  
  434. ^ Reeves, Jay (2014-09-21). "Civil rights death investigations seem stalled". Clarion Ledger / Gannett. Retrieved 2014-10-14. An unknown number of slayings haven't gotten a look because the law doesn't cover any killings after 1969. That saddens people like Gloria Green-McCray, whose brother James Earl Green was shot to death on May 14, 1970, by police during a student demonstration at Jackson State University. The family never learned the name of the shooter, and no one was ever prosecuted. "We've never really got any closure because of the investigation not being thorough and everything just being kicked out," said Green-McCray. "It was like, 'Just another black person dead. I mean, so what?' " 
  435. ^ Tim Spofford (January 1988). Lynch Street: The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College. Kent State University Press. pp. 214–.  
  436. ^ Bryson, William (1967-05-22). "Texas Southern University: Born in Sin, A College Finally Makes Houston Listen". The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-15. Since this article was written, the situation at Texas Southern has become even worse. A policeman was killed in rioting last week, and 488 people were arrested. 
  437. ^ Zoch, Louis (2010-05). "Fallen Officers Remembered: Louis Kuba". Houston Police Officers' Union. Retrieved 2014-10-15. At 2:20 a.m., a group of officers were near the northwest corner of the University Center, lined up along a wall awaiting directions from supervisors at the scene. Chief Short, like all of the other officers, took cover wherever possible. The chief directed officers to fire only when fired upon and only above the building or directly at a known source of the gunfire. Reporters Charley Schneider of The Houston Post and Nick Gearhardt of KHOU-TV (Channel 11), were with this group of officers. Schneider said that there were two officers and a TV newsman in front of him. He said that Officer Louis Kuba was directly behind him with his hand on Schneider's shoulder. Heavy fire continued from the dorm and Schneider suddenly felt Kuba's hand become limp. Turning, he saw the officer slumping backward into Gearhardt's outstretched arms, an expressionless look on his face and blood pouring from his forehead. Schneider reported in a Post article the following day, "There was no riot at TSU. It was war." An ambulance rushed the wounded officer to Ben Taub General Hospital. He died at 8:38 a.m. from a bullet wound above his right eye. Quiet, easy-going, even-tempered, Officer Louis Raymond Kuba, only thirty-four days out of Class No. 34, was only twenty-five. 
  438. ^ Crane, Ralph (1967-04). "1967: Pictures from a Pivotal Year". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  439. ^ Andrew E. Hunt (1 May 2001). The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. NYU Press. pp. 11–12.  
  440. ^ "VVAW / FAQ / Who founded Vietnam Veterans Against the War?". Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Retrieved 2014-10-15. On June 1, 1967, six Vietnam veterans gathered in Barry's apartment to form VVAW. Another vet associated with the early days of VVAW is Carl Rogers. Rogers held a press conference upon his return from his Vietnam service as a chaplain's assistant announcing his opposition to the war. Barry recruited him and at some point he became "vice president" of VVAW. Other early influential members who are mentioned are David Braum, John Talbot, and Art Blank. Jan Barry also lists Steve Greene and Frank (Rocky) Rocks 
  441. ^ Walter C. Rucker; James N. Upton (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  442. ^ Weller, Sheila (2012-07). "Suddenly That Summer". Vanity Fair / Conde Nast. Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2014-06-23. It was billed as “the Summer of Love,” a blast of glamour, ecstasy, and Utopianism that drew some 75,000 young people to the San Francisco streets in 1967. Who were the true movers behind the Haight-Ashbury happening that turned America on to a whole new age? 
  443. ^ "'"500 Greatest Albums of All Time: #1- The Beatles, 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-10-18. At the same time, Sgt. Pepper formally ushered in an unforgettable season of hope, upheaval and achievement: the late 1960s and, in particular, 1967's Summer of Love. In its iridescent instrumentation, lyric fantasias and eye-popping packaging, Sgt. Pepper defined the opulent revolutionary optimism of psychedelia and instantly spread the gospel of love, acid, Eastern spirituality and electric guitars around the globe. No other pop record of that era, or since, has had such an immediate, titanic impact. This music documents the world's biggest rock band at the very height of its influence and ambition. 
  444. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford University Press. pp. 139–.  
  445. ^ Paul Hegarty; Martin Halliwell (23 June 2011). Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock since the 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 30–.  
  446. ^ "Photos: KFRC Fantasy Fair 1967 and Mountain Music Festival". Jefferson Airplane, Inc. 1967-06. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  447. ^ Barney Hoskyns (9 December 2010). Hotel California: The True-Life Adventures of Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young, Mitchell, Taylor, Browne, Ronstadt, Geffen, the Eagles, and Their Many Friends. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 17–.  
  448. ^ David S. Kidder; Noah D. Oppenheim (14 October 2008). The Intellectual Devotional Modern Culture: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently with the Culturati. Rodale. pp. 248–.  
  449. ^ Johnson Publishing Company (October 1995). Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 136–.  
  450. ^ Roger Beebe; Jason Middleton (5 September 2007). Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones. Duke University Press. pp. 256–.  
  451. ^ George Martin (15 October 1994). All You Need Is Ears: The Inside Personal Story of the Genius who Created The Beatles. St. Martin's Press. pp. 193–.  
  452. ^ Cullen, Tom A. (1967-09-14). "Americans in London - England is Hippie Heaven". Retrieved 2014-10-18. 
  453. ^ "Photos: Pot Rally at Hyde Park, London (July 16th, 1967)". The Herb Museum. Retrieved 2014-10-18. "July 1967: A 'Legalise Pot' rally is held in London's Hyde Park; an advertisement in The Times, sponsored by SOMA, a drug research organisation, states: 'The law against marijuana is immoral in principle and unworkable in practice.' Signatories include the Beatles, RD Laing and Graham Greene." - from 100 Years of Altered States, The Guardian Newspaper (July 21, 2002) 
  454. ^ "Photos and Detroit News page image captures". The Detroit News. July 1967. Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  455. ^ McGee, Frank (1967). """1967 NBC News Special Report: Summer '67 "What We Learned. NBC News. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  456. ^ "Beatles' manager Epstein dies". BBC. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  457. ^ Daniels, Maria, et al (1997). "OCTOBER 6, 1967 Death of the Hippie". PBS / American Experience (US). Retrieved 2014-10-24. Hippies stage a mock funeral to signal the end of San Francisco's overhyped, overattended hippie scene. As Mary Ellen Kasper will later recall, the message was, "Stay where you are! Bring the revolution to where you live." 
  458. ^ Goldstein, Richard (1967-10-19). "Love: A Groovy Idea While He Lasted". Village Voice, LLC. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
  459. ^ Bourne, Richard (1967-10-10). "Che Guevara, Marxist architect of revolution". Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2014-10-18. Rumours of disagreements with Castro grew. After months of mystery Castro announced that Guevara, who was known to have a garibaldian yearning to liberate the entire Latin American land mass, had resigned Cuban citizenship and left for "a new field of battle in the struggle against imperialism". [web story is reprint of original article] 
  460. ^ Richards, Harvey; Richards, Paul. "Stop the Draft, December, 1967 - Draft Cards Burning, Sit ins, Stop the Draft Week". Harvey Richards Media Archive / Paul Richards. Retrieved 2014-10-18. Photos & Text: top the Draft Week in December, 1967 at the Oakland Army Induction Center on Clay Street in downtown Oakland, California had many of the same actions that happened in October, 1967, just two months earlier. There was civil disobedience. Protesters blocked the doorway of the Center and were arrested. This time, protesters also sat down in front of the buses full of draftees. Draft eligible protesters publicly burned their draft cards in an open show of defiance against the draft and the laws that made it illegal to burn your draft card. Noticeably different in these photos is moderation of the police response. The streets were not cleared of protesters. Police did not stand with billy clubs at the ready. In the end, the draftees went into the center and the war machine continued. 
  461. ^ "1967: Joan Baez arrested in Vietnam protest". BBC. Retrieved 2014-1018. Rallies across America have taken place in 30 US cities, from Boston to Atlanta, to protest against the continuing war in Vietnam. In Oakland, California, at least 40 anti-war protesters, including the folk singer Joan Baez, were arrested for taking part in a sit-in at a military induction centre. As many as 250 demonstrators had gathered to try and prevent conscripts from entering the building when the arrests were made. The 'Stop the Draft Week' protests are forming part of a nationwide initiative organised by a group calling itself 'the Resistance'. Accompanied by singing from Ms Baez and others, the sitting protesters forced draftees to climb over them in order to get inside the building. As they entered they were handed leaflets asking them to change their minds, refuse induction and join the protests. Human barricade Police formed a human barricade to enable inductees to pass and then made their arrests. In New York, around 500 demonstrators marched to protest against the draft. Young men placed draft cards into boxes marked 'Resisters'. 181 draft cards and several hundred protest cards were presented to a US Marshal but he refused to accept them. The group then marched to a post office and posted them directly to the Attorney General in Washington. The anti-war movement took on an added gravity yesterday when Florence Beaumont, mother of two, burned herself to death. After soaking herself in petrol she set herself alight in front of the Federal Building, Los Angeles. Counter-demonstrations have been planned by the National Committee for Responsible Patriotism, based in New York. Parades have been scheduled for the weekend in support of "our boys in Vietnam". 
  462. ^ Sharin N. Elkholy (22 March 2012). The Philosophy of the Beats. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 239–.  
  463. ^ Leen, Jeff (1999-09-27). "The Vietnam Protests: When Worlds Collided". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-11. The Pentagon march was the culmination of five days of nationwide anti-draft protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam -- "the Mobe." But a singular spark was provided by the Youth International Party (Yippies), a fringe group whose leaders, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, had announced that they planned an "exorcism" of the Pentagon. They would encircle the building, chant incantations, "levitate" the structure and drive out the evil war spirits. 
  464. ^ Ron Chepesiuk (1 January 1995). Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era. McFarland. pp. 303–.  
  465. ^ "Huey P. Newton Biography: Civil Rights Activist (1942–1989)". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 2014-08-11. Newton himself was arrested in 1967 for allegedly killing an Oakland police officer during a traffic stop. He was later convicted of voluntary manslaughter and sentenced to two to 15 years in prison. But public pressure—"Free Huey" became a popular slogan of the day—helped Newton's cause. The case was eventually dismissed after two retrials ended with hung juries. 
  466. ^ Huey P. Newton (29 September 2009). Revolutionary Suicide: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). Penguin Group US.  
  467. ^ Wetzteon, Ross; Ortega, Tony (1967-11-16). "Not Everyone Loves You For Giving Things Away". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-08-15. Hippies' Free Store Not So Popular With Thugs (headline from Ortega's excerpt of original article, published by Village Voice 2010-03-24) 
  468. ^ Karch, Steven (2011). "A Historical Review of MDMA". Open Forensic Science Journal via Bentham Science. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  469. ^ Gross, Terry (1987-10-29). "'"Tom Wolfe: Chronicling Counterculture's 'Acid Test. National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2014-07-09. Fresh Air: Text & Audio of Interview w/Wolfe 
  470. ^ "Blue Cheer Biography". Rolling Stone Magazine. 2001. Retrieved 2014-07-09. Blue Cheer appeared in spring 1968 with a thunderously loud remake of Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" that many regard as the first true heavy-metal record. One of the first hard-rock power trios, the group was named for an especially high-quality strain of LSD. Its manager, Gut, was an ex-Hell's Angel. (This biography originally appeared in The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Simon & Schuster, 2001)) 
  471. ^ "‘Laugh-In’ Comic Alan Sues Dies At 85". CBS/AP. 2011-12-04. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  472. ^ Cheng, Jim (2008-05-26). Laugh-in' comic Dick Martin dies at 86"'". USA Today/Gannett. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  473. ^ Oberdorfer, Don (2004-11). "TET: Who Won?". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  474. ^ James Arnold (20 September 2012). Tet Offensive 1968: Turning point in Vietnam. Osprey Publishing. pp. 88–.  
  475. ^ Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (30 March 1968). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 35–.  
  476. ^ Bass, Jack (2003). "Documenting the Orangeburg Massacre". Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard / Harvard University. Retrieved 2014-07-09. Campus killings of black students received little news coverage in 1968, but a book about them keeps their memory alive. 
  477. ^ Hunter Davies (1985). The Beatles. W.W. Norton. pp. 234–.  
  478. ^ Raz, Guy (2009-07-18). "Final Words: Cronkite's Vietnam Commentary (Parting words from Walter Cronkite: His famous Vietnam commentary, originally aired on a special CBS News broadcast Feb. 27, 1968.)". NPR (US). Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  479. ^ Stephen L. Vaughn (12 September 2007). Encyclopedia of American Journalism. Routledge. pp. 127–.  
  480. ^ Franklin, Charles (2009-07-17). "Walter Cronkite, Most Trusted Man in America". Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  481. ^ Moyers, Bill (2008-03-28). "The Kerner Commission — 40 Years Later". Bill Moyers Journal / Public Affairs Television. Retrieved 2014-07-10. ...the Kerner Report, with its stark conclusion that "Our nation is moving towards two societies — one white, one black — separate and unequal" — was a best-seller. It was also the source of great controversy and remains so today. 
  482. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan; Siegel, Fred; Woodson, Robert (1998-06-24). "The Kerner Commission Report". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2014-07-10. This lecture was held at The Heritage Foundation on March 13, 1998. 
  483. ^ "3 Honored for Saving Lives at My Lai". The New York Times. 1998-03-07. Retrieved 2014-07-10. Thirty years after one of the darkest moments in United States military history, three soldiers who happened upon the My Lai massacre and risked their lives to save Vietnamese civilians by aiming their weapons at fellow Americans were proclaimed heroes today by the Army. 
  484. ^ William Thomas Allison (21 July 2012). My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. JHU Press. pp. 10–.  
  485. ^ "Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident: Vol. 1, the Report of the Investigation". United States Army. 1970-03-14. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  486. ^ "1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". BBC (UK). 2008. Retrieved 2014-07-10. The trouble followed a big rally in Trafalgar square, when an estimated 10,000 demonstrated against American action in Vietnam and British support for the United States. 
  487. ^ Kennedy, Robert Francis (1968-03-18). "Robert F. Kennedy Speeches: Remarks at the University of Kansas, March 18, 1968". John F. Kennedy Library & Museum. Retrieved 2014-07-10. I don't want to be part of a government, I don't want to be part of the United States, I don't want to be part of the American people, and have them write of us as they wrote of Rome: "They made a desert and they called it peace." 
  488. ^ McNeill, Don; Ortega, Tony (1968-03-28). "The Grand Central Riot: Yippies Meet the Man". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-07-27. Clip Job: Yip-In Turns Into Bloody Mess as Police Riot at Grand Central (headline from archived article published 2010-04-10) 
  489. ^ Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 752–.  
  490. ^ Boxer, Tim. "Photo: Yippies In Grand Central Station". Getty Images. Retrieved 2014-07-10. Caption:Members of the Youth International Party, or Yippies, gathering Grand Central Station for a sit-down demonstration New York, New York, March 22, 1968. (Photo by Tim Boxer/Pictorial Parade/Getty Images) 
  491. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines (1968-03-31). "Presidential Johnson's Address to the Nation, 3/31/68". The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library (video via Youtube). Retrieved 2014-07-10. I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president. 
  492. ^ Campbell, Howard (2012-09-12). "Larry Marshall makes sweet Nanny Goat". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 2014-07-11. The song he recorded at Dodd's Studio One was Nanny Goat which some musicologists and reggae historians say is the first reggae song. Others argue that Toots and the Maytals' Do The Reggay, also done in 1968, and Games People Play by Bob Andy the following year, marked the transition from rocksteady to reggae. But for most, Nanny Goat was the game-changer. 
  493. ^ Kevin O'Brien Chang; Wayne Chen (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Temple University Press. pp. 129–.  
  494. ^ Don Voorhees (4 October 2011). The Super Book of Useless Information: The Most Powerfully Unnecessary Things You Never Need to Know. Penguin. pp. 123–.  
  495. ^ Cox Commission (1968). Crisis at Columbia (Cox Commission Report) (Paperback) (First Vintage Press, 1968 ed.). Random House. p. 222. Report of the Fact Finding Commission Appointed to Investigate the Disturbances at Columbia University in April and May 1968 
  496. ^ "Reservists Lose Plea, High Court OK's Vietnam Duty". AP via Milwaukee Journal. 1968-10-28. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  497. ^ Pear, Robert (1981-07-12). "Plan to Merge FBI and Drug Agency Pressed (Special to the NY Times)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-11. The Bureau of Narcotics, a Treasury Department agency established in 1930, was combined in 1968 with the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control, a unit of the Food and Drug Administration, to form the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, within the Justice Department. Then, with the transfer of more than 500 narcotics investigators from the Treasury's old Bureau of Customs, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created in 1973. 
  498. ^ "Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial". The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  499. ^ Flock, Elizabeth (2012-04-12). "Martin Luther King assassination in 1968 a ‘cruel and wanton act’". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-09. After King’s death, riots spread through Memphis. Some 4,000 National Guard troops were ordered into the city, and a curfew was imposed on the city...The riots soon spread across the nation— to Chicago, Baltimore, Kansas City and Washington, D.C. 
  500. ^ "Interview: Eldridge Cleaver". PBS / Frontline (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. Bobby Hutton didn't get wounded during the shootout, but they murdered him after we were in custody. 
  501. ^ "Youth: The Politics of YIP" (April 5, 1968). Time Magazine. April 5, 1968. Vol. 91 No. 41 
  502. ^ Law, Lisa. "Photo: Easter Sunday Love-In, Malibu Canyon, California, 1968. This was a celebration of the counterculture movement.". Lisa Law. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  503. ^ Emmis Communications (November 1991). Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. pp. 118–.  
  504. ^ Alverson, Brigid. "Felix Dennis, defendant in Rupert Bear obscenity case, dies". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  505. ^ Poggioli, Sylvia (2008-05-13). "Marking the French Social Revolution of '68". Morning Edition /National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. Audio, Text & Photos 
  506. ^ "People & Events: Paris Peace Talks". PBS/WGBH/American Experience (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  507. ^ Robert Dallek (19 March 1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973. Oxford University Press. pp. 738–.  
  508. ^ Christine Bragg (2005). Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy 1945-75. Heinemann. pp. 153–.  
  509. ^ Catonsville 9" All Get Prison""". AP via Milwaikee Journal. 1968-11-08. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  510. ^ "Rioting in Louisville, KY (1968)". University of Kentucky. 2003–2014. Retrieved 2014-07-11. The skirmish escalated, growing into a full-fledged riot in the West End, lasting for almost a week. Six units of the national guard, over 2,000 guardsmen, were ordered to Louisville. Looting and shooting occurred, buildings were burned, two teens were killed, and 472 people were arrested 
  511. ^ a b Robert Niemi (1 January 2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305–.  
  512. ^ Smith, Jack (1968-06-03). "(Photo:Andy Warhol being lifted into an ambulance after he was shot, June 3, 1968". The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  513. ^ Granberry, Michael (2014-06-05). "Forty-six years ago today, an assassin shot Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, stamping 1968 as the year that forever changed America". The Dallas Morning News Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  514. ^ Christopher P. Lehman (26 October 2006). American Animated Cartoons of the Vietnam Era: A Study of Social Commentary in Films and Television Programs, 1961-1973. McFarland. pp. 116–.  
  515. ^ "The Beatles' 1968 Pop Art masterpiece Yellow Submarine has been digitally restored and re-released to huge acclaim". Apple Corps. 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  516. ^ Günter Bischof; Stefan Karner; Peter Ruggenthaler (2010). The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Rowman & Littlefield.  
  517. ^ Kenneth Womack; Todd F. Davis (1 February 2012). Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four. SUNY Press. pp. 149–.  
  518. ^ "Whole Earth History: 1968 to 1988". New Whole Earth LLC. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 1968: Stewart Brand initiates The Whole Earth Catalog as "a Low Maintenance, High Yield, Self Sustaining, Critical Information Service." Self-published, with no advertising, it sold 1000 copies at $5 each. 
  519. ^ "Oct 18, 1968: John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrested for drug possession". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  520. ^ Burley, Leo (2008-03-09). "Jagger vs Lennon: London's riots of 1968 provided the backdrop to a rock'n'roll battle royale". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 2014-07-11. Forty years ago, the world was on the brink of revolution. But while Mick was urging insurrection on the streets of London, John was preaching peace and love. In a series of incendiary, rediscovered interviews, Jagger and Lennon reveal themselves as never before or since: battling one another for the soul of rock'n'roll 
  521. ^ "Cold War Chronicles: The Films of Emile de Antonio". Harvard Film Archive. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  522. ^ "Oct 31, 1968: President Johnson announces bombing halt". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  523. ^ "Material at the LBJ Library Pertaining to the October 31, 1968 Bombing Halt". Lyndon Baines Johnson Library & Museum. Retrieved 2014-07-10. This list highlights several key files that contain material on the October 31, 1968, bombing halt. 
  524. ^ "Nixon wins heated battle". Walker County Messager via Google News. 1968-11-06. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 25 years ago... 
  525. ^ "Poltical Round: Humphrey, Nixon, Wallace". AP via Washington Observer-Reporter. 1968-10-19. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  526. ^ Springer, Denize (2008-09-22). "Campus commemorates 1968 student-led strike". SF State News (University Communications). Retrieved 2014-07-11. The five-month event defined the University's core values of equity and social justice, laid the groundwork for establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies... 
  527. ^ Schevitz, Tanya (2008-10-26). "S.F. State to mark 40th anniversary of strike". San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved 2014-07-11. Pioneer in ethnic studies: Early in 1969, the university agreed to many of the student demands, including the establishment of the nation's first and only college of ethnic studies. The strike ended March 20. 
  528. ^ Linda Martin; Kerry Segrave (1993). Anti-rock: The Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll. Perseus Books Group. pp. 187–188.  
  529. ^ John Lennon (1 October 2013). Skywriting by Word of Mouth. HarperCollins. pp. 18–.  
  530. ^ File:TwoVCover.jpg
  531. ^ "The Beatles (White Album): Releases". All Music. Retrieved 2014-07-11. Release Date: November 22, 1968 
  532. ^ "The Earthrise Photograph". 1968-12-24. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  533. ^ "ACLU History". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  534. ^ Fawcett, Anthony (1976). "THE PEACE POLITICIAN – THE BED-INS-AMSTERDAM AND MONTREAL". Grove Press via Imagine Peace. Retrieved 2014-07-16. From the (Anthony Fawcett) book One Day at a Time 
  535. ^ Marc Jason Gilbert (2001). The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 121–.  
  536. ^ "This Day in History. Vietnam War:Westmoreland requests more troops". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-08-13. Gen. William Westmoreland, senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam, sends a new troop request to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Westmoreland stated that he needed 542,588 troops for the war in Vietnam in 1967--an increase of 111,588 men to the number already serving there. In the end, President Johnson acceded to Westmoreland's wishes and dispatched the additional troops to South Vietnam, but the increases were done in an incremental fashion. The highest number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam was 543,500, which was reached in 1969. 
  537. ^ Lennon, John; Lennon, Yoko Ono (1969-05). "Bed Peace". Bag Productions / Yoko Ono Lennon. Retrieved 2014-07-16. In 1969, John and I were so naïve to think that doing the Bed-In would help change the world. Well, it might have. But at the time, we didn’t know. It was good that we filmed it, though. The film is powerful now. What we said then could have been said now...-Yoko Ono Lennon, 2014.(Film hosted on Youtube.) 
  538. ^ Elizabeth L. Wollman (6 November 2006). The Theater Will Rock: A History of the Rock Musical, from Hair to Hedwig. University of Michigan Press. pp. 77–.  
  539. ^ "Brian Jones: Sympathy for the Devil". Rolling Stone. 1969-08-09. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  540. ^ Helmut Staubmann (3 June 2013). The Rolling Stones: Sociological Perspectives. Lexington Books. pp. 123–.  
  541. ^ "Rolling Stones to return to Hyde Park". BBC. 2003-04-03. Retrieved 2014-10-22. The Rolling Stones are to perform in London's Hyde Park for the first time since a legendary free concert for an estimated 250,000 people in 1969. The outdoor gig will take place on 6 July, a week after the group's first appearance at the Glastonbury festival. The rock legends famously played in the park just two days after death of guitarist Brian Jones in July 1969. 
  542. ^ Wilford, John Noble (1969). We Reach the Moon. New York: New York Times / Bantam. p. XV.  
  543. ^ "Charles Manson Biography: Charles Manson is an American cult leader whose followers carried out several notorious murders in the late 1960s and inspired the book Helter Skelter.". A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  544. ^ Woods, William Crawford (2013-08-08). """From the Stacks (January 4, 1975): "Demon in the Counterculture. The New Republic. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  545. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony (2009-08-01). "Peace, Love and Charlie Manson: The Anti-Woodstock?". The New York Times Co. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  546. ^ Christopher Gair (2007). The American Counterculture. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 205–.  
  547. ^ "Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)". BBC. Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  548. ^ "Linkletter blames LSD for death of daughter". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  549. ^ "Photos: Days of Rage". Chicago Tribune. 1969. Retrieved 2014-06-13. 
  550. ^ Savio, Jessica (2011-04-01). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". The Daily Bruin. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
  551. ^ Skarda, Erin (2011-06-28). "Moratorium Against the Vietnam War, Nov. 15, 1969". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-16. In the frigid fall of 1969, more than 500,000 people marched on Washington to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. It remains the largest political rally in the nation's history. 
  552. ^ Ian Inglis; Norma Coates (2006). "Chapter 6". Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 58–.  
  553. ^ Buckley, Jr., William F. (1970-12-10). "Altamont was Funeral for the Woodstock Nation". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 2014-07-03. Re: release of 'Gimme Shelter' 
  554. ^ "Midnight Cowboy". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2014-07-27. 1969 was an interesting turning point in American cinema and no film better reflects that than Midnight Cowboy. Not only was it the first X-rated film to win the Best Picture Oscar but it presented a view of New York City that was the most bleak and depressing portrait since Ray Milland hit every seedy Manhattan bar in The Lost Weekend (1945). 
  555. ^ Keith M. Booker (17 March 2011). Historical Dictionary of American Cinema. Scarecrow Press. pp. 25–.  
  556. ^ "May 4 Sequence of Events". kentwired. 2010-05-04. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  557. ^ Bhatia, Kabir (2013-05-03). "Dean Kahler: visitors' Center helps him move past May 4, 1970". WKSU Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  558. ^ Jennings, Peter; Jarriel, Tom (1970-05-09). "5/9/1970: Nationwide Student Strike". ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved 2014-09-26. Students gather to protest the invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State massacre. (Archival footage including speeches by Benjamin Spock, Jane Fonda, and Ron Young). 
  559. ^ McNichol, Tom (2011-11-14). "I Am Not a Kook: Richard Nixon's Bizarre Visit to the Lincoln Memorial". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  560. ^ Suarez, Ray (2011-11-25). "New Nixon Tapes Reveal Details of Meeting With Anti-War Activists (Text & Video)". PBS Newshour. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  561. ^ Getlen, Larry (2014-08-31). "How Dock Ellis Dropped Acid and Threw a Ho-Hitter". The New York Post. Retrieved 2014-09-04. Later in life, Ellis, who ultimately got straight and became a drug counselor, expressed shame about what he had done. While the LSD no-hitter kept him in the public eye, he came to see it not as a point of pride, but as a sign that his drug use might have robbed him of his greatest professional memory. 
  562. ^ Witz, Billy (2010-09-04). "For Ellis, a Long, Strange Trip to a No-Hitter". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-09-21. But it was Ellis’s claim, after he retired, that he threw his no-hitter while under the influence of LSD that cemented his standing as an icon of the sport’s counterculture era, making him an intriguing figure to artists, musicians, filmmakers and journalists — even after his death. 
  563. ^ Michael Howard Holzman (2008). James Jesus Angleton, the CIA, and the Craft of Counterintelligence. Univ of Massachusetts Press. pp. 273–.  
  564. ^ Loch K. Johnson (1989). America's Secret Power. Oxford University Press. pp. 155–.  
  566. ^ "Sterling Hall bombing: Seven men linked by a moment in history". Wisconsin State Journal. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  567. ^ Breasted, Mary; Ortega, Tony (1970-09-30). "Women on the March: 'We're a Movement Now!'-1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  568. ^ Eder, Bruce. "Jesus Christ Superstar". AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  569. ^ Christine Wallace (1 July 2013). Germaine Greer: Untamed Shrew. Pan Macmillan Australia. pp. 184–.  
  570. ^ "'"Trudeau Reflects On Four Decades Of 'Doonesbury. NPR Morning Edition. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  571. ^ Carlson, Peter. "When Elvis Met Nixon". Retrieved 2014-07-27. From the Archives: A bizarre encounter between the president and the king of rock and roll 
  572. ^ File:Elvis-nixon.jpg
  573. ^ Jordan Goodman. Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Granite Hill Publishers. pp. 676–.  
  574. ^ Ray Broadus Browne; Pat Browne (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. pp. 744–.  
  575. ^ Silver, Michael (2003-11-19). "Where Were You on March 8, 1971?". ESPN Classic. Retrieved 2014-06-27. The country was split between those supporting our efforts in Vietnam and those opposed to the war. Hawks, doves, hard hats, flower children, black power, Woodstock, Kent State and the silent majority were bywords for the most divisive American decade since the American Civil War some 100 years earlier. 
  576. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank (2014-04-14). "When politics enter the playing field". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2014-06-27. People forget the intensity of opposing passions in 1971. No one was neutral. Friends and families were bitterly divided. If you supported the Vietnam War, you supported Frazier. And if you opposed it, you were in the corner of Ali, who had forfeited his title for refusing military induction in 1967. 
  577. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Shearer, John. "Ali, Frazier and the ‘Fight of the Century’: A Photographer Remembers Read more: Ali-Frazier: Rare and Classic Photos From the ‘Fight of the Century’ (w/Text)". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-27. Long before the first bell of their March 1971 fight sounded, the contest was billed as “The Fight of the Century” and, amazingly, it lived up to the hype. That night, a star-studded crowd watched two of the greatest fighters who ever lived battle for supremacy in the world’s premier sports arena. Read more: Ali-Frazier: Rare and Classic Photos From the ‘Fight of the Century’ 
  578. ^ Sheehan, Neil; Smith, Hedrick; Kenworthy, E.W.; Butterfield, Fox (1971). The Pentagon Papers. New York: New York Times/Bantam. The Secret History of the Vietnam War. The Complete and Unabridged Series as Published in the New York Times. With key documents and 64 page of photographs 
  579. ^ Mitchell K. Hall (29 September 2005). Crossroads: American Popular Culture and the Vietnam Generation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 166–.  
  580. ^ Krogh, Egil (2007-06-30). "The Break-In That History Forgot". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-28. The premise of our action was the strongly held view within certain precincts of the White House that the president and those functioning on his behalf could carry out illegal acts with impunity if they were convinced that the nation’s security demanded it. As President Nixon himself said to David Frost during an interview six years later, “When the president does it, that means it is not illegal.” To this day the implications of this statement are staggering. 
  581. ^ "Est History Is Short but Successful". (Los Angeles Times). 1986-04-27. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  582. ^ Alinsky, Saul D. (1971). Rules for Radicals (A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals) (Vintage Books Edition, March, 1972 ed.). New York: Random House/Vintage.  
  583. ^ "OBOS Timeline: 1969-Present". Our Bodies Ourselves. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  584. ^ Jon Wiener (22 December 1999). Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files. University of California Press. pp. 24–.  
  585. ^ Gentry, Curt (1991). J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (First Plume, 1992-09 ed.). New York: Norton/Penguin/Plume. p. 33.  
  586. ^ Henry Kissinger (11 February 2003). Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America's Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 591–.  
  587. ^ Edward W. Knappman, ed. South Vietnam: Volume 7, US-Communist Confrontation in Southeast Asia 1972–1973. p. 226.
  588. ^ McBride, Alex (2006-12). "Roe v. Wade (1973)". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  589. ^ Donald E. Lively; Russell L. Weaver (1 January 2006). Contemporary Supreme Court Cases: Landmark Decisions Since Roe V. Wade. Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  590. ^ Sprovtsoff, Rachel. "Ron "Pigepen" McKernan - Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-05-02. 
  591. ^ "Greece Marks '73 Student Uprising". Athens News (Athens, Greece). 1999-11-17. Archived from the original on 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2014-04-23. The Polytechnic Uprising, as it has come to be known, dealt a blow to the self-confidence of the junta leaders and led directly to the toppling of the dictator and chief putschist of the April 21, 1967, coup d'etat that brought the junta to power, Colonel George Papadopoulos. 
  592. ^ Kilpatrick, Carroll (1973-11-18). "'"Nixon Tells Editors, 'I'm Not a Crook. The Washington Post Co. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  593. ^ "Mama Cass". A&E Networks. 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  594. ^ Hunter, Marjorie (1974-09-17). "Ford Offers Amnesty Program Requiring 2 Years Public Work; Defends His Pardon Of Nixon". The New York Times Co. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  595. ^ File:George Harrison 1974 edited.jpg
  596. ^ "January 27, 1975 Church Committee Created". US Senate. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  597. ^ Lee, Vic (January 2, 2007). "Interview: Woman Who Tried To Assassinate Ford". San Francisco: KGO-TV. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  598. ^ "Patti's Twisted Journey". Time. September 29, 1975. 
  599. ^ "New York Judge Reverses John Lennon's Deportation order". History Channel/A&E Networks. 
  600. ^ Glass, Andrew (2008-01-21). "Carter pardons draft dodgers Jan. 21, 1977". The Politico/Allbritton Communications Company. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  601. ^ Wattenberg, Ben; Wattenberg, Daniel (1997-08-19). "The Social Revolutionary who Rejected his Progeny". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2014-09-04. More than any other man, Elvis Presley has been assigned ultimate paternity for the children of the '60s. He introduced the beat to everything and changed everything -- music, language, clothes; it's a whole new social revolution -- the '60s come from it, said composer Leonard Bernstein. Before Elvis, there was nothing, the decade's most representative child, John Lennon, once said. But Elvis repudiated his progeny. Religious, anti-communist, unconflicted capitalist to the end, he neither aligned himself with the Woodstock generation's politics nor joined their countercultural party. 
  602. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (1 October 2008). Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Americans. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. pp. 435–.  
  603. ^ "John Lennon Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-08-11. But on December 8, 1980, Lennon, returning with Ono to their Dakota apartment on New York City's Upper West Side, was shot seven times by a 25-year-old drifter and Beatles fan to whom Lennon had given an autograph a few hours earlier. Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. On December 14, at Ono's request, a 10-minute silent vigil was held at 2 p.m. EST in which millions around the world participated. 



  • November 27: Gay rights acitvist and member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from District 5 Dan White.


  • January 21: Newly inaugurated US President Jimmy Carter unconditionally pardons thousands of Vietnam draft evaders, allowing them to re-enter the US, mostly from Canada.[600]
  • August 16: Elvis Presley, the most significant progenitor of the rock era and an early critic of the counterculture, dies at age 42 from complications of prescription drug abuse in Memphis, TN.[601][602]


  • January 1: John Mitchell and three other Watergate conspirators are found guilty and sentenced to prison Feb. 21.
  • January 27: Church Committee: The US Senate votes to begin unprecedented investigation into US intelligence activities, including illegal spying on domestic radicals.[596]
  • January 29: Weather Underground bomb at the US State Department, none injured.
  • April 30: Operation Frequent Wind: The last remaining US military and intelligence personnel escape Saigon as South Vietnam is invaded by communist forces, in direct violation of the Peace Accords.
  • July 28–39: Livernois–Fenkell riot in Detroit; one person killed.
  • September 5 & 22: President Ford survives assassination attempts by two women in one month.[597]
  • September 18: Patty Hearst is arrested by the FBI.[598]
  • October 7: A New York State Supreme Court judge reverses the deportation order against John Lennon, allowing Lennon to legally remain in the US.[599]


  • January 3: A Federal judge dismisses charges against 12 members of the Weathermen involved in the October 1969 "Days of Rage".
  • February 5: Patty Hearst is kidnapped by extremist group Symbionese Liberation Army and joins them, possibly after becoming a victim of Stockholm Syndrome.
  • March–April: Short-lived fad of "streaking" is at its height in the US.
  • April 20: Disco music, following the success of "Love Train" a year earlier, again hits number one on the Billboard charts with "TSOP", a clear sign that the post-"sixties counterculture" era is now at hand. The punk rock subculture also traces its genesis to around this time, with groups like Ramones and Television playing the CBGB club in NYC.
  • May 17: Six SLA members are killed fighting police in Los Angeles.
  • Summer: First issue of High Times is published.
  • July 29: Singing star "Mama" Cass Elliot, age 32, dies from heart failure in Mayfair, London.[593]
  • August 8: Facing imminent impeachment, Richard Nixon announces he will resign as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as president on August 9 and declares "our long national nightmare is over."
  • September–December: Police repeatedly quell unrest as desegregation comes to Boston high schools.
  • September 8: President Ford fully pardons former president Nixon.
  • September 16: President Ford offers conditional amnesty to military deserters and evaders of the Vietnam era draft, creating a path for re-entry into the US.[594]
  • December 13: President Ford invites George Harrison to luncheon at the White House.[595]
  • December 21: The New York Times reports that the CIA illegally spied on 10,000 anti-war dissidents under Nixon's presidency.


  • January 1: Bangladeshis burn down the US Information Service in Dacca in protest of the bombing of North Vietnam.
  • January 2: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam resumes after a 36-hour New Year's truce.
  • January 4: Forty neutral member nations of the UN formally protest the US bombing campaign.
  • January 5: Canada's Parliament votes unanimously to condemn US bombing actions and calls for them to cease.
  • January 10: Anti-war demonstrators attack US consulate in Lyons, France, and burn down the library of America House in Frankfurt, West Germany.
  • January 15: Anti-war protesters occupy US consulate in Amsterdam.
  • January 15: President Nixon suspends the bombing, citing progress in the Peace talks with Hanoi. West German Chancellor Willy Brandt warns Nixon that US relations with Western Europe are at risk.[587]
  • January 22: Former US President Lyndon B. Johnson dies of cancer at his Texas ranch.
  • January 22: The US Supreme Court rules on Roe v. Wade, effectively legalizing abortion.[588][589]
  • January 28: US combat military involvement in Vietnam ends with a ceasefire, and commencement of withdrawal as called for under the Paris Peace Accords.
  • February 27-May 8: Wounded Knee incident: Native American activists occupy the town of Wounded Knee, SD; 2 protesters and 1 US Marshal are killed during a lengthy standoff.
  • March: The first military draftees who are not subsequently called to service are selected, unceremoniously ending the Vietnam era of conscription in the US.
  • March 8: Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, a founding member of the Grateful Dead, dies of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage at age 27 in Corte Madera, CA.[590]
  • March 29: Last US combat troops leave Vietnam as US POWs have been released.
  • May 17: The Senate Watergate Committee begins televised hearings on the ever-growing Watergate scandal implicating the President for gross abuses of power.
  • July 1: The Drug Enforcement Administration supplants the BNDD.
  • July 28: Summer Jam at Watkins Glen, NY draws 600,000 to see the Grateful Dead, the Band, and the Allman Brothers - the largest such gathering in the US since Woodstock.
  • August 15: All US military involvement in Indochina conflict officially ends under the Case–Church Amendment.
  • October 10: Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns. President Nixon names Gerald Ford to replace Agnew on October 12.
  • October 23: Congress begins to consider articles of impeachment against Nixon.
  • November 14: Greece: Students at Athens Polytechnic strike against the military junta. Tanks roll the 17th and at least 24 die.[591]
  • November 17: At a session with 400 AP editors, President Nixon states, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got."[592]


  • March: The Nixon administration begins deportation proceedings against John Lennon, on the pretext of his 1968 marijuana charge in London.[584]
  • March 22: The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, appointed by President Nixon, finds "little danger" in cannabis, recommending abolition of all criminal penalties for possession.
  • April 16: Facing heavy ground losses, US forces resume the bombing of Northern Vietnam.
  • April 17–18: Students at University of Maryland protesting the bombing battle with police and National Guard are sent in.
  • April 22: Large anti-war marches in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
  • May 2: FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover dies at 77, after nearly 50 years as the top US law enforcement official.[585]
  • May 19: Weather Underground bomb at the Pentagon causes damage but no injuries.
  • May 21–22: 15,000 demonstrate in Washington against the war.
  • June 4: Angela Davis is acquitted on all counts in her weapons trial.
  • June 12: John Lennon's Plastic Ono Band releases the politically charged double album Some Time in New York City.
  • June 17: The Watergate burglars are arrested in Washington, DC.
  • July 28: Actress Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam. Her return incites outrage when she insists that POWs held captive have not been tortured or brainwashed by the communists.
  • July: The first Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes is held over 4 days in Colorado, US.
  • October 26: October Surprise?: US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger tells a White House press conference that "we believe that peace is at hand."[586]
  • November 2–8: About 500 protesters from the American Indian Movement take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington.
  • November 7: Republican Richard Nixon is re-elected in a landslide over progressive democrat Senator George McGovern.
  • November 16: Police kill 2 students during campus rioting at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • November 21: A Federal Appeals Court overturns the conviction of the "Chicago 7" members.
  • December 18–29: US Operation Linebacker II becomes most intensive bombing campaign of the war.
  • The Joy of Sex: Unthinkable a decade earlier, the widely read sex manual for the liberated 1970s is published and openly displayed in mainstream bookstores.
  • Michael X, a self-styled black revolutionary and civil rights activist in 1960s London, is convicted of murder. He was executed by hanging in Spain in 1975.


  • January 2: The ban on cigarette advertising on US TV and radio takes effect.[573]
  • January 12: Styled after the UK TV hit Till Death Us Do Part, the long-running US smash All in the Family debuts with Rob Reiner as Michael Stivic, the counterculture's college-educated answer to the working-class Archie Bunker.[574]
  • January 31: Police fire on a peace march in Los Angeles, killing one.
  • February 4: A military induction center in Oakland, CA is bombed.
  • February 4–8: Rioting in Wilmington, NC leaves 2 dead.
  • February 13: An induction center in Atlanta, GA is bombed.
  • February 21: The UN [312]
  • March 1: The US Capitol building is bombed by war protesters; no injuries, but extensive damage results.
  • March 5: The FCC says that it can penalize radio stations for playing music that seems to glorify or promote illegal drug usage.
  • March 8: The Fight of the Century: Conscientious Objector and counterculture hero Muhammad Ali loses to default symbol of the pro-war right Joe Frazier at Madison Square Garden, NYC, in what is widely considered to be the greatest heavyweight fight in boxing history.[575][576][577]
  • March 11: Rioting at University of Puerto Rico leaves 3 dead.
  • April 23: Vietnam veterans protest against the war at the US Capitol in Washington, DC, throw their medals on the steps, and testify to US war crimes.
  • April 24: 500,000 protesters rally at US Capitol to petition for an end to the war; 200,000 rally against the war in San Francisco.
  • May 3: Over 12,000 anti-war protesters are arrested on the third day of the 1971 May Day Protests in Washington, DC.
  • May 10: Attorney General John N. Mitchell compares the anti-war protesters to Nazis, and on May 13, calls them Communists.
  • May 17: The play Godspell opens in New York, depicting Jesus and his disciples in a contemporary, countercultural milieu.
  • May 31: US military personnel in London petition at US Embassy against the Vietnam War.
  • June 13: Pentagon Papers: The New York Times publishes the first excerpt of illegally leaked secret US military documents detailing US intervention in Indochina since 1945. A Federal Court injunction on June 15 temporarily stops the releases.[578]
  • June 18: The Washington Post publishes excerpts from the Pentagon Papers, halted by court order the following day.
  • June 20–24 : 'Glastonbury Fayre', the second Glastonbury Festival, features David Bowie, Traffic, Fairport Convention, and the first incarnation of the "Pyramid Stage".
  • June 22: The Boston Globe publishes Pentagon Papers excerpts; this is halted by injunction on the 23rd and the newspapers are impounded.
  • June 28: Muhammad Ali's conviction for draft resistance is unanimously overturned by the US Supreme Court in Washington, DC.
  • June 28: President Nixon releases all 47 volumes of Pentagon Papers to Congress.
  • June 30: Supreme Court rules 6-3 that newspapers have a right to publish the Pentagon Papers. The Times and Post resume publication the following day.
  • July 3: Jim Morrison, founding member of The Doors, dies of a probable heroin overdose at age 27 in Paris.
  • August 1: Live Aid.[579]
  • August 18: Attorney General Mitchell announces there will be no Federal investigation of the 1970 Kent State shootings.
  • August: Cheech & Chong's eponymous first album is released.
  • September 3: Burglars operating under the direction of White House officials break in to the office of Daniel Ellsburg's psychiatrist in a botched attempt to find files to discredit the Pentagon Papers leaker.[580]
  • September 9: Attica: Prisoners take control, hold hostages, and riot at Attica State Prison, NY. 39 die before prisoner demands are met and order is restored.
  • September 15: Greenpeace is founded in Vancouver, BC.
  • October: est, the controversial self-improvement training program holds its first conference in San Francisco.[581]
  • October 8: Three FBI informants reveal on PBS that they were paid to infiltrate anti-war groups and instigate them to commit violent acts which could be prosecuted.
  • October 19–23: Rioting in Memphis leaves one dead.
  • October 29: Guitar phenomenon Duane Allman of the Allman Brothers Band is killed in a motorcycle accident in Macon, GA at age 24.
  • November 10: Berkeley, CA City Council votes to provide sanctuary to all military deserters.
  • November: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Hunter S. Thompson's drug-drenched indictment of 1960s counterculture, is published in Rolling Stone in 2 parts.
  • December 10: John Lennon and others perform at the John Sinclair Freedom Rally at Crisler Arena, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • December 26–28: 15 Vietnam veterans occupy the Statue of Liberty to protest the war.
  • December 28: Anti-war veterans attempt takeover of Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. 80 are arrested.
  • December: Feminism comes of age: Gloria Steinem's Ms. Magazine is first published as an insert in New York Magazine. The first standalone issue arrives the following month.
  • Stephen Gaskin establishes "The Farm" hippie commune in Tennessee.
  • Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals is published.[582]
  • Abbie Hoffman's Steal This Book is published.
  • The Anarchist Cookbook is published.
  • Our Bodies, Ourselves is published.[583]


  • President Nixon establishes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The agency is activated in December, 1970.
  • January 1: Voting age in Britain lowered from 21 to 18.
  • February: Weather Underground bombings and arsons in US states of NY, CA, WA, MD, & MI.
  • February 18: Chicago 7 verdicts are handed down: 2 are exonerated, 5 are soon sentenced for "crossing state lines with intent to incite a riot".
  • February 23–26: Students riot at University of California-Santa Barbara.
  • February 25–28: Students riot, occupy campus buildings, etc. at SUNY Buffalo, NY.
  • March 6: Greenwich Village townhouse explosion: 3 members of the Weather Underground are killed while assembling a bomb in New York City.
  • March 26: The documentary film Woodstock is released.
  • April 1: Jerry Rubin guest appears the Phil Donahue Show and lambastes Donahue for his conservative appearance.
  • April 7: California Governor Ronald Reagan is quoted on college campus student unrest: "If it takes a blood bath, let's get it over with."
  • April 7: X-Rated Midnight Cowboy wins 3 Oscars including Best Picture in Hollywood.[554][555]
  • April 10: Paul McCartney, when promoting his first solo album, announces that the Beatles have disbanded.
  • April 15: 100,000 gather on Boston Common to protest Vietnam War; about 500 radicals attempt to seize microphone, disrupting meeting.
  • April 22: The first Earth Day is held.
  • April 30: President Nixon reveals secret US military operations in Cambodia.
  • May 1–3: 13,000 people take part in peaceful demonstrations at Yale University in support of defendants in the New Haven Black Panther trials.
  • May 2: Students at Kent State University protesting the spread of the war into Cambodia burn the ROTC building to the ground. Ohio Governor Jim Rhodes calls in the National Guard at the request of Kent's Mayor.[556]
  • May 4: In what is perhaps the greatest tragedy of the stateside anti-war protest movement, poorly-trained soldiers of the Ohio National Guard are set loose into confrontation with - and open fire on - unarmed students at Kent State University leaving 4 dead and nine wounded, including Dean Kahler, who was paralyzed.[557]
  • May 5: The International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty takes effect.
  • May 6: Student Strike of 1970: Many colleges across the US shut down in protest of the war and Kent State events.
  • May 8: Hard Hat Riot: Construction workers confront anti-war demonstrators, Wall St., New York City. They march again May 11. On May 20, 100,000 construction workers and longshoremen demonstrate in favor of administration war policy at New York City Hall.
  • May 9: 100,000 rally against war in Washington, DC. At 4:15am, President Nixon defies Secret Service security, and leaves the White House to meet and chat with astonished protesters camping out at the Lincoln Memorial.[558][559][560]
  • May 14: Georgia National Guard.
  • May 19: Student riot at Fresno State University.
  • May 21: 5,000 National Guard troops occupy Ohio State University following violence.
  • June 11: Daniel Berrigan is arrested by the FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy.
  • June 12: Major League Baseball pitching star Dock Ellis takes LSD and throws a no-hitter. Ellis later quits drugs, becomes a recovery counselor, and expresses deep regret over drug abuse during his entire playing career.[561][562]
  • June 13: President Nixon appoints the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. The report issued in September finds a direct correlation between the unrest and the level of US military involvement in Indochina.
  • June 15: The US Supreme Court confirms conscientious objector protection on moral grounds.
  • June 22: The US voting age is lowered to 18. This is soon challenged and overturned in the Supreme Court, leading to the swift adoption of the 26th Amendment on June 1, 1971 guaranteeing suffrage at 18.
  • June 27–28: Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music, Shepton Mallet, Somerset, UK, featuring Hot Tuna, Fleetwood Mac, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and many more.
  • July: Huston Plan: A broad, cross-agency scheme for illegal domestic surveillance of anti-war figures is concocted by a White House staffer, and accepted but then quickly quashed by President Nixon. Elements of the plan were, however, allegedly implemented in any event.[563][564][565]
  • August 6: Riot police evacuate Disneyland in Anaheim, CA after a few hundred Yippies stage a protest.
  • August 17: Communist activist Angela Davis appears on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list after a firearm purchased in her name is linked to a murder plot involving a judge.
  • August 24: The Sterling Hall Bombing at the University of Wisconsin in Madison by anti-war activists kills physics researcher Robert Fassnacht. Four others are severely injured, and millions of dollars in damages occur.[566]
  • August 26: Women's Strike for Equality: 50 years after US women's suffrage, 20,000 celebrate and march in New York City, demanding true equality for women in American life.[567]
  • August 26–31: 600,000+ attend Third Isle of Wight Festival. Over fifty acts including The Who, Hendrix, Miles Davis, The Doors, Ten Years After, ELP, Joni Mitchell, and Jethro Tull.
  • August 29–30: Rioting and violence erupts at Chicano Moratorium anti-war rally in Los Angeles; reporter Rubén Salazar is killed by a teargas shell.
  • September: Jesus Christ Superstar: The Christian Rock Opera debuts as an album. It later becomes a smash on Broadway and on film.[568]
  • September 12: Timothy Leary escapes prison with help from the Weather Underground, and joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.
  • September 16: London: Apolitical hard rock act Led Zeppelin end The Beatles' 8-year run as Melody Maker's world #1 group of the year.
  • September 18: Exceptionally influential musician Jimi Hendrix dies from complications of a probable drug overdose at age 27 in London.
  • September 19: Pilton Pop, Blues & Folk Festival, the first ever Glastonbury Festival, features T-Rex and is attended by 1,500 people.
  • October: The Female Eunuch: Germaine Greer's pro-feminist bestseller is published.[569]
  • October: Keith Stroup founds NORML, a group working to end marijuana prohibition, in Washington, DC.
  • October 4: Janis Joplin, rock's first female superstar, dies as the result of an apparent accidental heroin overdose at age 27 in Los Angeles.
  • October 13: Political activist Angela Davis is arrested on kidnapping, murder, and conspiracy charges.
  • October 26: Doonesbury debuts as a syndicated comic strip, acknowledges the counterculture, and continues to chronicle events into the 21st century.[570]
  • October 29: President Nixon is pelted with eggs by an unfriendly crowd of 2000 after giving a speech in San Jose, CA.
  • November 7: Jerry Rubin appears live on The David Frost Show and tries to pass a joint to the talkshow host, the signal for Yippies in the audience to rush the stage and protest.
  • December 6: The Maysles Brothers release their film documentary of Altamont: Gimme Shelter.
  • December 21: Elvis Presley arrives unannounced at the White House. The King meets and is photographed with President Nixon. They discuss patriotism, hippies, and the war on drugs.[571][572]
  • December: Paul McCartney sues to dissolve the Beatles.



  • January 8–18: Students at Brandeis University take over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American Dept., which is approved by the University on April 24.
  • January 12: 5,000 students protesting discrimination in London clash with police.
  • January 29: Sir George Williams Computer Riot in Montreal is the largest student campus occupation in Canadian history.
  • January 30-February 15: Administration building of University of Chicago taken over by around 400 student protesters in a "sit-in".
  • February 13: National Guard with teargas and riot sticks crush a pro-black demonstration at University of Wisconsin
  • February 16: After 3 days of clashes between police and Duke University students, the school agrees to establish a Black Studies program.
  • February 24: Tinker v. Des Moines: The US Supreme court affirms public school students' First Amendment rights to protest the war.[533]
  • March 1: Arrest warrants are issued for Doors frontman Jim Morrison after he allegedly simulates masturbation and threatens to expose himself at a concert in Miami, FL.
  • March 22: President Nixon condemns trend of campus takeovers and violence.
  • March 25–31: Following their wedding at Gibraltar, John Lennon & Yoko Ono hold a "Bed-In" peace event in Amsterdam.[534]
  • April: US troop strength in Vietnam peaks at over 543,000.[535][536]
  • April 3–4: National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of Dr. King's assassination.
  • April 4: Smothered: CBS Chairman William S. Paley personally cancels the highly controversial Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour.
  • April 9: 300 students "sit-in" at offices of Harvard protesting the ROTC. 400 police restore order April 10. The college makes ROTC extracurricular April 19.
  • April 19: Armed black students take over Willard Straight Hall at Cornell. The University accedes to their demands the following day, promising an Afro-American studies program.
  • April 25–28: Activist students takeover Merrill House at Colgate University demanding Afro-American studies programs.
  • May 7: Students at Howard University occupy 8 buildings. They are cleared by US Marshals May 9.
  • May 8: City College of New York closes following a 14-day-long student takeover demanding minority studies; riots among students break out when CCNY tries to reopen.
  • May 9–11: 3000 college students flock to the "Zip to Zap" event in rural North Dakota, degenerating into a riot dispersed by the National Guard.
  • May 15: Bloody Thursday: Alameda County Sheriffs sent in by governor Ronald Reagan to eject flower children from People's Park in Berkeley, CA open fire with buckshot-loaded shotguns, mortally wounding student James Rector, permanently blinding carpenter Alan Blanchard, and inflicting lesser wounds on hundreds of other Berkeley residents.
  • May 21–25: 1969 Greensboro uprising: student protesters battle police for five days on campus of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; one student killed May 22. National Guard assault the campus using teargas, even dropping it by helicopter.
  • May 26-June 2: Celebrities gather as John & Yoko conduct their second Bed-In in Montreal, where the anti-war anthem "Give Peace a Chance" is recorded live.[537]
  • May 23: Tommy: The Who's Rock Opera is a smash.[538]
  • June 18: SDS convenes in Chicago; they oust the Progressive Labour faction June 28, which sets up its own rival convention.
  • June 28: The Stonewall Riots in New York City are the first major gay-rights uprisings in the US.
  • July 3: Brian Jones, founder of the Rolling Stones, dies "by misadventure" in his swimming pool in East Sussex, UK, under mysterious circumstances at age 27.[539]
  • July 5: The Stones in the Park: Shocked by the overdose death of former bandmate Brian Jones, the grieving Rolling Stones continue with their much-anticipated free concert before a massive crowd at Hyde Park, London.[540][541]
  • July 14: The low-budget film Easy Rider is released and becomes a de facto cultural landmark. The film's success helps open doors for independent film makers of the 1970s.
  • July 15: Cover story on LOOK: "How Hippies Raise their Children."
  • July 18: The cover of LIFE Magazine features "hippie communes."
  • July 20: Apollo 11 lands. Humans walk on the moon. A tablet with the inscription "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" is left on the lunar surface.[542]
  • July 25: Vietnamization: RMN's Nixon Doctrine calls on Asian regional allies formerly guaranteed protection under treaty to fend for themselves in non-nuclear conflicts.
  • August 9–10: Helter Skelter: Actress Sharon Tate, Tate's unborn baby, and five others are viciously murdered at knifepoint by cult members acting under the direction of psychopath Charles Manson during a 2-day killing spree in California. The events shock the nation. For many, the crimes and Manson's "family" are seen as products of the counterculture.[543][544][545]
  • August 15–17: 3 Days of Peace & Music: An estimated total of 300,000-500,000 people gather for the watershed musical event in counterculture history.[546]
  • August 19: Immediately following Woodstock, David Crosby, Stephen Stills, Joni Mitchell and Jefferson Airplane appear on the Dick Cavett Show. The latter's use of the slogan "Up against the wall, motherfuckers!" in the lyrics for "We Can Be Together" slips past the censors and is played on national television.
  • August 30–31: Second Isle of Wight Festival attracts 150,000 people to see acts including Bob Dylan and The Band, The Who, Free, Joe Cocker and The Moody Blues
  • September: First US issue of Penthouse Magazine is published by Robert Guccione.
  • September 1–2: Race rioting in Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.
  • September 2: Ho Chi Minh, President of communist North Vietnam, dies.[547]
  • September 6: First broadcast of H.R. Pufnstuf.
  • September 24: The Chicago Eight trial commences. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, et al., face charges including conspiracy to incite riots at the 1968 DNC Convention. They become the Chicago Seven November 5 after defendant Bobby Seale is bound, gagged, and severed from the proceedings.
  • October 4: TV star Art Linkletter's daughter Diane, 20, jumps to her death from her 6th story apartment. Linkletter claims Timothy Leary and LSD are responsible.[548]
  • October 8–11: Days of Rage: Elements of the SDS and the Weather Underground faction continue radical efforts to "bring the war home" in Chicago, and exchange brutalities with Chicago Police.[549]
  • October 15: Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam: massive anti-war demonstrations across the US and world.
  • October 21: Jack Kerouac dies from complications of alcoholism at age 47.
  • October 29: "login": The first message on the ARPANET - precursor to the internet and WWW - is sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline.[550]
  • November 13: Vice President Agnew publicly criticizes the three mainstream television networks for their lack of favorable coverage.
  • November 15: Moratorium redux: over 500,000 march in Washington, DC. It is the largest anti-war demonstration in US history.[551]
  • November 20: Native American protesters begin the Occupation of Alcatraz; occupation continues 19 months until June 11, 1971.
  • December: Total US casualties (dead & seriously wounded) in Vietnam total 100,000.
  • December 1: The first draft lottery in the US since World War II is held in New York City. Later statistical analysis indicates the lottery method was flawed.
  • December 4: Black Panther Fred Hampton is killed by combined elements of Federal, Illinois State, and Chicago law enforcement under circumstances which to some suggest political assassination.
  • December 6: [553][552]
  • December 27–31: Flint War Council, Michigan. SDS is abolished, the Weathermen break off, and one of the most significant seditious revolts since the US Civil War emerges.
  • Wavy Gravy's Hog Farm Hippie commune is established near Llano, NM.
  • Friends of the Earth is founded in the US. It becomes an international network in 1971.


  • Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is published.[469]
  • January: Owsley-inspired pioneer Heavy Metal band Blue Cheer release Vincebus Eruptum.[470]
  • January 22: Laugh-In: The sketch comedy "phenomenon that both reflected and mocked the era’s counterculture," and brought it into "mainstream living rooms" debuts on US TV.[471][472]
  • January 31: The Tet Offensive is launched by the NVA and Vietcong. Western forces are victorious on the battlefield, but not in the press.[473][474]
  • February 1: Following the free-form programming experimentations at KFRC-FM in San Francisco, WABX-FM in Detroit and other stations nationwide begin officially changing format. FM playlists and other content are now chosen by local DJs, not corporate executives or record companies. The Progressive Rock format takes hold.[475]
  • February 8: Police fire on and kill 3 protesting segregation at a South Carolina bowling alley, in what is known as the Orangeburg Massacre.[476]
  • February 15: The Beatles begin to arrive by rail in Rishikesh, India, for Transcendental Meditation training with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, amid widespread publicity.[477]
  • February 27: CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite, the "most trusted man in America", publicly expresses personal doubts regarding the possibility of ultimate victory in Vietnam.[478][479][480]
  • February 29: Kerner Report: The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders is released after seven months of investigation into US urban rioting.[481][482]
  • March 16: My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Apparent wanton rape and murder of innocents by US GIs creates enormous new anti-war outcry when news leaks in 1969.[483][484][485]
  • March 17: London police stop 10,000 anti-war marchers from storming the US Embassy. 200 are arrested.[486]
  • March 18: Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a long-time supporter of US policy in Vietnam, speaks out against the war for the first time, and announces his candidacy for President.[487]
  • March 22: 3,000 Yippies take over Grand Central Station in New York City, staging a "Yip-In" that ultimately results in an "extraordinary display of unprovoked police brutality" and 61 arrests.[488][489][490]
  • March 31: President Johnson addresses the US public about Vietnam on TV, and shocks the nation with his closing remark that he will not seek a second term as President.[491]
  • Spring: Reggae: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall, and Do the Reggay by Toots and the Maytals mark the arrival of a new musical genre.[492][493] Johnny Nash ("Hold Me Tight"), and Paul McCartney ("Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da") are inspired by the Jamaican sound.[494]
  • March–May: Columbia University protests, New York, NY. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers becomes a protest slogan at this time, as well as the name of a radical activist group.[495]
  • April: The US Department of Defense begins calling-up reservists for duty in Vietnam. The US Supreme Court turns down a challenge to the mobilization in October.[496]
  • April: The US Bureau of Narcotics (from Treasury) and Bureau of Drug Abuse Control (from the Food and Drug Administration) merge, substantially ramping-up anti-drug efforts.[497]
  • April 4: The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, TN. Drifter James Earl Ray is soon arrested for the murder. The King family later expresses complete doubt as to Ray's guilt.[498] Violence erupts in cities across the US, with thousands of Federal guardsman dispatched. Memphis, TN, Chicago, IL, Baltimore, MD, Kansas City, MO, and Washington, DC are hotspots.[499]
  • April 6: Oakland Shootout: Black Panther Bobby Hutton is killed and Eldridge Cleaver is wounded in a gun battle with police. Cleaver later claims that Hutton was murdered while in police custody.[500]
  • April 5: A Yippie plot to disrupt the upcoming August Democratic Convention in Chicago is published in Time.[501]
  • April 14: The Easter Sunday "Love-In" is held in Malibu Canyon, CA.[502]
  • April 27: Anti-war protesters march in several US cities, including 87,000 in Central Park, NYC.
  • May: The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers first appear in The Rag, an Austin TX underground paper.[503][504]
  • May 2: Student protests erupt in France, which spread, escalate and lead to a general strike and widespread unrest during May and June, bringing the country to a virtual standstill.[505]
  • May 10: The Paris Peace Talks commence in France. The war in Southeast Asia is the subject of the negotiations.[506][507][508]
  • May 12: Dr. King's Poor People's Campaign establishes "Resurrection City", a shanty town on the National Mall in Washington D.C., with around 5,000 protesters.
  • May 17: Catonsville Nine: Catholic priests opposed to the war destroy draft records in a Maryland draft office.[509]
  • May 24–27: Louisville Riots: After a claim of police brutality, police and thousands of National Guard confront rioting protesters and looters. Two black teens die before order is restored.[510]
  • June 3: Artist Andy Warhol shot and wounded by a "radical feminist" writer.[511][512]
  • June 5: Senator Robert Francis Kennedy, winner of the California primary, and presumed presidential front-runner, is assassinated in Los Angeles. RFK dies June 6.[513]
  • June 19: "Solidarity Day" protest at Resurrection City draws 55,000 participants.
  • June 24: Remnants of "Resurrection City", with only about 300 protesters still remaining, razed by riot police.
  • July 17: The Beatles' post-psychedelic, pop-art animated film Yellow Submarine is released in the UK (November 13 in the US).[514][515]
  • July 28–30: University of California, Berkeley campus shut down by protests.
  • August 21: Communist tanks roll in Czechoslovakia and crush the popular "Prague Spring" uprising.[516]
  • August 25–29: Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The proceedings are overshadowed by massive protests staged by thousands of demonstrators of every stripe.[58] Mayor Daley's desire to enforce order in the city results in egregious police brutality, televised on national airwaves. On the third night, police indiscriminately attack protesters and bystanders, including journalists such as Mike Wallace, Dan Rather and Hugh Hefner. The spectacle is a turning point for both supporters and critics of the larger movement.
  • August 26: Revolution?: Lennon's B-side to McCartney's smash Hey Jude is released. Its eschewing of violent protest is seen as a betrayal by some on the left. A version recorded earlier was released in November and suggests indecision as to Lennon's stance on violence.[517]
  • August 31: First Isle of Wight Festival featuring Jefferson Airplane, Arthur Brown, The Move, Tyrannosaurus Rex and The Pretty Things.
  • September 7: At the Miss America protest, feminists demonstrate against what they call "The Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol", filling a "freedom trash can" with items including mops, pots and pans, Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines, false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras.
  • September 28: 10,000 in Chicago protest on one-month anniversary of the convention violence.
  • Fall: Stewart Brand begins publication of The Whole Earth Catalog.[518]
  • October 2: The Night of Sorrow: Students and police violently clash in Mexico City.
  • October 18: John Lennon and Yoko Ono are arrested for drug possession in London. Lennon is only fined for his first offence, and more serious obstruction charges against the pair are dropped, but the arrest will later serve as the pretext for the politically-motivated attempted deportation of Lennon from the US in the 1970s.[519][520]
  • October 25: Emile de Antonio's highly controversial and Oscar nominated anti-war documentary In the Year of the Pig (per the Chinese "Year of the Pig") is released. de Antonio later earns a spot on President Nixon's Enemies List.[511][521]
  • October 27: 50,000 march in London against the Vietnam war.
  • October 31: President Johnson orders a halt to the aerial bombing of North Vietnam.[522][523]
  • November 5: Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon defeats sitting VP Wallace/Lemay ticket in a close race. Nixon in January becomes the 37th President of the US, ending 8 years of democrat control of the White House.[524][525]
  • November 6: Students demanding minority studies courses begin a strike at San Francisco State College, where demonstrations and clashes occur into March, 1969, making it the longest student strike in US history.[526][527]
  • November 11: Two Virgins: John Lennon & Yoko Ono's experimental album is released. Beatles' labels EMI and Capitol (US) refuse distribution, as the cover features the couple in shocking full frontal nudity. Lennon later describes the cover as a depiction of two slightly overweight ex-junkies.[528][529][530]
  • November 22: The Beatles' White Album is released. The band's hair is very long, and the musical content is not psychedelic.[531]
  • December 24: Earthrise, a photograph of the Earth, is taken from Moon orbit. "The most influential environmental photograph ever taken."[532]


  • January: The "Human Be-In," "the joyful, face-to-face beginning of the new epoch" is held in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. 20,000 attend.[405][406][407]
  • January 12: US TV on LSD: Acid is the subject of the debut "Blue Boy" episode of the topical, but square and sermon-laden police drama Dragnet '67.[408][409]
  • January 29: Ultimate High: Mantra-Rock Dance at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco. Hare Krishna is promoted, and the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company and Moby Grape perform. Ginsberg, Leary and Owsley attend.[410][411]
  • February: Surrealistic Pillow by Jefferson Airplane is released. Psilocybin mushrooms are visible on the album cover, and tracks include "D.C.B.A.-25," referring to the song's chords and LSD-25.[412]
  • February: Quagmire: Noam Chomsky's anti-Vietnam essay The Responsibility of Intellectuals is published in The New York Review of Books.[413]
  • February 5: The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour debuts on CBS and soon pushes the boundaries of acceptable TV content to the limit.[414]
  • February 11: Human Fly-In: New York DJ Bob Fass uses the airwaves to inspire an impromtu gathering of thousands at Kennedy Airport, in what was later called a "prehistoric flash mob".[415][416][417]
  • February 12: Stones Bust: Keith Richards and Mick Jagger are arrested for drugs at Richards' UK mansion. In June they are tried and convicted, but soon freed on appeal.[418]
  • February 13: The Beatles issue Lennon's "Strawberry Fields Forever" as B-side to Paul's hit "Penny Lane." "Cranberry sauce" is heard after the song fades-out. Or is it "I buried Paul"?[419]
  • February 17: The cover of Life Magazine features Ed Sanders of The Fugs below "HAPPENINGS - The worldwide underground of the arts creates - THE OTHER CULTURE."[420][421]
  • February 22: MacBird! opens at the Village Gate in New York City and runs for 386 performances. The controversial play compares Lyndon Johnson to Shakespeare's Macbeth, who caused the death of his predecessor.[422]
  • March 26: 10,000 attend the New York City "Be-In" in Central Park.[423]
  • March 31: In an early and detailed report on the Haight in Life Magazine, Loudon Wainwright predicts that "the hour of the coming."[424]
  • April 4: Beyond Vietnam: Dr. King delivers a monumental anti-war speech.[425]
  • April 7: The cover of TIME features the birth control pill.[426]
  • April 8–10: Race riots break out in Nashville, TN. Activist Stokely Carmichael and Allen Ginsburg are present.[427]
  • April 15: National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam: an estimated 400,000 protest the escalating Vietnam War in New York City, marching from Central Park to UN Headquarters. Dr. King and Stokely Carmichael speak. 75,000 assemble in San Francisco.[428]
  • April 28: Boxing Champ Muhammad Ali refuses induction into the US Army in Houston, TX, on the grounds that he is a conscientious objector to the war in Vietnam.[429]
  • April 29: The 14 Hour Technicolor Dream: 7,000 attend a groundbreaking televised psychedelic rave to promote love and peace at Alexandra Palace, London.[430]
  • May 2: Armed Black Panthers led by Bobby Seale enter the California State Assembly, protesting a bill to outlaw open carry of loaded firearms. Seale and five others are arrested.[431]
  • May 5: Mr. Natural, Robert Crumb's soon to be ubiquitous underground comix counterculture icon, makes his first appearance in the premiere issue of Yarrowstalks.[432]
  • May 10: Rolling Stone Brian Jones is arrested for drug possession. He is arrested again in 1968. Jones' arrest record leaves him unable to tour outside of the UK.[433]
  • May 14: Police fire on student protesters at Jackson State College, MS, killing two, including James Earl Green.[434][435]
  • May 15-17: Student protesters confront police at Texas Southern University, resulting in the death of a police officer, and over 400 arrests.[436][437]
  • May 20–21: The Spring Mobilization Conference is held in Washington, D.C. 700 anti-war activists gather to discuss the April 15 protests, and to plan future demonstrations.[438]
  • June: Vietnam Veterans Against the War is formed in New York City.[439][440]
  • June–July: Race riots create upheaval in cities across the US.[441]
  • June–September: The "Summer of Love" in the Haight Ashbury district of San Francisco and recognition of the Hippie movement. Runaways inundate, TV crews visit, Gray Line sells bus tours.[442]
  • June 1: The Beatles' Sgt Pepper is released and widely recognised as the high-water mark of the brief psychedelic music era. It is also later rated as the greatest rock album of all time.[443][444]
  • June 10–11: Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival: The Summer of Love kicks off at Mount Tamalpais, Marin County, California. Over 30,000 see the Doors, Jefferson Airplane, Country Joe & the Fish, and many other acts perform in the first rock festival gathering of its kind.[445][446]
  • June 16–18: The Monterey Pop Festival in California draws 200,000 and is the first large extended festival of the rock era. Jimi Hendrix returns from the UK and makes his US "debut." David Crosby uses microphone time to brashly condemn the Warren Report.[447][448]
  • June 20: Muhammad Ali is found guilty of draft evasion. The US Supreme Court eventually hears Ali's legal appeal.[449]
  • June 25: All You Need Is Love: The BBC's live satellite broadcast of the Beatles' summer UK hit breaks records, reaching an estimated 200-400 million worldwide.[450][451]
  • June 30: US military forces in Vietnam total 448,000.
  • July 7: The cover of Time features hippies.
  • July 16: Hyde Park Rally: 5,000 gather in London to protest "immoral in principle and unworkable in practice" UK marijuana laws. A petition signed by many notables is published.[452][453]
  • July 23–27: The worst riots of the century to date erupt in Detroit, MI: 43 deaths, 467 injuries, over 7,200 arrests, and the burning of over 2,000 buildings to the ground.[454][455]
  • August 22: Look Magazine runs a cover story on "The Hippies".
  • August 27: Beatles manager Brian Epstein dies of a prescription drug overdose in London at age 32.[456]
  • September 30: Pirates No More: Hip Radio 1 commences broadcast over the legitimate airwaves of the BBC following the UK ban on offshore "pirate" radio transmissions.
  • October 6: "Guerrilla theater" group The Diggers stage a mock funeral for the "Death of Hippie" in San Francisco. The demonstration is intended to discourage more youngsters from descending upon the overcrowded, under-equipped Haight.[457]
  • October 8: Groovy Murders: James "Groovy" Hutchinson and Linda Fitzpatrick are murdered in New York City in a drug deal gone bad. Two drifters plead guilty.[458]
  • October 9: Death of Che Guevara: The Cuban ex-patriot, international revolutionary, and icon of revolt, is executed in Bolivia.[459]
  • October 17: Stop the Draft Week: Demonstrators mob the US Army Induction Center in Oakland, CA. Joan Baez is among those arrested. Some are charged with sedition.[460][277][461]
  • October 17: The rock musical Hair, featuring controversial full frontal nudity, premieres off-Broadway in New York City. The play becomes a Broadway smash in 1968.
  • October 19: Thousands of students clash with police at Brooklyn College in New York after two military recruiters appear on campus. Students strike the following day.
  • October 20–21: The "Mobe" Redux: 100,000 protest the war in Washington, DC. Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman and others lead attempts at "exorcism" and levitation of the Pentagon.[462][463]
  • October 27: "Baltimore Four": Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and three others are jailed after pouring blood on draft files in the SSS office, protesting bloodshed in Vietnam. Berrigan is later convicted.[464]
  • October 28: Black Panther leader Huey Newton is stopped by Oakland police. A shootout resulting in the death of an officer leads to Newton's conviction, which is later overturned.[465][466]
  • November: The activity at the Diggers' Free Store is the impetus for an anti-hippie turf war with local thugs in New York City.[467]
  • November 9: The first issue of Rolling Stone Magazine features a photo of John Lennon from the film How I Won The War.
  • November 20: Police using teargas charge a large student demonstration against recruiters for Dow Chemical (napalm manufacturer) at San Jose State College.
  • November 24: The Beatles release John Lennon's psychedelic coda "I Am the Walrus" The album Magical Mystery Tour arrives November 27.
  • December 4–8: Anti-war groups all across the US attempt to shut down draft board centers; Dr. Benjamin Spock and poet Allen Ginsburg are among the 585 arrested.
  • December 10: Monterey Pop Fest standout and soon-to-be soul legend Otis Redding dies in a plane crash at age 26.
  • December 22: Owsley Stanley is found in possession of 350,000 doses of LSD and 1,500 doses of STP, arrested, and sentenced to 3 years.
  • December 31: The term "Yippie" is coined by Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Dick Gregory, Paul Krassner and others. The Youth International Party is formed the following month.
  • December: The Moody Blues' masterpiece Days of Future Passed, featuring psychedelic themes and the London Festival Orchestra, is released.
  • December: US troops in Vietnam total 486,000. US war dead total 15,000.
  • Chemist Alexander Shulgin first ingests the MDMA (Ecstasy) he's been synthesizing in his Dow Chemical lab, and discovers mind-altering properties unknown since patent of the compound by Merck in 1912.[468]


  • Resurgence magazine is first published in the UK. Notable contributors have included E.F. Schumacher, Ivan Illich, R. D. Laing and The Dalai Lama.[384]
  • January 8: 2,400 attend when the "Acid Test" arrives at the Fillmore West.[385][386]
  • January 21–23: Chet Helm's Family Dog "Trips Festival" is attended by 10,000 in San Francisco.[387][388][389]
  • March 11: Timothy Leary is sentenced to 30 years on his 1965 border drug offense.
  • March 14: Eight Miles High: The Byrd's psychedelic 12-string-electric guitar anthem is released and briefly banned on radio due to perceived drug-culture subject matter.[390]
  • March 16: 12 Australians burn their draft cards at a Sydney rally against Australia's participation in Vietnam.
  • March 25–27: Anti-Vietnam War demonstrations take place in many cities across the US and around the world.
  • April 5: US Food and Drug Administration warns about the danger of LSD in a letter to 2,000 universities.
  • April 7: Sandoz, the sole legitimate manufacturer of pharmaceutical-grade LSD, stops supplying the drug to researchers.
  • April 17: Timothy Leary is arrested for possession of marijuana.
  • May 7: Psychedelic bellwether "Paint it Black" is released by the Rolling Stones.
  • May 12: Students take over administration building at the University of Chicago to protest the draft.
  • May 15: 10,000 anti-war protesters picket the White House.
  • May 18: 10,000 students rally against draft at University of Wisconsin.
  • May 29: The phrase "Black Power" re-emerges in 1960s Civil Rights context."[391]
  • May 30: Featuring backward snippets, John Lennon's psychedelic "Rain" is released as the B-side of Paul McCartney's hit "Paperback Writer."[392]
  • June 4: The New York Times publishes a petition to end the Vietnam War, with 6,400 signatures including many prominent scholars and clergy.
  • June 13: Miranda v. Arizona: The US Supreme Court rules that the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution provides protection against self-incrimination, requiring law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of their right to remain silent and their right to obtain an attorney.[393]
  • June 25: Lenny Bruce performs for the last time. The show at the Fillmore in San Francisco also showcases Frank Zappa.
  • June 27: Psychedelic concept album Freak Out! is released by Frank Zappa's Mothers of Invention.
  • June 30: The National Organization of Women (NOW) is founded in Washington, DC.
  • July: Beatle backlash: US Bible Belt DJs incite thousands to burn Beatle records after the viral spread of John Lennon's "we're more popular than Jesus" comment.
  • July: Donovan's "Sunshine Superman" contains the first open reference to "tripping" in a chart-topping song.[394]
  • July–September: Riots break out throughout the summer in several US cities, with deaths in Chicago and Cleveland (July), Waukegan IL and Benton Harbour MI (August), and damage in many other cities.
  • August 3: Lenny Bruce, called "the most radically relevant of all contemporary social satirists..." is found dead at age 40 from a morphine overdose in Los Angeles.[395]
  • August 5: Revolver is released by the Beatles, and includes John Lennon's groundbreaking psychedelic track "Tomorrow Never Knows."
  • August 29: The Beatles perform their last concert with ticket sales at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.[396][397]
  • September 12: US TV's response to the Beatles, The Monkees, debuts on NBC.
  • September 19: Timothy Leary begins his "Turn on, tune in, drop out" crusade in New York City, founding the LSD religion "League for Spiritual Discovery".
  • September 20: Anti-Establishment publisher Allen Cohen's underground newspaper The San Francisco Oracle begins publication in Haight-Ashbury.
  • October 6: LSD is banned in the US.
  • October 6: The Love Pageant Rally protest against the LSD ban is held in San Francisco.[398]
  • October 10: The Beach Boys release Brian Wilson's psychedelic tour de force "Good Vibrations."
  • October 15: The Black Panther Party is established by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA.[399][400]
  • November 9: Beatle John Lennon first meets avant-garde Japanese artist and future wife Yoko Ono at London's Indica Gallery.[401]
  • November 12: For What It's Worth: The Sunset Strip teen curfew riots inspire Stephen Stills to pen the Buffalo Springfield protest song, West Hollywood, CA.[402][403]
  • December 8: MGM releases the British film Blow-Up without approval of the movie ratings group MPAA, signalling the beginning of the end of enforcement of the Hays Code. In late 1968, the MPAA institutes the first voluntary system of movie ratings, intended as a guide for viewers as to a film's content and age-appropriateness.[404]


  • February 8: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam by the US commences.
  • February 9–15: Thousands demonstrate against the US attacks on North Vietnam at the US Embassies in Moscow, Budapest, Jakarta, and Sofia.
  • February 21: Malcolm X is assassinated in New York City.
  • March: The "Filthy Speech Rally" at Berkeley.[277][362]
  • March 6: Regular US troops engage in combat in Vietnam for the first time.
  • March 7–25: The SCLC stages the watershed James Bevel.
  • March 16: Alice Herz, age 82, self-immolates in Detroit, MI in protest of Vietnam escalation. Herz dies 10 days later.[363]
  • March 24–25: The first major "Teach-in" is held by the SDS in Ann Arbor, MI. 3000 attend.
  • March 27: Beatles John Lennon and without their knowledge by their UK dentist at a dinner party.
  • March 30: Owsley Stanley begins manufacturing "White Lightning" LSD in large quantities for sale as a recreational drug.
  • Spring: "Never trust anyone over 30": UC Berkeley grad student and Free Speech activist Jack Weinberg's quip is quoted in paraphrase, inadvertently creating a key catchphrase of the generation.[364]
  • April: US combat troops in Vietnam total 25,000.
  • April 17: The first major anti-Vietnam War rally in the US is organized by the SDS in Washington, DC. 25,000 attend. Joan Baez, Judy Collins, and Phil Ochs perform.
  • May 17: Hunter S. Thompson's article The Motorcycle Gangs: Losers and Outsiders appears in The Nation. A book soon follows.
  • May: Draft card burnings take place at University of California, Berkeley. A coffin is marched to the Berkeley draft board, and President Johnson is hanged in effigy. Jerry Rubin forms the Vietnam Day Committee[365] with Abbie Hoffman and others during these events.[366]
  • June–August: Red Dog Experience comes into full flower at Virginia City, Nevada's Red Dog Saloon - full-fledged "hippie" identity takes shape.
  • June 7: Griswold v. Connecticut: The US Supreme Court rules that Constitutional privacy guarantees trump a Connecticut statute banning use of contraceptives by married couples. "Comstock-era" laws are likewise now moot in other states. In 1972, the court rules that protections apply to unmarried couples as well.[367][368][369]
  • June 11: International Poetry Incarnation: Notables including Allen Ginsburg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael Horovitz and William S. Burroughs participate in a breakthrough event for the UK Underground, Royal Albert Hall, London.[370]
  • June 11: The Beatles are awarded as Members of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) by the Queen for their contributions to British commerce.
  • July 25: Bob Dylan "goes electric" and is booed at the Newport Folk Festival.
  • July 30: Medicare is signed into law in the US, giving seniors a healthcare safety net.
  • August 6: The Voting Rights Act is signed into law in the US; "Literacy tests", poll taxes and other local schemes to prevent voting by blacks are newly or further banned under federal law.
  • August 11: 6 days of massive race riots erupt in the Watts section of Los Angeles: 35 dead, 1000 buildings damaged or destroyed. Meanwhile, smaller riots occur in Chicago.
  • August 31: The ban on the burning of draft cards is signed into law in the US.
  • September 5: The word hippie is used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularise use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen earlier in a passing remark about pot cookies in journalist Dorothy Kilgallen's June 11, 1963 column.[371][372]
  • September 15: I-Spy: Comedian Bill Cosby becomes the first African-American to star in a dramatic American television series. (Amanda Randolph had starred in the comedy The Laytons on the short-lived DuMont Network in the late 1940s.)[373]
  • September 25: Debut of The Beatles Saturday morning cartoon series.
  • September 25: Barry McGuire's "Eve of Destruction" becomes the first protest song to hit #1 in the charts, while drawing heavy criticism and being banned by many stations.
  • October: The Yardbirds featuring Jeff Beck release the B-side "Still I'm Sad." Psychedelic music first makes the charts.
  • October 15–16: Vietnam War protests in cities across the US draw 100,000.
  • October 16: "A Tribute to Dr. Strange": 1,000 original San Francisco "hippies" first party en masse at Longshoreman's Hall. Owsley's "White Lightning" acid is available to all.
  • November 2: Quaker leader Norman Morrison self-immolates at the Pentagon to protest the war.
  • November 5: My Generation: The Who speak to the new youth. "This is my generation!" and "I hope I die before I get old" become mantras of the rising counterculture.[374][375]
  • November 9: Catholic activist Roger Allen LaPorte self-immolates at the UN building in New York City.
  • November 20: 8,000 anti-war protesters march from Berkeley to Oakland in CA.
  • November 27: Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters hold the first "Acid Test" at Soquel, CA.
  • November 27: Up to 35,000 anti-war protesters march on the White House.
  • December: Clarion call "California Dreamin'" is first released by The Mamas and the Papas.[376]
  • December 3: The Beatles' Rubber Soul is released in the UK with a visually distorted image of the group on the cover. The single "Day Tripper" is also released. Paul McCartney later states that the song was about drugs, but the lyrics are about a female Sunday tourist.[377]
  • December 25: Timothy Leary is arrested for drug possession at the Mexican border.
  • December: The Pretty Things release Get the Picture?. The album includes a song entitled £.S.D.[378]
  • Phil Ochs releases the satirical "Draft Dodger Rag." He later performs the song on the CBS News Special Avoiding the Draft. Pete Seeger's version appears in 1966.
  • The East Village Other begins publication in New York City.
  • Early commune Drop City is founded in Colorado.
  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X is published posthumously. Derived from interviews of the slain civil rights activist by writer Alex Haley, it is considered to be one of the most influential works of non-fiction of the 20th century. Doubleday's cancellation of their original contract for the bestseller is later called the biggest mistake in publishing history.[379][380]
  • Unsafe at Any Speed: Activist attorney Ralph Nader's wake-up call concerning automotive safety is published and fuels the modern Consumer Movement. Nader's ongoing work leads to the passage of the US National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. In 1972, annual US highway deaths peak at 54,589, approaching the total number of war dead during the 10-year US combat involvement in Vietnam.[381][382][383]


  • January: The Holy Modal Rounders' version of "Hesitation Blues" marks the first reference to the term psychedelic in music.
  • January 8: President Johnson's State of the Union Address features a declaration of "war on poverty".
  • January 23: 24th Amendment ratified: US Congress and states are prohibited from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of poll or other forms of tax.
  • January 27: Defense Secretary Robert McNamara states that there are now 15,000 US troops in South Vietnam, and that most will be withdrawn by the end of 1965.
  • February 1: "I Want to Hold Your Hand:" The Beatles achieve their first hit #1 on Billboard with a 7 week run on top. Beatlemania has spread to the US, and the monumental British Invasion of UK music begins.
  • February 7–22: The Beatles make their first US visit and appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. The February 9 telecast is seen by over 73 million, the largest TV audience to date in the US.[355]
  • February 21–24: Students at Maryland State College protesting a segregated restaurant are fought by police.
  • February 25–26: Tens of thousands of school students in Boston and Chicago skip classes in protest of segregation.
  • March 16: 25% of school students in New York City strike to protest segregation.
  • April 4: Beatles singles occupy the top 5 slots on the Billboard Hot 100. It's an unprecedented, and never repeated, chart achievement.[356]
  • April 20: 86% of black students in Cleveland boycott classes to protest segregation.
  • May: Appearance of the Faire Free Press (later the Los Angeles Free Press), earliest of many "underground" US newspapers of the counterculture era.
  • May: San Francisco Sheraton Palace Hotel sit-ins result in arrests of UC, Berkeley students protesting racially discriminatory Bay area hiring practices.[357]
  • May 7: President Johnson first refers to "the Great Society" in a speech in Athens, OH.
  • May 12: The first public draft-card burning is reported in New York City.
  • June 14: Ken Kesey and the drug-drenched Merry Pranksters depart California in the repurposed school bus "Further" en route to the 1964 World's Fair in Queens, NY.
  • June 22: "I Know it When I See it": The US Supreme Court overturns the obscenity conviction of an Ohio theater operator. Although local obscenity battles continue to the present, the decision clears the way for the commercial exhibition of sexually-explicit film material in the US.[358][359][360]
  • July 2: The Civil Rights Act is signed by President Johnson. Racial segregation in public places and race-based employment discrimination are now banned under federal law.
  • July: The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopts radio non-duplication rules: FM must broadcast original content, not simply simulcasts of AM sister stations.
  • August 2: War Dance: the spurious Gulf of Tonkin Incidents off the coast of Vietnam lead to the nearly unanimous passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution by the US Congress on August 7, giving the president unprecedented broad authority to engage in full "conventional" military escalation in Southeast Asia without a formal declaration of war.[361]
  • October 1: The Free Speech Movement begins with a student sit-in at the University of California, Berkeley.
  • October 14: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • November 3: Sitting President Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President of the US in his own right, defeating Republican Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater in a landslide.
  • November 4: Comedian Lenny Bruce is convicted on obscenity charges in New York City.
  • December 2: In a famous speech during a sit-in, Berkeley student Mario Savio tells supporters of the Free Speech Movement to "put your bodies upon the gears."


  • Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published. The modern feminist movement is born.[344]
  • Bob Fass begins the long-running, late night Radio Unnameable program on WBAI-FM in New York City, a listener-supported station that is later remembered as "the pulse of the movement" by Wavy Gravy.[345][346][347]
  • April: Chandler Laughlin organizes a Native American Church peyote ceremony, a precursor to The Red Dog Experience.
  • April–May: Birmingham Campaign: Civil Rights activists trained by James Bevel are attacked by police in Birmingham, Alabama. Similar events occur at various locations across the deep south throughout the spring and summer.
  • May: The first organized Vietnam War protests occur in England and Australia.
  • May 1: Undercover Bunny: Gloria Steinem's Playboy Club exposé appears in Show Magazine.[344]
  • June 10: A Strategy of Peace: JFK delivers a powerful commencement speech at American University.[348]
  • June 11: Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc self-immolates in Saigon. Malcolm Browne later wins a Pulitzer Prize for a news photo which JFK said was of historical magnitude.
  • June 12: NAACP Field Secretary Medgar Evers is assassinated in Jackson, MS.[349]
  • June 17: The US Supreme Court rules public school-sponsored Bible reading unconstitutional.
  • July 26–28: The Newport Folk Festival features Bob Dylan, and fellow protest singers Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, and Phil Ochs.
  • August 28: Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his landmark "I Have a Dream" speech before 200,000 on the Mall in Washington, DC during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.[350]
  • September 24: The US Senate ratifies The Partial Test Ban Treaty as signed by the US and USSR, ending testing of nuclear weapons under water, in the atmosphere, and in space by the superpowers.[351]
  • September 26: The US Senate debates a report that folk music is being infiltrated by communism. Two senators speak and conclude it is "American," dismissing the report.[352]
  • October 27: 225,000 students in Chicago schools boycott classes in protest at ongoing segregation.
  • November 2: South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated in Saigon.
  • November 22: US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, TX. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as 36th President of the US.[353]
  • November 24: Suspected JFK assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is himself murdered by Jack Ruby under lax police security in Dallas, thereby creating doubt for many, and opening the door to myriad conspiracy theories concerning the Kennedy Assassination and the veracity of later government findings.[354]


  • January 18: Operation Ranch Hand: The US military begins the use of extremely toxic and carcinogenic defoliants in Vietnam. Use of the dioxin-based Agent Orange begins in 1965.[328]
  • February 4: US helicopters assist the South Vietnamese army in the capture of Hung My.
  • February 26: Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Valerian Zorin warns the UN that the Americans “are getting bogged down in a very disadvantageous and politically unjustified war (in Vietnam) which will entail very unpleasant consequences for them.”[329]
  • March 16: US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara reveals that US troops in Vietnam have engaged in ground combat.
  • March 19: Bob Dylan's first album Bob Dylan is released. It reaches #13 in the UK, but does not chart on the Billboard 200 in the US.
  • March 31: [330]
  • June 15: The SDS completes the Port Huron Statement.[331]
  • July–August: Dr. King's Albany Movement civil rights protest against segregation is active in Albany, GA.
  • August 5: Film star Marilyn Monroe dies of a barbiturate overdose under suspicious circumstances in Los Angeles. Monroe's death is a precursor to an explosion of recreational use of highly addictive prescription drugs (and thousands of accidental pill overdose deaths) during the counterculture era, even as legitimate use of these drugs is already in decline.[332][333]
  • September 12: JFK speaks at Rice: "... we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard ..."[334]
  • September 27: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is published. The modern environmental movement begins.[335]
  • October 1: James Meredith is the first African-American student to enter "Ole Miss".[336][337]
  • October 5: "Love Me Do": The Beatles' first single is released.[338]
  • October: The Cuban Missile Crisis brings the world to the brink of nuclear war after the USSR attempts to station nuclear missiles in Cuba, thereby directly threatening the US.[339]
  • December: The USAF Skybolt cruise missile program is cancelled by President Kennedy.[340]
  • Inspired by Aldous Huxley's Human Potential Movement, Michael Murphy and Dick Price found the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California.[341]
  • Helen Gurley Brown's post-pill dating manual Sex and the Single Girl becomes a best-seller. Brown's attempt to have the book banned for marketing purposes fails.
  • The Other America: Michael Harrington's compelling study of the intractable plight of the poor in the US is published. The book is credited with inspiring LBJ's "War on Poverty."[342]
  • Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is published.[343]
  • Seven Days in May, a novel depicting a foiled military coup in the US, is published. The movie reaches theater screens in 1964 with an all-star cast.


  • January: [305][306]
  • January 17: US President Eisenhower gives his farewell address to the nation, and uses much of his time to warn of the undue influence of the "Military Industrial Complex."[307]
  • January 20: In a powerful inaugural address, new US President Kennedy calls upon citizens to "ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country."[308][309]
  • March 1: JFK signs an executive order creating the Peace Corps.[310]
  • March 28: JFK orders final cancellation of the oft-resurrected USAF B-70 Bomber program in a significant rollback of the nuclear arms race.[311]
  • March 30: The UN [312]
  • April 12: Vostok: Man in Space: The western world is again shocked when Cold War foe the USSR follows its Sputnik triumph, putting the first human in space.[313]
  • April 17: A CIA-led invasion force intent on the overthrow of Fidel Castro lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. Anti-Castro Cuban expatriates and CIA mercenaries are overtaken and captured by Cuban forces. JFK, who inherited the operation planned under the previous administration, attempts to cut losses and denies US air support.[314][315]
  • May 4: Freedom Riders: Civil Rights activists travel on public buses and trains across the American South to personally confront and challenge segregation.[316]
  • June 4: JFK meets with Soviet Premier Khrushchev in Vienna, and reports no progress on issues concerning partitioned Germany. Another Berlin Crisis ensues.[317][318]
  • August 13: Berlin Wall: To stem the massive tide of emigration from the communist east into the free west, the construction of a wall dividing the city of Berlin begins under Soviet direction.[319]
  • October 25: US and Soviet tanks face off at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin.[320][321]
  • November 1: Women Strike for Peace: 50,000 women march in 60 cities in the US to demonstrate against nuclear weapons.[322][323]
  • November 30: Cuban Project: aggressive covert operations against Fidel Castro's revolutionary government in Cuba are authorized by JFK.[324][325]
  • December 14: JFK signs an executive order establishing the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.[326][327]


  • The Student League for Industrial Democracy has changed their name to Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and first meet in Ann Arbor, MI. SDS dissassociates with LID in 1965.[288][289]
  • A beatnik community in Cornwall, UK noted for wearing their hair past their shoulders, and including a young Wizz Jones, is interviewed by Alan Whicker for BBC TV.[290]
  • Harvard professors Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert begin experimenting with hallucinogens at Cambridge, MA.[291][292]
  • February 1: The first of the Greensboro sit-ins sparks a wave of similar protests against segregation at Woolworth and other retail store lunch counters across the American South.[293]
  • March 26: Governor Buford Ellington of Tennessee orders an investigation into a CBS news crew for filming a Nashville sit-in.[294]
  • April: The Ella Baker at Shaw University.[295]
  • May 1: U-2 Incident: a US spy plane searching for Soviet nuclear installations is shot down deep within the USSR. The CIA pilot is captured alive and paraded in the Russian press after the White House enlists NASA in a botched cover story claiming the plane went missing during a weather flight.[18][296]
  • May 9: The Pill: The US Food & Drug Administration approves the use of the first reliable form of birth control: a 99%-effective pill. The Sexual Revolution commences, first in the bedrooms of married couples.[235][297]
  • May 13: Black Friday: 400 police using firehoses force a student "mob" out of a HUAC meeting at City Hall in San Francisco. The counterculture era of student protest begins.[298][299][300]
  • May 19: SANE holds an anti-arms race rally at Madison Square Garden in New York, NY. 20,000 attend.[269]
  • November 8: John F. Kennedy is elected 35th President of the US, defeating sitting Vice President Richard M. Nixon in what is considered to be the closest and most intellectually-charged US presidential election since 1916.[301][302][303] Nearly 70 million ballots are cast, but the margin of victory is just slightly more than 100,000 votes.[304]




  • February 17: The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament is inaugurated in London, introducing the "Peace symbol" from the letters CnD.[270]
  • March 24: Elvis Presley, the biggest recording star in the world, is inducted into the US Army. Presley serves his 2 years honorably.[271]
  • April 2: Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle coins the term beatnik to refer to afficionadoes of the Beat Generation.[272]
  • April 4–7: Thousands protest in the first major Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War and supported by the CnD.[273][274]
  • SANE claims 25,000 members in 130 chapters.[275]
  • The New Left SLATE student political party is formed at the University of California, Berkeley.[276][277]
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower is the first US President to ask a joint session of Congress to pass the long-debated Equal Rights Amendment.[278]
  • Harvard economist John Kenneth Galbraith's highly influential work The Affluent Society is published.[279]


  • British psychiatrist Humphry Osmond coins the word "psychedelic" from the Greek words psyche ("mind") and delos ("manifest"), intended as an alternative to "hallucinogenic" in LSD parlance.[262]
  • Masters and Johnson begin scientific research into human sexual response in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Washington University in St. Louis.
  • January 10: The Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) is formed in Atlanta, GA.[263]
  • September 5: On The Road: Years in the works, a somewhat tamed version of Jack Kerouac's seminal novel of the Beat Generation is published.[264][265]
  • September 23: President Eisenhower signs an executive order sending Federal troops to maintain peace and order during the racial integration of Central High School in Little Rock, AR.[266]
  • October 4: The western world is shocked and deeply fearful when the USSR launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial space satellite.[267][268]
  • November 15: Albert Schweitzer, Coretta Scott King, and Benjamin Spock post an ad in The New York Times calling for an end to the nuclear arms race. SANE is later formed.[269]


  • April 21: "Heartbreak Hotel", Elvis Presley's first #1 hit, tops the charts for 8 weeks as Elvis creates teenage pandemonium in households across the western world.[259]
  • August: The FBI's COINTELPRO domestic counterintelligence program commences. The surveillance effort is initially directed against stateside communist activities, but grows to include illegal invasions of privacy targeting civil rights and anti-war activists.[260][261]


  • February: The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is formally activated, nominally obligating the US to intervene as part of collective action in case of military conflagration in the region. The non-binding SEATO commitment, however, is only invoked as justification for involvement in Vietnam by President Johnson after later escalation of hostilities there prove unpopular.[254]
  • July 9: Bill Haley's version of "Rock Around the Clock" begins an eight-week run at #1 on Billboard. The Rock & Roll era begins.[255]
  • August 28: Emmett Till Murder: A black teen is brutally slain in Mississippi after allegedly flirting with a white woman. The incident becomes a pivotal event in the growing Civil Rights movement after Till's mother allows the boy's mutilated body to be viewed, and after two white men (who later confess to the murder) are acquitted by an all-white, all-male jury.[256]
  • October 26: Village Voice: One of the earliest and most enduring alternative newspapers is launched by Ed Fancher, Dan Wolf, John Wilcock and Norman Mailer in New York City.[257]
  • December 1: Activist Rosa Parks refuses to cede her seat on a public bus in Montgomery, AL, and is arrested. The ACLU takes on and wins her case.[258]


  • April 6: On the floor of the US Senate, Senator John F. Kennedy proclaims that to "pour money, material, and men into the jungles of Indochina without at least a remote prospect of victory would be dangerously futile and self-destructive."[250]
  • April 27: The Geneva Accords grant independence to French Indochina, establishing Vietnam as a unified, independent nation in name only. The US is not a signatory to the treaty. The French are officially out of Southeast Asia, leaving a people, and a raging civil war, behind.[251]
  • May 17: Brown vs. Board of Ed: The US Supreme Court rules unanimously that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The doctrine of "Separate but equal" as a legal and moral pretext for segregation is no longer enforceable by governments, and true racial integration begins in the US.[252][253]


  • April 13: Project MKULTRA, the CIA's mind control research program which grew to include testing LSD on both volunteer and unsuspecting subjects into the 1960s, commences.[243]
  • June 19: Julius & Ethel Rosenberg are executed at Sing Sing Prison, NY, after conviction on espionage charges for their role in the communist spy ring which gave the USSR the atomic bomb and thereby initiated the nuclear arms race.[244][245][246]
  • August 15–19: The democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran is overthrown by intelligence operatives of the UK and US. The Shah of Iran is reinstalled as absolute monarch. The success of the operation begins a pattern of CIA-fomented coups and assassinations in the global fight against expansion of the political, economic, and military interests of the USSR, utlimately culminating in the fiasco of US combat involvement in Vietnam.[247]
  • December: Marilyn Monroe centerfold: the first issue of Playboy appears. Publisher Hugh Hefner becomes an early player in the coming Sexual Revolution.[248][249]


  • August: Mad Magazine debuts as a comic book before switching to standard magazine format in 1955.[238][239]
  • The National Security Agency is established, bringing most civilian US communications and technical intelligence collection under one roof. Intended as a tool against foreign enemies, the later use of the agency's extensive resources by bureaucrats and politicians against domestic, anti-war counterculture radicals is revealed and debated in congress in the 1970s.[240][241]
  • Invisible Man: Ralph Ellison's highly acclaimed novel of Black life in 20th Century America is published.[242]



  • June 25: Prelude to Vietnam: Communist forces of North Korea invade democratic South Korea with support from Red China and the USSR. The US, UK, and a host of free UN states respond and hold back the incursion. In 1953 the conflict ends where it began with each side faced-off at the 48th parallel, and where the US remains on armed alert to the present. The UK counts over 1,100 war dead, the US over 36,000.[233][234]
  • Sep 3: The first US military advisors arrive in South Vietnam.[235]



  • January: Cheap transportation for a new generation, the first Volkswagen Beetle arrives in the US. By 1970, over 4 million are on American roads, when annual US sales top out at 570,000. The "Bug" and VW "Bus", introduced in 1950, become closely associated with the hippie and counterculture eras.[227][228][229]
  • August 29: The USSR detonates its first atomic bomb with essential aid of atomic spies from the US, Great Britain, and Canada. The Cold War has commenced in earnest.[230]
  • October 1: Communist China: After a long and bloody civil war, Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaims the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Mao rules China until his death in 1976.[231][232]


  • Shelley v. Kraemer: The enforcement by states of deed restrictions prohibiting the transfer of real estate to non-Caucasians is deemed unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court, clearing the way for home ownership by Blacks and Jews in previously segregated communities.[225][226]
  • Jack Kerouac first uses the term Beat Generation in reference to the nascent intellectual culture that would ultimately give way to the so-called counterculture.[223][224]



  • Levittown: A model of post-war desire for quieter suburban life, and a signpost of the breakdown of the close-knit, urban family (where many generations all lived in cities under one roof), the first mass-produced housing subdvision breaks ground on a former potato farm in New York. Thousands of new homes are first rented (then later sold) virtually overnight, and the trend soon spreads nationwide. In the US, both the massive move from cities to the suburbs and the baby boom are underway.[213][214][215]







  • Methamphetamine is first developed in Japan. By the 1960s, "Meth" is a recreational drug, and the phrase "Speed Kills" becomes popular, even within the substance-friendly counterculture.[200][201]




(See also: Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War: Timeline; Timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement)

Timeline: chronology of events and milestones

The following people are well known for their involvement in 1960s era counterculture. Some are key incidental or contextual figures, such as Beat Generation figures who also participated directly in the later counterculture era. The primary area(s) of each figure's notability are indicated, per these figures' WorldHeritage pages. Although many of the people listed are known for civil rights activism, some figures whose primary notability was within the realm of the civil rights movement are listed elsewhere. (see also: List of civil rights leaders; Key figures of the New Left).

Key figures

In 2007, Merry Prankster Carolyn "Mountain Girl" Garcia commented, "I see remnants of that movement everywhere. It's sort of like the nuts in Ben and Jerry's ice cream -- it's so thoroughly mixed in, we sort of expect it. The nice thing is that eccentricity is no longer so foreign. We've embraced diversity in a lot of ways in this country. I do think it's done us a tremendous service."[198]

External video
2009: Peter Coyote on the legacy of the counterculture (excerpt) on YouTube

Free Speech advocate and social anthropologist Jentri Anders observed that a number of freedoms were endorsed within a countercultural community in which she lived and studied: "freedom to explore one’s potential, freedom to create one’s Self, freedom of personal expression, freedom from scheduling, freedom from rigidly defined roles and hierarchical statuses..." Additionally, Anders believed some in the counterculture wished to modify children's education so that it didn't discourage, but rather encouraged, "aesthetic sense, love of nature, passion for music, desire for reflection, or strongly marked independence."[196][197]

When asked about the prospects of the counterculture movement moving forward in the digital age, former Grateful Dead lyricist and self-styled "cyberlibertarian" John Perry Barlow said, "I started out as a teenage beatnik and then became a hippie and then became a cyberpunk. And now I'm still a member of the counterculture, but I don't know what to call that. And I'd been inclined to think that that was a good thing, because once the counterculture in America gets a name then the media can coopt it, and the advertising industry can turn it into a marketing foil. But you know, right now I'm not sure that it is a good thing, because we don't have any flag to rally around. Without a name there may be no coherent movement." [195]

External video
2014-06-14: Stanford Professor Fred Turner discusses 1960s counterculture and urges Class of '14 to embrace technology and politics to improve society. on YouTube

In the UK, commentator Peter Hitchens identifies the counterculture as one of the contributing factors to what he sees as the current malaise in British politics.[194]

Even before the counterculture movement reached its peak of influence, the concept of the adoption of socially-responsible policies by establishment corporations was discussed by economist and Nobel laureate Milton Friedman (1962), "Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundation of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible. This is a fundamentally subversive doctrine. If businessmen do have a social responsibility other than making maximum profits for stockholders, how are they to know what it is? Can self-selected private individuals decide what the social interest is?"[193]

In economic terms, it has been contended that the counterculture really only amounted to creating new marketing segments for the "hip" crowd.[192]

The "generation gap" between the affluent young and their often poverty-scarred parents was a critical component of 1960s culture. In an interview with journalist Gloria Steinem during the 1968 US presidential campaign, soon-to-be First Lady Pat Nixon exposed the generational chasm in worldview between Steinem, 20 years her junior, and herself after Steinen probed Mrs. Nixon as to her youth, role models, and lifestyle. A hardscrabble child of the Great Depression, Pat Nixon told Steinem, "I never had time to think about things like that, who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work. I haven't just sat back and thought of myself or my ideas or what I wanted to do...I've kept working. I don't have time to worry about who I admire or who I identify with. I never had it easy. I'm not at all like you...all those people who had it easy."[191]

Former liberal democrat Ronald Reagan, who later became a conservative Governor of California and 40th President of the US, remarked about one group of protesters carrying signs, "The last bunch of pickets were carrying signs that said 'Make love, not war.' The only trouble was they didn't look capable of doing either."[189][190]

Screen legend John Wayne equated aspects of 1960s social programs with the rise of the welfare state, "…I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim."[188]

The plaque honoring the victims of the August, 1970 Sterling Hall bombing, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

In 2003, author and former Free Speech activist Greil Marcus was quoted, "What happened four decades ago is history. It's not just a blip in the history of trends. Whoever shows up at a march against war in Iraq, it always takes place with a memory of the efficacy and joy and gratification of similar protests that took place in years before…It doesn't matter that there is no counterculture, because counterculture of the past gives people a sense that their own difference matters." [187]

A Columbia University teaching unit on the counterculture era notes: "Although historians disagree over the influence of the counterculture on American politics and society, most describe the counterculture in similar terms. Virtually all authors—for example, on the right, Robert Bork in Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline (New York: Regan Books,1996) and, on the left, Todd Gitlin in The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)—characterize the counterculture as self-indulgent, childish, irrational, narcissistic, and even dangerous. Even so, many liberal and leftist historians find constructive elements in it, while those on the right tend not to."[186]

External video
Firing Line1968: "Beat" author Jack Kerouac, an early critic of the hippies and the larger counterculture, debates with sociologist Dr. Lewis Yablonksy, musician Ed Sanders, and conservative commentator William F. Buckley, Jr. on US TV's on YouTube

Even the notions of "when" the counterculture subsumed the Beat Generation, when it gave way to the successor generation, and what happened in between are open for debate. According to notable UK Underground and counterculture author Barry Miles, "It seemed to me that the Seventies was when most of the things that people attribute to the sixties really happened: this was the age of extremes, people took more drugs, had longer hair, weirder clothes, had more sex, protested more violently and encountered more opposition from the establishment. It was the era of sex and drugs and rock’n’roll as Ian Drury said. The countercultural explosion of the 1960s really only involved a few thousand people in the UK and perhaps ten times that in the USA – largely because of opposition to the Vietnam war, whereas in the Seventies the ideas had spread out scross (sic) the world.[185]

The lasting impact, including unintended consequences, creative output and general legacy of the counterculture era continue to be actively discussed, debated, despised and celebrated.

A small segment of the "Wall" at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial listing the names of the nearly 60,000 American war dead.

Criticism and legacy

The English magician Aleister Crowley became an influential icon to the new alternative spiritual movements of the decade as well as for rock musicians. The Beatles included him as one of the many figures on the cover sleeve of their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band while Jimmy Page, the guitarist and co-founder of 1970s rock band Led Zeppelin was fascinated by Crowley, and owned some of his clothing, manuscripts and ritual objects, and during the 1970s bought Boleskine House, which also appears in the band's movie The Song Remains the Same. On the back cover of the Doors' album 13, Jim Morrison and the other members of the Doors are shown posing with a bust of Aleister Crowley. Timothy Leary openly acknowledged the inspiration of Crowley.[184]

The Principia Discordia is the founding text of Discordianism written by Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) and Kerry Wendell Thornley (Lord Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst). It was originally published under the title "Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost" in a limited edition of five copies in 1965. The title, literally meaning "Discordant Principles", is in keeping with the tendency of Latin to prefer hypotactic grammatical arrangements. In English, one would expect the title to be "Principles of Discord."[183]

Timothy Leary was an American psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. On September 19, 1966, Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, a religion declaring LSD as its holy sacrament, in part as an unsuccessful attempt to maintain legal status for the use of LSD and other psychedelics for the religion's adherents based on a "freedom of religion" argument. The Psychedelic Experience was the inspiration for John Lennon's song "Tomorrow Never Knows" in The Beatles' album Revolver.[181] He published a pamphlet in 1967 called Start Your Own Religion to encourage just that (see below under "writings") and was invited to attend the January 14, 1967 Human Be-In a gathering of 30,000 hippies in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park In speaking to the group, he coined the famous phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out".[182]

Recording "Give Peace a Chance". Left to right: Rosemary Leary (face not visible), Tommy Smothers (with back to camera), John Lennon, Timothy Leary, Yoko Ono, Judy Marcioni and Paul Williams, June 1, 1969.

One such hippie "high priest" was San Francisco State University Professor Stephen Gaskin. Beginning in 1966, Gaskin's "Monday Night Class" eventually outgrew the lecture hall, and attracted 1,500 hippie followers in an open discussion of spiritual values, drawing from Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu teachings. In 1970 Gaskin founded a Tennessee community called The Farm, and he still lists his religion as "Hippie."[178][179][180]

In his 1991 book, Hippies and American Values, Timothy Miller described the hippie ethos as essentially a "religious movement" whose goal was to transcend the limitations of mainstream religious institutions. "Like many dissenting religions, the hippies were enormously hostile to the religious institutions of the dominant culture, and they tried to find new and adequate ways to do the tasks the dominant religions failed to perform."[176] In his seminal, contemporaneous work, The Hippie Trip, author Lewis Yablonsky notes that those who were most respected in hippie settings were the spiritual leaders, the so-called "high priests" who emerged during that era.[177]

Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religion in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous and folk beliefs. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, hippies were likely to embrace Buddhism, Unitarian Universalism, Hinduism and the restorationist Christianity of the Jesus Movement. Some hippies embraced neo-paganism, especially Wicca.

Religion, spirituality and the occult

In his 1986 essay "From Satori to Silicon Valley",[175] cultural historian Theodore Roszak pointed out that Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture. Roszak outlines the Apple computer's development, and the evolution of 'the two Steves' (Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, the Apple's developers) into businessmen. Like them, many early computing and networking pioneers - after discovering LSD and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 1960s and early 1970s - would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world.

External video
Counterculture technology prodigy and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs' 2005 Commencement Address at Stanford University on YouTube


In France the iconoclasm and is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. The Left Bank, or Rive Gauche, group is a contingent of filmmakers associated with the French New Wave, first identified as such by Richard Roud.[174] The corresponding "right bank" group is constituted of the more famous and financially successful New Wave directors associated with Cahiers du cinéma (Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut, and Jean-Luc Godard).[174] Left Bank directors include Chris Marker, Alain Resnais, and Agnès Varda.[174] Roud described a distinctive "fondness for a kind of Bohemian life and an impatience with the conformity of the Right Bank, a high degree of involvement in literature and the plastic arts, and a consequent interest in experimental filmmaking", as well as an identification with the political left wing.[174] Other film "new waves" from around the world associated with the 1960s are New German Cinema, Czechoslovak New Wave, Brazilian Cinema Novo and Japanese New Wave. During the 1960s, the term "art film" began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., the term is often defined very broadly, to include foreign-language (non-English) "auteur" films, independent films, experimental films, documentaries and short films. In the 1960s "art film" became a euphemism in the U.S. for racy Italian and French B-movies. By the 1970s, the term was used to describe sexually explicit European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow). The 1960s was an important period in art film; the release of a number of groundbreaking films giving rise to the European art cinema which had countercultural traits in filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luis Buñuel and Bernardo Bertolucci.

(See also: List of films related to the hippie subculture) [173], a documentary of the music festival.Woodstock The music of the era was represented by films such as 1970s [172] which some say portrayed the generation as "doomed".Alice's Restaurant, which is in contrast to the film version of Arlo Guthrie's [171],Psych-Out One film-studio attempt to cash in on the hippie trend was 1968's [170] portrayed the 1968 Democratic Convention alongside the 1968 Chicago police riots which has led to it being labeled as "a fusion of cinema-vérité and political radicalism".Medium Cool [169][168] (1969) became accepted as one of the landmark films of the era.Easy Rider's "Road Trip" adventure Dennis Hopper shocked stage audiences with full-frontal nudity. Hair. The musical play Wild in the Streets, and The Trip, Psych-Out, The Love-ins use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. Examples include LSD and marijuana with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as [167] about the hippie countercultureexploitation films are 1960s Hippie exploitation films Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media. [166] struck a chord with the youth as "the alienation of the young in the 1960s was comparable to the director's image of the 1930s."Bonnie and ClydeThe counterculture was not only affected by cinema, but was also instrumental in the provision of era-relevant content and talent for the film industry.


Allmusic Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate".[160] The term, "jazz-rock" (or "jazz/rock") is often used as a synonym for the term "jazz fusion". However, some make a distinction between the two terms. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band.[161] During the late 1960s, at the same time that jazz musicians were experimenting with rock rhythms and electric instruments, rock groups such as Cream and the Grateful Dead were "beginning to incorporate elements of jazz into their music" by "experimenting with extended free-form improvisation". Other "groups such as Blood, Sweat & Tears directly borrowed harmonic, melodic, rhythmic and instrumentational elements from the jazz tradition".[162] The rock groups that drew on jazz ideas (like Soft Machine, Colosseum, Caravan, Nucleus, Chicago, Spirit and Frank Zappa) turned the blend of the two styles with electric instruments.[163] Since rock often emphasized directness and simplicity over virtuosity, jazz-rock generally grew out of the most artistically ambitious rock subgenres of the late '60s and early '70s: psychedelia, progressive rock, and the singer/songwriter movement."[164] Miles Davis' Bitches Brew sessions, recorded in August 1969 and released the following year, mostly abandoned jazz's usual swing beat in favor of a rock-style backbeat anchored by electric bass grooves. The recording "...mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion."[165] Davis also drew on the rock influence by playing his trumpet through electronic effects and pedals. While the album gave Davis a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics

Derek Bailey, Henry Kaiser and Fred Frith and the improvising groups The Art Ensemble of Chicago and AMM.

The 1960s saw the protest song gain a sense of political self-importance, with Phil Ochs's "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and Country Joe and the Fish's "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die-Rag" among the many anti-war anthems that were important to the era.[156]

As the psychedelic revolution progressed, lyrics grew more complex, (such as Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit"[158]). Long-playing albums enabled artists to make more in-depth statements than could be made in just a single song (such as the Mothers of Invention's satirical Freak Out![159]). Even the rules governing single songs were stretched, and singles lasting longer than three minutes emerged, such as Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", Arlo Guthrie's "Alice's Restaurant", and Iron Butterfly's 17-minute-long "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida.".[139]

The Doors performing for Danish television in 1968

The 1960s was also an era of rock festivals, which played an important role in spreading the counterculture across the US.[152] The Monterey Pop Festival, which launched Jimi Hendrix's career in the US, was one of the first of these festivals.[153] Britain's 1968–1970 Isle of Wight Festivals drew big names such as The Who, The Doors, Joni Mitchell, Hendrix, Dylan, and others.[154] The 1969 Woodstock Festival in New York state became a symbol of the movement,[155] although the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival drew a larger crowd.[156] Some believe the era came to an abrupt end with the infamous Altamont Free Concert held by The Rolling Stones, in which heavy-handed security from the Hells Angels resulted in the stabbing of an audience member, apparently in self-defense, as the show descended into chaos.[157]

Another hotbed of the 1960s counterculture was Austin, Texas, with two of the era's legendary music venues-the Vulcan Gas Company and the Armadillo World Headquarters-and musical talent like Janis Joplin, the 13th Floor Elevators, Shiva's Headband, the Conqueroo, and, later, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, The Rag, and cutting edge graphic artists like Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers creator Gilbert Shelton, underground comix pioneer Jack Jackson (Jaxon), and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin.[151]

Detroit's Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers" and John Sinclair's White Panther Party,[148] and MC5 performed a lengthy set before the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, where an infamous riot subsequently broke out between police and students protesting the Vietnam War and the recent assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy.[149] MC5, The Stooges and the aforementioned Velvet Underground, are now seen as an influence on the protopunk sound that would lead to punk rock and heavy metal music in the late 1970s.[150]

The Jimi Hendrix Experience performs for the Dutch television show Fenklup in March, 1967.

While the hippie scene was born in California,[145] an edgier scene emerged in New York City[146] that put more emphasis on avant-garde and art music. Bands such as The Velvet Underground came out of this underground music scene, which was predominantly centered at Andy Warhol's legendary Factory. The Velvet Underground supplied the music for the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, a series of multimedia events staged by Warhol and his collaborators in 1966 and 1967. The Velvet Underground's lyrics were considered risqué for the era, since they discussed sexual fetishism, transgender identities, and the use of drugs associated with Warhol's Factory and its superstars.[147]

The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" (e.g., Revolver, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Magical Mystery Tour) in the late 1960s.[143] In the United States, bands that exemplified the counterculture were becoming huge commercial and mainstream successes. These included The Mamas & the Papas (If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears), Big Brother and the Holding Company (Cheap Thrills), Jimi Hendrix (Are You Experienced), Jefferson Airplane (Surrealistic Pillow), The Doors and Sly and the Family Stone (Stand!).[144] Bands and other musicians, such as the Grateful Dead, Phil Ochs, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Melanie, Frank Zappa, Santana, and the Blues Project were considered key to the counterculture movement.

The music of the 1960s moved towards an electric, psychedelic version of rock, thanks largely to Bob Dylan's decision to play an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival.[139] The newly popularized electric sound of rock was then built upon and molded into psychedelic rock by artists like The 13th Floor Elevators[140] and British bands Pink Floyd and the Beatles.[141] The Beach Boys' 1966 album Pet Sounds also paved the way for later hippie acts, with Brian Wilson's writing interpreted as a "plea for love and understanding."[142] Pet Sounds served as a major source of inspiration for other contemporary acts, most notably directly inspiring the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The single "Good Vibrations" soared to number one globally, completely changing the perception of what a record could be. It was during this period that the highly anticipated album Smile was to be released. However, the project collapsed and The Beach Boys released a downgraded version called Smiley Smile, which failed to make a big commercial impact but was also highly influential, most notably on The Who's Pete Townshend.

During the early 1960s, Britain's new wave of musicians gained popularity and fame in the United States. Artists such as the Beatles paved the way for their compatriots to enter the US market.[134] The Beatles themselves were influenced by many artists, among them US singer/songwriter Bob Dylan, who was a lyrical inspiration as well as their introduction to marijuana.[135] Dylan's early career as a protest singer had been inspired by artists like Pete Seeger[136] and his hero Woody Guthrie.[137] Other folksingers, like Joan Baez and Peter, Paul and Mary, took the songs of the era to new audiences and public recognition.[138]

"The 60's were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a revolution of conscience. the Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí, with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves."

A small part of the crowd of 400,000, after the rain, Woodstock, United States, August 1969


In the 1960s, the Dada-influenced art group Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be "an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth."[131] Black Mask disrupted cultural events in New York by giving made up flyers of art events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks.[132] After, the Motherfuckers grew out of a combination of Black Mask and another group called Angry Arts.