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Cracker (food)

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Title: Cracker (food)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hardtack, Water biscuit, Field ration, Animal cracker, Bath Oliver
Collection: Crackers (Food), Snack Foods
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Cracker (food)

Water biscuit crackers, plain and as part of a snack, with herring and garlic cream topping and a parsley garnish
Place of origin United States
Creator Theodore Pearson
Main ingredients Flour, water
Cookbook: Cracker 
Reproduction of 19th century hardtack, in the Army (square) and Navy (round) styles
Beaten biscuits are another relative of crackers

A cracker is a baked food typically made from flour. Flavorings or seasonings, such as salt, herbs, seeds, and/or cheese, may be added to the dough or sprinkled on top before baking. Crackers are often branded as a nutritious and convenient way to consume a staple food or cereal grain.

Crackers are eaten on their own or can accompany other food items, such as cheese or meat slices; dips; or soft spreads such as jam, butter, or peanut butter. Bland or mild crackers are sometimes used as a palate cleanser in food product testing or flavor testing, between samples. A precedent for the modern cracker can be found in nautical ship biscuits, military hardtack, and sacramental bread.

Ancestors of the cracker can be found in ancient flatbreads, such as lavash, pita, matzo, flatbrød, and crisp bread. Asian analogues include papadum and senbei.


  • Types 1
  • Cracker gallery 2
  • See also 3
  • External links 4


The holes in crackers are called "docking" holes. The holes are placed in the dough to stop overly large air pockets from forming in the cracker while baking. Crackers come in many shapes and sizes - round, square, triangular, etc.

In American English, the name "cracker" is most often applied to flat biscuits with a savory, salty flavor, in distinction from a "cookie", which may be similar to a "cracker" in appearance and texture, but has a sweet flavor. Crackers may be further distinguished from cookies by the manner in which they are made. Crackers are made merely by layering dough and cookies may be made in many of the same manners a cake would be prepared. Crackers sometimes have cheese or spices as ingredients, or even chicken stock. Crackers are typically salted flour products.

Brands including Bremner Wafers, Captain's Wafers, Club Crackers, Town House crackers, Graham crackers, Ritz Crackers, Cream crackers and water biscuits are sometimes spread with cheese, pâté, or mousse.

Saltine and oyster crackers are often used in or served with soup.

Mock apple pie is made from Ritz (or similar) crackers.

Graham crackers and digestive biscuits are also eaten as cookies, although they were both invented for their supposed health benefits.

Cracker gallery

Arare, small Japanese rice crackers 
Bagel chips 
Cheez-It crackers made by Kellogg 
Mein gon Chinese American crispy fried "noodles" 
A bowl of oyster crackers 
Japanese Senbei rice cracker with seaweed topping 
Triscuit shredded wheat crackers 
Trio of Water biscuits: Left: Supermarket own brand, Right: Excelsior from Jamaica, Top: Carr's Table Cracker 

See also

External links

  • Website of Bent's Cookie Factory in Milton, MA, purveyors of "water crackers" and hardtack during the American Civil War
  • Make your own cheddar crackers
  • Make your own thin wheat crackers
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