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Created kind

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Created kind

Part of a series on
Creationism

History of creationism
Neo-creationism

Types of creationism

Young Earth creationism
Old Earth creationism
Gap creationism
Day-age creationism
Progressive creationism
Intelligent design

Theology

Genesis creation narrative
Framework interpretation
Genesis as an allegory
Omphalos hypothesis

Creation science

Baraminology
Flood geology
Creation geophysics
Creationist cosmologies
Intelligent design

Controversy

Creation myth
History
Public education
Teach the Controversy

Particular religious views

Hindu · Islamic · Jewish

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Baraminology is a creationist taxonomic system that classifies animals into groups called "created kinds" or "baramins" (pronounced with accent on second syllable) according to the account of creation in the book of Genesis and other parts of the Bible. Its proponents claim that kinds cannot interbreed and have no evolutionary relationship to one another.[1]

Proponents of this classification reject the concept of common descent and that of accepted biological classification despite the observation that distinct kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, and species of organisms share unique DNA identifiers indicating a past genetic relationship in the form of a single population of shared ancestors as the only viable way such groups could share these markers. Those identifiers might include for example retro-virus DNA insertions between humans and chimpanzees indicating additional DNA was inserted by the assimilation of the DNA of endogenous retroviruses 'before' a speciation event between these two organisms at some distant point in their ancestral line.

Baraminology developed as a subfield of creation science in the 1990s among creationists that included Walter ReMine and Kurt Wise. Creation science is considered to be pseudoscience by the scientific community,[2][3][4][5] which accepts the evidence for the common ancestry of all life on Earth.

Interpretations of Biblical kinds

The Bible mentions kinds in several passages. Genesis 1:24–25 gives an account of the creation of living things:

24: And God said: 'Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind. ' And it was so. 25: And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.


Genesis 7:13–16 states that the cattle are a kind. In Deuteronomy 14:11–18 the owl, raven, and hawk are presented as distinct kinds. Apart from what is implied by these passages, the Bible does not specify what a kind is.

Modern versions of the Old Testament are translations of the Biblical Hebrew text. The Hebrew word מִין min is used exclusively in a set phrase of the form לְ l+מִין min+possessive pronoun suffix, which is translated as after their/his/her kind. Several other words are translated into English with the word kind, including the Leviticus 19:19 usage: כִלְאַיֶם kila'im. The word min is never used in relation to humans, but the Greek word γένος genos is used in 2 Maccabees 7:28 "... and so was mankind made likewise". The fact that kind is used in this set phrase, among other reasons, has led to the hypothesis that it is not a referential noun in Biblical Hebrew, but derived from לְמִינֶה l'mineh = of him/herself, of themselves.[6][7][8]

History

One literal creationist interpretation of the Bible is that each kind was brought into direct physical existence by God and that consequently each original animal had no ancestry, common or otherwise. Baraminology emerged from an effort by young Earth creationists to make this interpretation scientifically appealing to those with a limited or misinformed understanding of how genetic diversity occurs.[9] The idea of a baramin was proposed in 1941 by Frank Marsh, but was criticized for a lack of formal definition.[9] In 1990 Kurt Wise and Walter ReMine introduced baraminology in pursuit of acceptable criteria for membership in a baramin.[9]

ReMine's work specified four groupings: holobaramins, monobaramins, apobaramins, and polybaramins. These are, respectively, all things of one kind; some things of the same kind; groups of kinds; and any mixed grouping of things.[10] These groups correspond to the concepts of holophyly, monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly used in cladistics.[11]

Classification methodology

Conditions for membership in a (holo)baramin and methods of classification have changed over time. These include the ability to create viable offspring, and morphological similarity.[12][13]

Some creationists have suggested that kind refers to species, while others believe it might mean any animal which may be distinguished in some way from another.[14][15]

Another criterion is "baramin distance" which is based on the similarity of two or more organisms' characters and uses methods borrowed from phenetics.[16]

Some advocates believe that major differences in the appearance and behavior of two organisms indicates lack of common ancestry. Others point to inter-fertility capability as a possible indicator.[17] In all cases, methods found to place humans and other primates into the same baramin have been discarded.[18][19][20]

Baraminologist Roger W. Sanders advocates a subjective approach to classification over a measurement-based one:[21]

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Criticism

Baraminology has been heavily criticized for its lack of rigorous testing and for post-study rejection of data not supporting desired findings.[20][22] Universal common descent, which states that all life shares a common ancestor, is well-established and tested, and so this scientific theory is commonly described by biologists as the fact of evolution.[23] However neither cladistics, the field devoted to classifying living things according to the ancestral relationships between them, nor the scientific consensus on transitional fossils are accepted by baraminologists.[24]

Despite voluminous evidence for evolution at above and below the species level (population variation within one species and between one generation and another), baraminologists reject universal common descent and the emergence of new families and higher taxa.[24]

See also

References

Further reading

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