World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Cuyahoga River

Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River watershed with its upstream branches
Origin [1] Confluence of
East Branch Cuyahoga River[2] and
West Branch Cuyahoga River[3]
near Pond Road and Rapids Road, Burton, Geauga County, Ohio
Lake Erie at Cleveland,
Cuyahoga County, Ohio[1]
Basin countries United States
Length 84.9 miles (136.6 km)[4]
Source elevation 1,093 feet (333.1 m)[2][3]
Mouth elevation 571 feet (174.0 m)[1]
Basin area 809 square miles (2,100 km2)[5]
The Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park

The Cuyahoga River[6] ( , or )[7][8][9][10] is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States and feeds Lake Erie. The river is famous for being "the river that caught fire," helping to spur the environmental movement in the late 1960s. Native Americans called this winding water "Kahyonhá:ke," which means "on the river" or "at the river" in Mohawk. Cuyahoga is an English spelling of Kahyonhá:ke. The English often write Cu for Ga, ya for yon, ho for ha, and ga for ke. The area from Sandusky Bay to Cleveland is described as Canahoque: The Seat of War, The Mart of Trade, & Chief Hunting Grounds of the six New York Iroquois on the Lakes & the Ohio [2].


  • Course 1
  • History 2
    • Environmental concerns 2.1
    • Modifications 2.2
      • Ice-breaking 2.2.1
      • Flooding 2.2.2
  • Dams 3
    • Ohio and Erie Canal diversion dam 3.1
    • Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam 3.2
    • Dams in Cuyahoga Falls 3.3
    • Munroe Falls Dam 3.4
    • Kent Dam 3.5
  • Lists 4
    • Variant names 4.1
    • Dams 4.2
    • Tributaries 4.3
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
    • General references 7.1
  • External links 8


The Cuyahoga watershed begins its 100-mile (160 km) journey in Hambden, Ohio, flowing southward to the confluence of the East Branch Cuyahoga River and West Branch Cuyahoga River in Burton, where the Cuyahoga River officially begins.[1] It continues on its 84.9 miles (136.6 km) journey flowing southward to Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, where it turns sharply north and flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Park in northern Summit County and southern Cuyahoga County. It then flows through Independence, Valley View, Cuyahoga Heights, Newburgh Heights and Cleveland to its northern terminus, emptying into Lake Erie. The Cuyahoga River and its tributaries drain 813 square miles (2,110 km2) of land in portions of six counties.

The river is a relatively recent geological formation, formed by the advance and retreat of ice sheets during the last ice age. The final glacial retreat, which occurred 10,000–12,000 years ago, caused changes in the drainage pattern near Akron. This change in pattern caused the originally south-flowing Cuyahoga to flow to the north. As its newly reversed currents flowed toward Lake Erie, the river carved its way around glacial debris left by the receding ice sheet, resulting in the river's winding U-shape. These meanderings stretched the length of the river (which was only 30 miles (50 km) when traveled directly) into a 100-mile (160 km) trek from its headwaters to its mouth. The depth of the river (except where noted below) ranges from 3 to 6 ft (1 to 2 m).


Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor charged with exploring the Connecticut Western Reserve, first arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga in 1796 and subsequently located a settlement there, which became Cleveland, Ohio.

The river was one of the features along which the "Greenville Treaty Line" ran beginning in 1795, per the Treaty of Greenville that ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country, effectively becoming the western boundary of the United States and remaining so briefly.

Environmental concerns

City pump station discharges sewage into Cuyahoga River (1973)

The Cuyahoga River, at times during the 20th century, was one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. The reach from Akron to Cleveland was devoid of fish. A 1968 Kent State University symposium described one section of the river:

From 1,000 feet [300 m] below Lower Harvard Bridge to Newburgh and South Shore Railroad Bridge, the channel becomes wider and deeper and the level is controlled by Lake Erie. Downstream of the railroad bridge to the harbor, the depth is held constant by dredging, and the width is maintained by piling along both banks. The surface is covered with the brown oily film observed upstream as far as the Southerly Plant effluent. In addition, large quantities of black heavy oil floating in slicks, sometimes several inches thick, are observed frequently. Debris and trash are commonly caught up in these slicks forming an unsightly floating mess. Anaerobic action is common as the dissolved oxygen is seldom above a fraction of a part per million. The discharge of cooling water increases the temperature by 10 to 15 °F [5.6 to 8.3 °C]. The velocity is negligible, and sludge accumulates on the bottom. Animal life does not exist. Only the algae Oscillatoria grows along the piers above the water line. The color changes from gray-brown to rusty brown as the river proceeds downstream. Transparency is less than 0.5 feet [0.15 m] in this reach. This entire reach is grossly polluted.[11]

At least 13 fires have been reported on the Cuyahoga River, the first occurring in 1868.[12] The largest river fire in 1952 caused over $1 million in damage to boats, a bridge, and a riverfront office building.[13] On June 22, 1969, a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays".[14] The fire did eventually spark major changes as well as the article from Time, but in the immediate aftermath very little attention was given to the incident and was not considered a major news story in the Cleveland media. Furthermore, the conflagration that sparked Time's outrage was in June 1969, but the pictures they displayed on the cover and as part of the article were from the much more dangerous and costly 1952 fire. No pictures of the 1969 fire are known to exist, as local media did not arrive on the scene until after the fire was under control. The 1969 fire caused approximately $50,000 in damage, mostly to an adjacent railroad bridge.[12]

A view of the river from the Ohio and Erie Canal Tow-Path Trail

The 1969 Cuyahoga River fire helped spur an avalanche of water pollution control activities, resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). As a result, large point sources of pollution on the Cuyahoga have received significant attention from the OEPA in recent decades. These events are referred to in Randy Newman's 1972 song "Burn On," R.E.M.'s 1986 song "Cuyahoga," and Adam Again's 1992 song "River on Fire." Great Lakes Brewing Company of Cleveland named its Burning River Pale Ale after the event.

Water quality has improved and, partially in recognition of this improvement, the Cuyahoga was designated one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998.[15] Despite these efforts, pollution continues to exist in the Cuyahoga River due to other sources of pollution, including urban runoff, nonpoint source problems, combined sewer overflows,[16] and stagnation due to water impounded by dams. For this reason, the Environmental Protection Agency classified portions of the Cuyahoga River watershed as one of 43 Great Lakes Areas of Concern. The most polluted portions of the river now generally meet established aquatic life water quality standards except near dam impoundments. The reasons for not meeting standards near the dam pools are habitat and fish passage issues rather than water quality. River reaches that were once devoid of fish now support 44 species. The most recent survey in 2008 revealed the two most common species in the river were hogsuckers and spotfin shiners, both moderately sensitive to water quality. Habitat issues within the 5.6 miles (9.0 km) navigation channel still preclude a robust fishery in that reach. Recreation water quality standards (using bacteria as indicators) are generally met during dry weather conditions, but are often exceeded during significant rains due to nonpoint sources and combined sewer overflows.

Near the mouth of the river in Cleveland's Flats


The river's mouth at Lake Erie in Cleveland, circa 1920

The lower Cuyahoga River has been subjected to numerous changes. Originally, the Cuyahoga river met Lake Erie approximately 4,000 feet (1.2 km) west of its current mouth, forming a shallow marsh. The current mouth is man-made, and it lies just west of present-day downtown Cleveland, which allows shipping traffic to flow freely between the river and the lake. Additionally, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers periodically dredges the navigation channel of the otherwise shallow river to a depth of 27 feet (8.2 m), along the river's lower 5 miles (8.0 km), from its mouth up to the Mittal Steel Cleveland Works steel mills, to accommodate Great Lakes freighter traffic which serves the bulk (asphalt, gravel, petroleum, salt, steel, and other) industries located along the lower Cuyahoga River banks in Cleveland's Flats district. The Corps of Engineers has also straightened river banks and widened turning basins in the Federal Navigation Channel on the lower Cuyahoga River to facilitate maritime operations.


The United States Coast Guard sometimes conducts fall and spring ice-breaking operations along Lake Erie and the lower Cuyahoga River to prolong the Great Lakes shipping season, depending on shipping schedules and weather conditions.


Some attempts (including dams and dredging) have been made to control flooding along the Cuyahoga River basin. As a result of speculative land development, buildings have been erected on many flat areas that are only a few feet above normal river levels. Sudden strong rain or snow storms can create severe flooding in these low-lying areas.

The upper Cuyahoga River, starting at 1,093 feet (333 m) over 84 miles (135 km) from its mouth, drops in elevation fairly steeply, creating falls and rapids in some places; the lower Cuyahoga River only drops several feet along the last several miles of the lower river to 571 feet (174 m)[1] at the mouth on Lake Erie, resulting in relatively slow-moving waters that can take a while to drain compared to the upper Cuyahoga.

Elevation at confluence points
River Mile: Elevation: Tributary:
1,235 feet (0.376 km)
571 feet (174 m) Mouth: at Lake Erie
4.46 miles (7.18 km)
581 feet (177 m) Kingsbury Run (Cuyahoga River)
5.345 miles (8.602 km)
577 feet (176 m) Burk Branch (Cuyahoga River)
7.2 miles (11.6 km)
577 feet (176 m) Big Creek (Cuyahoga River)
11.12 miles (17.90 km)
591 feet (180 m) West Creek (Cuyahoga River)
11.4 miles (18.3 km)
587 feet (179 m) Mill Creek (Cuyahoga River)
16.36 miles (26.33 km)
610 feet (190 m) Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River)
18.08 miles (29.10 km)
from Willow Lake; downstream from Ohio and Erie Canal dam
20.88 miles (33.60 km)
627 feet (191 m) Chippewa Creek (Cuyahoga River)
24.16 miles (38.88 km)
636 feet (194 m) Brandywine Creek (Cuyahoga River)
25.72 miles (41.39 km)
646 feet (197 m) Stanford Run
28.98 miles (46.64 km)
676 feet (206 m) Boston Run (Cuyahoga River)
31.47 miles (50.65 km)
699 feet (213 m) Langes Run
33.08 miles (53.24 km)
709 feet (216 m) Furnace Run (Cuyahoga River)
37.16 miles (59.80 km)
728 feet (222 m) Yellow Creek (Cuyahoga River)
39.78 miles (64.02 km)
738 feet (225 m) Mud Brook (Cuyahoga River)
42.27 miles (68.03 km)
758 feet (231 m) Little Cuyahoga River
45.8 miles (73.7 km)
840 feet (260 m) Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam
49.9 miles (80.3 km)
1,007 feet (307 m) Cuyahoga Falls Low Head Dam
52.1 miles (83.8 km)
1,004 feet (306 m) Fish Creek (Cuyahoga River)
53.7 miles (86.4 km)
1,010 feet (310 m) Plum Creek (Cuyahoga River)
56.8 miles (91.4 km)
1,027 feet (313 m) Breakneck Creek (Cuyahoga River)
57.97 miles (93.29 km)
1,063 feet (324 m) Lake Rockwell Dam
59.95 miles (96.48 km)
1,070 feet (330 m) Eckert Ditch (Cuyahoga River)
63.45 miles (102.11 km)
1,109 feet (338 m) Yoder Ditch
66.33 miles (106.75 km)
1,096 feet (334 m) Harper Ditch (Cuyahoga River)
68.98 miles (111.01 km)
71.63 miles (115.28 km)
No data
74.29 miles (119.56 km)
76.64 miles (123.34 km)
1,010 feet (310 m) Black Creek (Cuyahoga River)
79.15 miles (127.38 km)
1,093 feet (333 m) Sawyer Brook (Cuyahoga River)
83.29 miles (134.04 km)
1,122 feet (342 m) Bridge Creek (Cuyahoga River)
84.9 miles (136.6 km)
1,093 feet (333 m) Source: East and West Branch Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River-tributary confluence elevations by River miles

Some tributary elevations above are higher than the Cuyahoga River elevation, because of small waterfalls at or near their confluences; and distances are measured in "river miles" along the river's length from its mouth on Lake Erie.


Ohio and Erie Canal diversion dam

The Brecksville Dam[1] at river mile 20 is the first dam upstream of Lake Erie. It affects fish populations by restricting their passage.[17] The EPA is currently attempting to shut down and remove the dam.[18]

Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam

FirstEnergy Dam

The largest dam is the Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam, also known as the FirstEnergy Dam, on the border between Cuyahoga Falls and Akron. This 57-foot dam has for over 90 years submerged the falls for which the City of Cuyahoga Falls was named; more to the point of water quality, it has created a large stagnant pool with low dissolved oxygen.[19]

The FirstEnergy Dam was built by the Northern Ohio Traction and Light Co. in 1912 to serve the dual functions of generating hydropower for its local streetcar system and providing cooling-water storage for a coal-burning power plant; however, the hydropower operation was discontinued in 1958, and the coal-burning plant was decommissioned in 1991.[20] Some environmental groups and recreational groups want the dam removed.[21] Others contend such an effort would be expensive and complicated, for at least two reasons: first, the formerly hollow dam was filled in with concrete in the early 1990s, and second, because of the industrial history of Cuyahoga Falls, the sediment upstream of the dam is expected to contain hazardous chemicals, possibly including heavy metals and PCBs. The Ohio EPA estimated removal of the dam would cost $5–10 million, and removal of the contaminated sediments $60 million.[22] The dam is licensed through 2041.

Advanced Hydro Solutions (AHS), a company based in Summit Metro Parks, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Ohio EPA. At public meetings held on July 27, 2005, the proposed project, which would generate enough electricity to power 2000 homes, encountered substantial opposition. On May 25, 2007, AHS suffered a setback in its effort to develop the site. The United States Court of Appeals for the sixth circuit denied its application to conduct tests at the site, refusing to overturn a lower court's ruling that the MetroParks had the right to deny AHS access to conduct the tests.[23] In a letter dated June 14, 2007, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) terminated AHS's application for the Integrated Licensing Permit without prejudice, citing the company's failure to adhere to strict timelines. FERC will allow AHS to refile if it can conduct the required studies and move forward with the project.[24][25] The final decision from the FERC on the project was due in July 2009.[22] On June 12, 2009, AHS dropped its permit and terminated the project.[26]

Dams in Cuyahoga Falls

Two dams in Cuyahoga Falls, the Sheraton and LeFever Dams, were scheduled for demolition in late 2012.[27] This is the result of an agreement between the City of Cuyahoga Falls, which owns the dams, and the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District, which will provide $1 million of funding to remove the dams. This schedule was delayed, in part because of complications with the bidding process, and because of requirements from the Army Corps of Engineers. On December 12, 2012, the ACOE issued a permit, allowing the demolition to proceed.[28] As part of the project, a water trail will be developed.[29] As of early June, 2013, dam removal is scheduled to begin in June and end in July, 2013.[30] This will bring about a mile of the river back to its natural state, remove 35 feet of structures, and expose an equivalent quantity of whitewater for recreation. As of August 20, 2013, both small dams had effectively been totally removed, and there is essentially no impoundment of water now. Cleanup and remediation of the general area within downtown Cuyahoga Falls remains to be completed.

Munroe Falls Dam

Two other dams, in Kent and in Munroe Falls, though smaller, have had an even greater impact on water quality due to the lower gradient in their respective reaches. For this reason, the Ohio EPA required the communities to mitigate the effects of the dams.

The Munroe Falls Dam was modified in 2005.[31] Work on this project uncovered a natural waterfall.[32] Given this new knowledge about the riverbed, some interested parties, including Summit County, campaigned for complete removal of the dam. The revised plan, initially denied on September 20, 2005, was approved by the Munroe Falls City Council on a week later. The 11.5 foot sandstone dam has since been removed, and in its place now is a natural ledge with a 4.5 foot drop at its greatest point.[33][34]

Kent Dam

The Kent Dam was bypassed in 2004.[35]


Variant names

According to the United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, the Cuyahoga River has also been known as:[1]

  • Cajahage River
  • Cayagaga River
  • Cayahoga River
  • Cayhahoga River
  • Cayohoga River
  • Cujahaga River
  • Cuyohaga River
  • Gichawaga Creek
  • Goyahague River
  • Gwahago River
  • River de Saguin
  • Rivière Blanche
  • Rivière à Seguin
  • Saguin River
  • Yashahia
  • Cayahaga River
  • Cayanhoga River
  • Cayhoga River
  • Coyahoga River
  • Cuahoga River
  • Guyahoga River
  • Gwahoga River
  • Kiahagoh River
  • White River[36]


Dams on the Cuyahoga River
Coordinates Elevation Locality County Description
[39] Ohio and Erie Canal diversion dam, built 1825–1827
upstream from SR 82 Chippewa Road-West Aurora Road bridge,
downstream from Station Road-Bridle Trail bridge
[40] 840 feet (260 m)[40] Summit Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam, built in 1912,
upstream from SR 8 North Main Street-State Road bridge,
downstream from SR 59 Front Street bridge
[42] 1,007 feet (307 m)[42] Cuyahoga Falls Summit Cuyahoga Falls Low Head Dam,
upstream from Portage Trail bridge,
downstream from SR 8/SR 59 bridge
[43] Kent Portage Kent dam,
upstream from SR 59/SR 43 Haymaker Parkway bridge,
immediately downstream from West Main Street bridge
[44] 1,063 feet (324 m)[44] Franklin Township Portage Lake Rockwell Dam,
upstream from Ravenna Road bridge,
downstream from SR 14 Cleveland-East Liverpool Road bridge


Generally, rivers are larger than creeks, which are larger than brooks, which are larger than runs. Runs may be dry except during or after a rain, at which point they can flash flood and be torrential.

Default is standard order from mouth to upstream:[3]

Tributaries on the Cuyahoga River
Coordinates Elevation Tributary Municipality County Description
[45] 577 feet (176 m)[45] Old River (Cuyahoga River) Cleveland Cuyahoga near Division Avenue/River Road
[46] 581 feet (177 m)[46] Kingsbury Run (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near Independence Road and Rockefeller Avenue
[47] 581 feet (177 m)[47] Morgan Run (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near Independence Road and Pershing Avenue
[48] 577 feet (176 m)[48] Burk Branch (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near CW steel mill
[49] 577 feet (176 m)[49] Big Creek (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near Jennings Road, Harvard Avenue and Valley Road
[50] 591 feet (180 m)[50] West Creek (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near SR-17 Granger Road, Valley Belt Road, and I-77
[51] 587 feet (179 m)[51] Mill Creek (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga near Canal Road and Warner Road
[52] 610 feet (190 m)[52] Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga,
near Canal Road and Tinkers Creek Road
18.08 0 feet (0 m) from Willow Lake
[53] 627 feet (191 m)[53] Chippewa Creek (Cuyahoga River) Cuyahoga
near Chippewa Creek Drive and Riverview Road
[54] 636 feet (194 m)[54] Brandywine Creek (Cuyahoga River) Summit near Highland Road
[55] 646 feet (197 m)[55] Stanford Run Summit near Stanford Road
[56] 650 feet (200 m)[56] Grannys Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit near Boston Mills Road and Riverview Road
[57] 689 feet (210 m)[57] Slipper Run Summit near SR-303 Main Street/West Streetsboro Road and Riverview Road
[58] 676 feet (206 m)[58] Boston Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit near East Mill Street and West Mill Street
Peninsula Creek Summit
[59] 689 feet (210 m)[59] Haskell Run Summit near Akron-Peninsula Road
[60] 692 feet (211 m)[60] Salt Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit near Akron-Peninsula Road and Truxell Road
[61] 699 feet (213 m)[61] Dickerson Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit near
[62] 699 feet (213 m)[62] Langes Run Summit
[63] 709 feet (216 m)[63] Robinson Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[65] 709 feet (216 m)[65] Furnace Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[66] 728 feet (222 m)[66] Yellow Creek (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[67] 728 feet (222 m)[67] Woodward Creek (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[68] 738 feet (225 m)[68] Sand Run (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[69] 738 feet (225 m)[69] Mud Brook (Cuyahoga River) Summit
[70] 758 feet (231 m)[70] Little Cuyahoga River Summit
[71] 1,004 feet (306 m)[71] Fish Creek (Cuyahoga River) Stow Summit
near North River Road between Marsh Road and Verner Road
[72] 1,010 feet (310 m)[72] Plum Creek (Cuyahoga River) Kent Portage near Cherry Street and Mogadore Road
[73] 1,027 feet (313 m)[73] Breakneck Creek (Cuyahoga River) Kent/Franklin Township border Portage near River Bend Boulevard and Beechwold Drive
Twin Lakes Outlet
[74] 1,070 feet (330 m)[74] Eckert Ditch (Cuyahoga River) Portage
[75] 1,109 feet (338 m)[75] Yoder Ditch Portage
Bollingbrook, Portage
[76] 1,096 feet (334 m)[76] Harper Ditch (Cuyahoga River) Portage
[77] 1,010 feet (310 m)[77] Black Creek (Cuyahoga River) Portage near SR-700 Welshfield Limaville Road between SR-254 Pioneer Trail and CR-224 Hankee Road
[78] 1,093 feet (333 m)[78] Sawyer Brook (Cuyahoga River) Geauga near Main Market Road US-422 and Claridon Troy Road
[79] 1,122 feet (342 m)[79] Bridge Creek (Cuyahoga River) Geauga
[3] 1,093 feet (333 m)[3] West Branch Cuyahoga River Geauga
[2] 1,093 feet (333 m)[2] East Branch Cuyahoga River Geauga

See also


  1. ^ The Ohio and Erie Canal diversion dam is located under the Brecksville-Northfield High Level Bridge over the Cuyahoga River valley.
  2. ^ a b RM stands for "river mile" and refers to the method used by federal and state government agencies to identify locations along a water body. Mileage is defined as the lineal distance from the downstream terminus (i.e. mouth) and moving in an upstream direction.
  3. ^ In terms of "importance":
    • Little Cuyahoga River and West Branch Cuyahoga River articles,
    • followed by the other creeks going from mouth to upstream.
    Remember to ensure disambiguity of a name (i.e. search GNIS) before creating a new article. There are WorldHeritage articles for Brandywine Creek (Cuyahoga River) and Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River). NOTE: GNIS and County reference links for Tributary articles to be written.


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Cuyahoga River".  
  2. ^ a b c d "East Branch Cuyahoga River".  
  3. ^ a b c d "West Branch Cuyahoga River".  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Upper Cuyahoga River Watershed TMDLs Figure 2. Schematic Representation of the Upper Cuyahoga Watershed" (PDF). Ohio EPA. 
  5. ^ "Map of Ohio watersheds" (GIF).  
  6. ^ United States Geological Survey Hydrological Unit Code: 04-11-00-02
  7. ^ Feran, Tom (February 13, 2004). "Shooing the hog out of Cuyahoga". The Plain Dealer. 
  8. ^ Feran, Tom (June 2, 2006). "It's a Cleveland thing, so to speak". The Plain Dealer. 
  9. ^  
  10. ^ McIntyre, Michael K. (June 28, 2009). "How to pronounce 'Cuyahoga' turns into a national debate: Tipoff".  
  11. ^ "The Cuyahoga River Watershed: Proceedings of a symposium commemorating the dedication of Cunningham Hall." Kent State University, November 1, 1968.
  12. ^ a b Adler, Jonathan H. (2003). "Fables of the Cuyahoga: Reconstructing a History of Environmental Protection" (PDF). Fordham Environmental Law Journal ( 
  13. ^ "Cuyahoga River Area of Concern".  
  14. ^ "The Cities: The Price of Optimism".  
  15. ^ "Cuyahoga: Ohio's American Heritage River" (PDF). Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  16. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cuyahoga River Area of Concern, June 20, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  17. ^ "Cuyahoga River Area of Concern".  
  18. ^ "Brecksville dam bad for river, good for canal". 
  19. ^ Ohio EPA, Biological and Water Quality Study of the Cuyahoga River and Selected Tributaries, August 15, 1999. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  20. ^ Search Results
  21. ^ Kent Environmental Council, Newsletter June 2005. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  22. ^ a b c Downing, Bob (July 28, 2005). "Hydropower plan hits rough water". Akron Beacon Journal. 
  23. ^ Potter, Mark R (June 3, 2007). "Still no Gorge park access for company". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. 
  24. ^ Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Letter to Metro Hydroelectric Company, June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  25. ^ Bob Downing, Akron Beacon-Journal, Agency Dismisses Company's Park Plans, June 16, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  26. ^ Downing, Bob (June 12, 2009). "Foes help sink Gorge hydro project". Akron Beacon Journal. 
  27. ^ Walsh, Ellin (August 2, 2012). "Dismantling of dams along Cuyahoga River to get under way in September". Falls News Press. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  28. ^ Deike, John (December 22, 2011). "Downtown dams will come down". Cuyahoga Falls Patch. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
  29. ^ Wiandt, Steve (November 27, 2011). "Downtown dams will come down". Falls News Press. Retrieved December 28, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Construction zone will soon be set up for removal of two Cuyahoga Falls dams". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013. 
  31. ^ Summit County, Ohio, Munroe Falls Dam. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  32. ^ NewsNet5, Crews Unearth Natural Waterfall, September 13, 2005. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  33. ^ Downing, Bob (September 22, 2005). "Munroe Falls dam to stand, but shorter". Akron Beacon Journal. 
  34. ^ AP / Cleveland Plain Dealer. Dam removal to return Cuyahoga to natural, free-flowing state. Posted September 29, 2005; retrieved October 6, 2005.
  35. ^ City of Kent, Ohio, Cuyahoga River Restoration Project FINAL SUMMARY. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  36. ^ White, Richard (1991). The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815. Cambridge University Press. pp. 188–189, fn 4.  
  37. ^ a b "3745-1-26 Cuyahoga river." ( 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Lower Cuyahoga River Watershed TMDLs Figure 2. Schematic of the Lower Cuyahoga River Watershed" ( 
  39. ^ Ohio and Erie Canal diversion dam manually plotted in Google.
  40. ^ a b "Gorge Metropolitan Park Dam".   manually adjusted in Google
  41. ^ a b c d e f "Middle Cuyahoga TMDL,Figure 2. Schematic of the Middle Cuyahoga River" ( 
  42. ^ a b "Cuyahoga Falls Low Head Dam".   manually adjusted in Google
  43. ^ Kent dam manually plotted from Google Maps
  44. ^ a b "Lake Rockwell Dam".   manually adjusted in Google
  45. ^ a b "Old River".  
  46. ^ a b "Kingsbury Run (Cuyahoga River)".  
  47. ^ a b "Morgan Run".  
  48. ^ a b "Burk Branch".  
  49. ^ a b "Big Creek".  
  50. ^ a b "West Creek".  
  51. ^ a b "Mill Creek".  
  52. ^ a b "Tinkers Creek".  
  53. ^ a b "Chippewa Creek".  
  54. ^ a b "Brandywine Creek".  
  55. ^ a b "Stanford Run".  
  56. ^ a b "Grannys Run".  
  57. ^ a b "Slipper Run".  
  58. ^ a b "Boston Run".  
  59. ^ a b "Haskell Run".  
  60. ^ a b "Salt Run".  
  61. ^ a b "Dickerson Run".  
  62. ^ a b "Langes Run".  
  63. ^ a b "Robinson Run".  
  64. ^ "Furnace Run". Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization. 
  65. ^ a b "Furnace Run".  
  66. ^ a b "Yellow Creek".  
  67. ^ a b "Woodward Creek".  
  68. ^ a b "Sand Run".  
  69. ^ a b "Mud Brook (Cuyahoga River)".  
  70. ^ a b "Little Cuyahoga River".  
  71. ^ a b "Fish Creek (Cuyahoga River)".  
  72. ^ a b "Plum Creek".  
  73. ^ a b "Breakneck Creek (Cuyahoga River)".  
  74. ^ a b "Eckert Ditch (Cuyahoga River)".  
  75. ^ a b "Yoder Ditch".  
  76. ^ a b "Harper Ditch (Cuyahoga River)".  
  77. ^ a b "Black Creek".  
  78. ^ a b "Sawyer Brook".  
  79. ^ a b "Bridge Creek".  

General references

  • "Lower Cuyahoga River Watershed TMDLs, Appendix D. Aquatic Life Use Attainment Status for Stations Sampled in the Cuyahoga River Basin July–September, 1999–2000" (PDF). Ohio EPA. 
  • Keren, Phil (2004). "Removal could be in dam's future". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. 
  • Keren, Phil (2005). "Change proposed for Gorge Dam". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. 
  • Passell, Lauren (2005). "Metro Parks discuss future of Gorge Dam". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. 
  • Akron Beacon Journal Editorial (2005). All Wet. Retrieved July 29, 2005.
  • AP / Cleveland Plain Dealer. Dam removal to return Cuyahoga to natural, free-flowing state. Posted September 29, 2005; retrieved October 6, 2005.
  • Kuehner, John C (March 2, 2006). "Hydroelectric project has upstream battle". Cleveland Plain Dealer. 
  • Potter, Mark R (June 3, 2007). "Still no Gorge park access for company". Cuyahoga Falls News-Press. 

External links

  • Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization
  • Cuyahoga Valley
  • Friends of the Crooked River
  • National Whitewater River Inventory
    • Lower Cuyahoga Gorge (below the Ohio Edison Dam)
    • Upper Cuyahoga Gorge (Cuyahoga Falls, above the Dam)
    • Kent to Munroe Falls
    • Ira Rd. to Peninsula
    • Peninsula to Boston Mills
  • Cuyahoga River and Cuyahoga River Fire entries from the Encyclopedia of Cleveland History
  • Year of the River, The Plain Dealer special section commemorating the 40th anniversary of the 1969 fire
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.