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Decitabine

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Title: Decitabine  
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Decitabine

Decitabine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-Amino-1-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one
Clinical data
Trade names Dacogen
AHFS/Drugs.com
MedlinePlus
Pregnancy cat.
  • D
Legal status
  • Prescription only
Routes Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding <1%
Half-life 30 minutes
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
ATC code L01
PubChem
DrugBank
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  N
Chemical data
Formula C8H12N4O4 
Mol. mass 228.206 g/mol
 N   

Decitabine (trade name Dacogen), or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, is a drug for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes, a class of conditions where certain blood cells are dysfunctional, and for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).[1] Chemically, it is a cytidine analog.

Mechanism

Decitabine is a hypomethylating agent.[2][3] It hypomethylates DNA by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase.

It functions in a similar manner to azacitidine, although decitabine can only be incorporated into DNA strands while azacitidine can be incorporated into both DNA and RNA chains.

Clinical uses

Decitabine is indicated for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) including previously treated and untreated, de novo and secondary MDS of all French-American-British subtypes (refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and Intermediate-1, Intermediate-2, and High-Risk International Prognostic Scoring System groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, Batty and colleagues reported the first case series on the feasibility of therapy with hypomethylating agents in patients with renal insufficiency.[4]

Chemical synthesis

Decitabine can be synthesized from a benzoyl-protected chlorosugar:[5]

References

  1. ^ "EC Approves Marketing Authorization Of DACOGEN For Acute Myeloid Leukemia". 2012-09-28. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Kantarjian H, Issa JP, Rosenfeld CS, et al. (April 2006). "Decitabine improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes: results of a phase III randomized study". Cancer 106 (8): 1794–1803.  
  3. ^ Kantarjian HM, O'Brien S, Cortes J, et al. (August 2003). "Results of decitabine (5-aza-2'deoxycytidine) therapy in 130 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia". Cancer 98 (3): 522–528.  
  4. ^ Ravandi, F.; Kantarjian, J. E.; Issa, S.; Jabbour, S.; Santos, G.; McCue, D.; Garcia-Manero, F. P. S.; Pierce, E.; O'Brien, J. P.; Cortés, J. E.; Ravandi, F. (2010). "Feasibility of Therapy with Hypomethylating Agents in Patients with Renal Insufficiency". Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia 10 (3): 205–210.  
  5. ^ Piml, J.; Sorm, F. (1964). Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 29: 2576. 

Further reading

  • Moon C, Kim SH (June 2009). "Use of epigenetic modification to induce FOXP3 expression in naïve T cells". Transplant Proc. 41 (5): 1848–1854.  

External links

  • Product website


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