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Demographic History of the Philippines

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Demographic History of the Philippines

Demographics of Philippines
Population 92,337,852 (2010 census)
Growth rate 2.04% (2011 est.)
Birth rate 24.62 births/1,000 population
(2013 est.)
Death rate 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Life expectancy 71.66 years
 • male 68.72 years
 • female 74.74 years (2011 est.)
Fertility rate 3.19 children born/woman (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate -1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years 0-14 years: 34.6%
(male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040)
65-over 4.3%
(male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 1 male(s)/female
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65-over 0.76 male(s)/female
Nationality Filipinos
Major ethnic Tagalog 28.1% (2000 census)
Minor ethnic Visayan (Cebuano, Waray, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Karay-a, Aklanon, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon) 31.6%, Ilocano 9%, Bikol 6%, Kapampangan 3% & others 25.3% (2000 census)
Official Filipino and English[1]
Spoken twelve auxiliary regional languages - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Bikolano, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Mëranao, Maguindanao, Chavacano and Tausug

Demographics of the Philippines are records of human population in the country, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The Philippines has a population growth rate of 2.04%, one of the highest in Asia.[2] According to the 2010 Census, the population of the Philippines was 92,337,852.[3]

The majority of Filipinos are made up of various ethnolinguistic Austronesian ethnic groups, while the Agtas, an indigenous dark-skinned people form a minority. The indigenous population is closely related to indigenous Malaysians and Indonesians. Ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before European and American colonial rule have assimilated, such as various Japanese people, Han Chinese, Indian people, etc., and form a large part of the population.[4][5] [6]

The most commonly spoken language is Filipino, which is based on the Tagalog language. Filipino and English are the official languages. Additionally, there are between 120 to 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on their classification), a dozen of which have over one million speakers and are recognized as official regional languages. Spanish and Arabic are recognized as voluntary and optional languages in the Philippine constitution.[1] Christianity is the main religion, with Roman Catholicism making up the majority of the population. Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and those with no religion.[7] The people of the Philippines are known as Filipinos.

Population history

The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. Based on this tribute counting, there were about 666,712 people in the islands. In 1600, this method was revamped by the Spanish officials, who then based the counting of the population through church records. In 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population count as 1,502,574. However, the first official census was conducted only in 1878, when the population as of midnight on December 31, 1877 was counted. This was followed by two more censuses, namely, the 1887 census, and the 1898 census. The 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727,[8] while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants.[9]

1903 census

In 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138, who were foreign-born.

Between 1903 and 1941

1939 This census was undertaken in conformity with Section 1 of C. A. 170. It was the first taken under the Commonwealth government with Census day on January 1. The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303.


In 1941 the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000. Manila's population was 684,000.

By then, some 27% of the population could speak English as a second language, while the number of Spanish speakers as first language had further fallen to 3% from 10-14% at the beginning of the century. However, Spanish as a second language continued to be spoken and understood at varying levels of expertise, far more than English. In 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language.[8] In 1987, the Tagalog-based Filipino language was designated the national language.[10]

Philippine census surveys

Main article: Philippines census

In 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing. The population was pegged at 27,087,685. Successive surveys were again conducted on 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1990, which gave the population as 36,684,948, 42,070,660, 48,098,460, and 60,703,206 respectively. On 1995, the POPCEN was launched, undertaken at the month of September, The data provided the bases for the Internal Revenue Allocation to local government units, and for the creation of new legislative areas. The count was made official by then President Fidel Ramos by Proclamation No, 849 on August 14, 1995, The population was 68,616,536.

According to the executive director of the Commission on Population Tomas Osias, the population of the Philippines may reach 101.2 million by 2014. Attempts to introduce a reproductive health law to bring down the population growth rate has been consistently opposed by the Catholic Church, the dominant religion of the country.[2]

1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2007 2010
27,087,685 36,684,948 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206 68,616,536 76,504,077 88,574,614 92,337,852

Vital statistics

UN estimates

World Population Prospects, 2010[11]
Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 981 000 269 000 712 000 48.6 13.3 35.3 7.42 96.8
1955-1960 1 095 000 285 000 810 000 45.7 11.9 33.8 7.27 86.5
1960-1965 1 218 000 299 000 919 000 43.0 10.6 32.5 6.98 77.4
1965-1970 1 334 000 311 000 1 023 000 40.4 9.4 31.0 6.54 67.8
1970-1975 1 461 000 326 000 1 136 000 38.3 8.5 29.8 5.98 59.3
1975-1980 1 643 000 346 000 1 297 000 37.4 7.9 29.5 5.46 51.8
1980-1985 1 801 000 368 000 1 433 000 35.6 7.3 28.3 4.92 45.2
1985-1990 1 968 000 393 000 1 575 000 34.0 6.8 27.2 4.53 39.5
1990-1995 2 084 000 419 000 1 664 000 31.8 6.4 25.4 4.14 34.5
1995-2000 2 216 000 450 000 1 766 000 30.2 6.1 24.1 3.90 30.1
2000-2005 2 360 000 487 000 1 873 000 29.0 6.0 23.0 3.70 26.3
2005-2010 2 318 000 528 000 1 790 000 25.9 5.9 20.0 3.27 23.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Ethnic groups

The majority of the people in the Philippines are of Austronesian descent. The largest of these groups are the Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicolano, Moro, the Kapampangan and among others. The indigenous peoples of the Philippines form a minority of the population. Other ethnic groups include the Spaniard, Indian, Chinese, American, Japanese, Arab, Korean, and other ethnic groups from other countries.


There are between 120 and 170 languages spoken in the country. Most of them have several varieties (dialects), totaling over 300 across the archipelago. Since the 1930s the government has promoted the use of the national language, Filipino, based on Tagalog.[10][12] Visayan languages (also called Bisaya or Binisaya) are widely spoken throughout the Visayas, and in some parts of Mindanao. The Ilokano language is the lingua franca of the Northern Luzon.

English is considered an official language for purposes of communication and instruction.[1] Consequently, it is widely spoken and understood. The other non-indigenous language commonly used is Spanish.


About 80% of Filipinos are Roman Catholics,[13] 15% are Protestant Christians and, according to the "World Values Survey" conducted in the year 2000, 10.9% were then irreligious.[14] Other Christian denominations include the Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), Philippine Independent Church (more commonly called the Aglipayan Church), Members Church of God International, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.

Orthodox Christians also live in Philippines. Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.

Other religions include Judaism, Mahayana Buddhism, often mixed with Taoist beliefs, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Animism and Paganism are also followed.


Education in the Philippines is based on both Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy influenced by the United States, Spain, and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by high school (4 years) and senior high school (2 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. School year in the Philippines starts from June, and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break in October, and a week or two during Christmas and New Year holidays.

Starting on in SY 2011–2012 there will be a phased implementation of a new program. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.[15]


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