Demographics of burma

The following is an overview of the demographics of Burma (or Myanmar), including statistics such as population, ethnicity, language, education level and religious affiliation.

Population

At the time of the last official census in Burma, 31 March 1983, the population was 35,442,972. As of July 2012, this was estimated by the CIA World Factbook to have increased to 60,584,650; however, many other estimates put this at around 60 million : China's People Daily reported that Burma had a census in 2007, and at the end of 2009 has 59.2 million people, and growing at 2% annually,[1] with exception for Cyclone Nargis in 2008, and Britain-based human rights agencies place the population as high as 70 million. Estimates for the country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

No trustworthy census has occurred since the 1930s. In the 1940s, the detailed census results were destroyed during the Japanese invasion of 1942. Census results after that time have been flawed by civil wars and a series of military governments. The last official census in 1983 occurred at a time when parts of the country were controlled by insurgent groups and inaccessible to the government.

The 2006 Household Income and Expenditure Survey found that the average household size was 4.72 (urban 4.87, rural 4.67), and that the average per capita household expenditure was K 20,581.71 (urban K 23269.10, rural K. 19407.25)[2]

Vital statistics

Burma has a low fertility rate (2.23 in 2011), slightly above replacement level, especially as compared to other Southeast Asian countries of similar economic standing, like Cambodia (3.18) and Laos (4.41), representing a significant decline from 4.7 in 1983 to 2.4 in 2001, despite the absence of any national population policy.[3][4] The fertility rate is much pronouncedly lower in urban areas. This is attributed to extreme delays in marriage (almost unparalleled in the region, with the exception of developed countries), the prevalence of illegal abortions, and the high proportion of single, unmarried women of reproductive age (with 25.9% of women aged 30–34 and 33.1% of men and women aged 25–34 single). This stems from several cultural and economic issues. The first is economic hardship, which results in the delay of marriage and family-building (the average age of marriage in Burma is 27.5 for men, 26.4 for women).[4][5] The second is the social acceptability of celibacy among the Burmese, who are predominantly Buddhist and value celibacy as a means of spiritual development.[3][6]

Births and deaths [7]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 856 000 515 000 341 000 47.5 28.6 18.9 6.00 212.8
1955–1960 885 000 466 000 419 000 44.4 23.4 21.0 6.00 175.2
1960–1965 928 000 454 000 475 000 41.9 20.5 21.4 6.10 155.7
1965–1970 993 000 426 000 567 000 40.1 17.2 22.9 6.10 131.1
1970–1975 1 092 000 418 000 674 000 39.2 15.0 24.2 5.90 112.7
1975–1980 1 068 000 402 000 666 000 34.2 12.9 21.4 4.90 97.5
1980–1985 1 085 000 421 000 664 000 31.5 12.2 19.2 4.30 93.0
1985–1990 1 100 000 445 000 656 000 29.2 11.8 17.4 3.80 89.7
1990–1995 1 017 000 418 000 598 000 25.0 10.3 14.7 3.10 76.1
1995–2000 969 000 405 000 564 000 22.3 9.3 13.0 2.65 65.4
2000–2005 881 000 408 000 473 000 19.3 8.9 10.4 2.25 59.8
2005–2010 846 000 417 000 428 000 17.9 8.9 9.1 2.08 55.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Composition in Burma * Estimates
ethnic group or race percent
Bamar
  
68%
Shan
  
9%
Kayin
  
7%
Other groups
  
4.5%
Rakhine
  
3.5%
Chinese
  
2.5%
Mon
  
2%
Kachin
  
1.5%
Indians
  
1.25%
Kayah
  
0.75%

The Burmese government identifies eight major national ethnic races (which comprise 135 "distinct" ethnic groups), which include the Bamar (68%), Shan (9%), Kayin (7%), Rakhine (4%), Mon (2%), Kayah, and Kachin. However, the government classification system is flawed, because it groups ethnic groups under ethnic races by geography, rather than by linguistic or genetic similarity (e.g. the Kokang are under the Shan ethnic race, although they are ethnic Chinese). Unrecognised ethnic groups include Burmese Indians and Burmese Chinese, who form 2% and 3% of the population respectively. The remaining 5% of the population belong to small ethnic groups such as the remnants of the Anglo-Burmese and Anglo-Indian communities, as well as the Lisu, Rawang, Naga, Padaung, Moken, and many minorities across Shan State.

Language

Main article: Languages of Burma

The official language and primary medium of instruction of Burma is Burmese (65%). However, a diversity of languages is spoken in Burma, and includes Shan (6.4%), Karen (5.2%), Kachin (1.8%), Chin (1.6%), Mon (1.5%), and Rakhine (1.5%). English is also spoken, particularly by the educated urban elite, and is the secondary language learnt in government schools.

Religious affiliation

Religion in Burma
Faith  %
(2008 est.)
Total Buddhism 89%
Theravada Buddhism 89%
Mahayana Buddhism <1%
Total Christianity 4%
Baptist 3%
Roman Catholicism 1%
Total Islam 4%
Sunni Islam 2.65%
Shi'a Islam 1.35%
Total other religions <1%
Animism 1%
Other (inc. Hinduism) 2%
Religion in Burma
religion percent
Buddhism
  
89%
Christianity
  
4%
Islam
  
4%
Others including Animism and Chinese folk religion
  
2%
Hinduism
  
1%
Religion in Burma based on traditions and sects
religion percent
Theravada Buddhists
  
88.5%
Baptists and other Protestants
  
3%
Sunnis
  
2.65%
Others including Animists and Chinese folk religion practitioners
  
2%
Shi'as
  
1.35%
Catholics
  
1%
Hindus
  
1%
Mahayana Buddhists
  
0.5%

See also: Buddhism in Burma, Myanmar Baptist Convention

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 27.5% (male 7,560,859; female 7,278,652)
  • 15–64 years: 67.5% (male 18,099,707; female 18,342,696)
  • 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,184,29; female 1,533,599) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 29.9 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.07% (2011 est.)

Urbanization

  • urban population: 34% of total population (2010)
  • rate of urbanization: 2.9% of annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Human sex ratios

  • at birth: 1.06 males/female
  • under 15 years: 1.03 males/female
  • 15–64 years: 0.98 male/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.75 male/female
  • total population: 0.98 male/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy

  • total population: 65.24 years
  • male: 62.91 years
  • female: 67.71 years

Literacy

(age 15 and over can read and write, official statistics)

  • total population: 89.9%
  • male: 93.9%
  • female: 86.4% (2008 est.)

Education expenditures

1.2% of total GDP (2001)

Notes

References

  • Population Projections for Myanmar, 1983-2013 - Asia Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2 (PDF document)
  •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
pt:Myanmar#Demografia
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.