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Diacylglycerol acyltransferase

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Diacylglycerol acyltransferase

diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase
Identifiers
EC number CAS number IntEnz BRENDA ExPASy KEGG MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM PDB structures PDBsum
Gene Ontology EGO
diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 1 (mouse)
Identifiers
Symbol DGAT1
Entrez HUGO OMIM RefSeq UniProt Locus q24.3
diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 2 (mouse)
Identifiers
Symbol DGAT2
Entrez HUGO OMIM RefSeq UniProt Locus q13.3

Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl-CoA. The reaction catalyzed by DGAT is considered the terminal and only committed step in triglyceride synthesis and to be essential for the formation of adipose tissue.[1]

Isoforms

There are two isozymes of DGAT encoded by the genes DGAT1[2] and DGAT2.[3] Although both isozymes catalyze similar reactions, they have no sequence homology to each other.

Knockout studies

Mice with genetic disruption of the dgat1 or dgat2 genes have been made by the Farese laboratory at UCSF. Surprisingly, DGAT1-/- mice[4] are healthy and fertile and have no changes in triglyceride levels. These mice are also lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity, consequently generating interest in DGAT1 inhibitors for the treatment of obesity. In contrast, DGAT2-/- mice[5] have reduced triglyceride levels but are lipopenic, suffer from skin barrier abnormalities (including the inability to retain moisture), and die shortly after birth.

Therapeutic application

DGAT-1 inhibitors have potential for the treatment of obesity[6][7] and a number of DGAT-1 inhibitors are in clinical trials for this indication.[8]

References

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