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Diamphotoxin

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Diamphotoxin

Diamphotoxin
Identifiers
CAS number 87915-42-2
MeSH diamphotoxin
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Diamphotoxin is a toxin produced by larvae and pupae of the beetle genus Diamphidia. Diamphotoxin is a haemolytic, cardiotoxic, and highly labile single-chain polypeptide with a low molecular weight, bound to a protein that protects it from deactivation.[1][2][3]

Diamphotoxin increases the permeability of cell membranes of red blood cells. Although this does not affect the normal flow of ions between cells, it allows all small ions to pass through cell membranes easily, which fatally disrupts the cells' ion levels.[4]

Although diamphotoxin has no neurotoxic effect, its haemolytic effect is lethal, and may reduce haemoglobin levels by as much as 75%, leading to haemoglobinuria.[5]

The San people of Southern Africa use diamphotoxin as an arrow poison for hunting game.[1] The toxin paralyses muscles gradually. Large mammals hunted in this way die slowly from a small injection of the poison.[6]

Several leaf beetles species of genus Leptinotarsa produce a similar toxin, leptinotarsin.[6]

See also

References

Further reading

External links

  • PubChem. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
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