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Donald Mackenzie (explorer)

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Donald Mackenzie (explorer)

Donald Mackenzie
Born Donald Mackenzie
(1783-06-15)June 15, 1783
Scotland
Died January 20, 1851(1851-01-20) (aged 67)
New York, United States
Occupation fur trader

Donald Mackenzie (June 15, 1783 – January 20, 1851) was a Scottish-Canadian explorer, fur trader and Governor of the Red River Colony from 1821 to 1834.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Astor Expedition 2
  • Fort Walla Walla and Idaho explorations 3
  • Governor of the Red River Colony 4
  • Legacy 5
  • References 6

Early life

Born in Scotland, Mackenzie emigrated to Canada about 1800. He is related to several other distinguished MacKenzies in Canadian history. He and two or three of his brothers became involved in the fur trade and were engaged with the North West Company. In 1810, he left the employ of the North West Company to become a partner in the Pacific Fur Company, financed principally by John Jacob Astor.

Astor Expedition

Mackenzie traveled west with the Pacific Fur Company's Overland Party (sometimes called the Overland Astorians or the Astor Expedition) from St. Louis, Missouri. The group experienced hard times in southern Idaho, and divided. Mackenzie’s fraction consisted of twelve total and struck north, eventually found the Salmon River and Clearwater River. They proceeded down the lower Snake River and Columbia River by canoe, and were the first of the Overland Astorians to reach Fort Astoria, on January 18, 1812.

Mackenzie spent two years exploring and trading for the Pacific Fur Company in the Willamette Valley, along the Columbia River, in eastern Washington and northern and central Idaho. When the Pacific Fur Company sold Fort Astoria and all of its property to the North West Company in 1813, Mackenzie was appointed to carry all important papers back east, which he did in 1814.

Fort Walla Walla and Idaho explorations

After a short time, MacKenzie became reacquainted with the North West Company, and returned to the Columbia region in 1816. In 1818, he and Alexander Ross built Fort Nez Perces (later known as Old Fort Walla Walla) near the confluence of the Columbia River and Walla Walla River.

Mackenzie and his trappers made the first extensive exploration of southern Idaho starting in 1818 with annual expeditions through 1821. His trapping ventures covered most of southern Idaho and parts of eastern Oregon, northern Utah, and western Wyoming. Many of the names for rivers in this region can be traced to this period.

Governor of the Red River Colony

With the merger of the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, in 1821, Donald Mackenzie was appointed Governor of the Red River Colony. He left the Pacific Northwest and moved to Fort Garry for a decade, serving as Governor of the area including most of present-day Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, Canada.

Legacy

In 1834, Mackenzie retired, and moved to Mayville, New York, where he lived for the next two decades. Among the distinguished visitors Mackenzie entertained and advised were Daniel Webster and William H. Seward, who later served as Secretary of State. He gave advice on where the international boundary should be established for Oregon, and also may have planted the seeds that led to the purchase of Alaska from Russia.

References

  • Manitoba Historical Society - Donald Mackenzie
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