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Durbar (court)

 

Durbar (court)

Maratha darbar
Emperor Shah Jahan and Prince Alamgir (Aurangzeb) in Mughal Court, 1650

Durbar (from Persian: دربار‎‎ - darbār) is a Persian-derived term meaning the kings' or rulers noble court or a formal meeting where the king held all discussions regarding the state. It was later used in India and Nepal for a ruler's court or feudal levy as the latter came to be ruled and later administered by foreigners. A durbar may be either a feudal state council for administering the affairs of a princely state, or a purely ceremonial gathering, as in the time of the British Empire in India.

Contents

  • State Council 1
  • British Empire 2
  • Malaysia 3
  • References 4
  • Further Reading 5

State Council

In the former sense, the native rulers of Mughal and colonial India and some neighbouring Hindu or Muslim monarchies, like the amir of Afghanistan, received visitors in audience, conferred honours and conducted business in durbar.

A durbar could also be the executive council of a native state. Its membership was dual: the court's grandees, such as the wasir and major jagirdars, shone at the ceremonies but the real political and administrative affairs of state rather rested with an inner circle around the prince, often known as diwan. There was some overlap between the two groups. This was originally another word for audience room and council, but in India it also applies to a privy council and chancery.

British Empire

Group of Afghan Durbaries in Lahore, December 1880

The word Durbar has come to be applied to great ceremonial gatherings called the Delhi Durbar in Delhi and elsewhere during the period of the British Raj, held as demonstrations of the loyalty to the crown which also proved vital in various wars in which Britain engaged.

The practice was started with Lord Lytton's Proclamation Durbar of 1877 celebrating the proclamation of Queen Victoria as the first Empress of India. Durbars continued to be held in later years, with increased ceremony and grandeur than their predecessors. In 1903, for instance, the Coronation Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the accession of Edward VII to the British throne and title of Emperor of India. This ceremony was presided over by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.[1]

The practice of the durbar culminated in the magnificent spectacle that was the Queen Mary as Emperor and Empress of India. The King and Queen attended the Durbar in person and wore their Coronation robes, an unprecedented event in both Indian and Imperial history held with unprecedented pomp and glamour. They were the only British monarchs to visit India during the period of British rule. Practically every ruling prince, nobleman and person of note, attended the ceremonies to pay obeisance to their sovereign in person.

No durbar was held for later British monarchs who were Emperors of India. Delhi, due to several reasons: the cost would have been a burden to the government of India,[2] rising Indian nationalism made the welcome that the royal couple would have received likely to be muted at best,[3] and a prolonged absence of the King from the UK would have been undesirable in the tense period before World War II.

Malaysia

In Malaysian history, the Durbar was the council comprising the four rulers of the Federated Malay States under British protectorate. First held in 1897, it was a platform for the rulers to discuss issues pertaining state policies with British officials.

When the Federation of Malaya was formed in 1948, the Durbar transformed into the Conference of Rulers with the inclusion of the other states of Malaya. The membership was further enlarged with the addition of new states in the formation of Malaysia in 1963.

Since the independence of Malaya in 1957, the Malay rulers in the Conference of Rulers function as the electoral college for the election of the federal king, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

References

  1. ^ Nayar, Pramod K. (2012). Colonial Voices: The Discourses of Empire. John Wiley & Sons. p. 94.  
  2. ^ Vickers, p. 175
  3. ^ Bradford, p. 209
  •  

Further Reading

  • Kossak , Steven (1997). Indian court painting, 16th-19th century.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (see index: p. 148-152)  
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