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East Turkestan Islamic Movement

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Title: East Turkestan Islamic Movement  
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Subject: 2013 Tiananmen Square attack, Terrorism in China, East Turkestan independence movement, Al-Qaeda, Ismail Semed
Collection: 1997 Establishments in China, Anti-Government Factions of the Syrian Civil War, Designated Terrorist Organizations Associated with Islam, East Turkestan Independence Movement, European Union Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of Canada Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of Kazakhstan Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of Pakistan Designated Terrorist Organizations, Groups Affiliated with Al-Qaeda, Islam in China, Islamism in China, Islamism in Pakistan, Jihadist Groups, Jihadist Organizations, Organizations Affiliated with Al-Qaeda, Organizations Based in China, Organizations Designated as Terrorist, Organizations Designated as Terrorist by the United States Government, People's Republic of China Designated Terrorist Organizations, Rebel Groups in Afghanistan, Rebel Groups in China, Rebel Groups in Pakistan, Religious Organizations Established in 1997, Secessionist Organizations in Asia, Sunni Islamist Groups, Terrorism in Central Asia, Terrorism in China, Terrorism in Pakistan
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East Turkestan Islamic Movement

Turkestan Islamic Party
Turkistan Islamic Party
Active 1997 — present
Ideology Uyghur nationalism
Islamism
Islamic fundamentalism
Sunni Islam
Pan-Islamism
Leaders Hasan Mahsum
Abdul Haq
Abdul Shakoor al-Turkistani
Abdullah Mansour[1]
Headquarters North Waziristan, Pakistan
Area of operations China (Xinjiang)
Pakistan (North Waziristan)
Afghanistan
Central Asia
Syria[2]
Allies Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
Al-Qaeda
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan[3]
Opponents

China

Pakistan

The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) (also known as the Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP), Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), and other names; is an Islamic terrorist and separatist organization founded by

  • Reed, J. Todd; Raschke, Diana (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-36540-9

Further reading

  1. ^ MacLean, William (2013-11-23). "Islamist group calls Tiananmen attack 'jihadi operation': SITE". Reuters. 
  2. ^ "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Promoting Cause, Inciting for Jihad". SITE Institute. 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  3. ^ "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists".  
  4. ^ "Al-Qaida: Dead or captured".  
  5. ^ a b “U.S.Department of State Terrorist Exclusion List"(Retrieved on July 29, 2014).
  6. ^ "China issues white paper on history, development of Xinjiang (Part One)".  
  7. ^ a b c Lüthi, Lorenz M. (2008). The Sino-Soviet split: Cold War in the communist world. Princeton University Press.  
  8. ^ "Regions and territories: Xinjiang". Country Profiles (BBC News). 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  9. ^ Marketos, Thrassy N. (2009). China's Energy Geopolitics: The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Central Asia. Taylor & Francis.  
  10. ^ Piracha, Shaukat (2004-01-17). "China asks Pakistan to investigate Xinjiang terrorists list".  
  11. ^ a b c "China: The Evolution of ETIM".  
  12. ^ Goodenough, Patrick (2009-08-26). "Preparing to Mark 60 Years of Communist Rule, China Worries About Terrorism".  
  13. ^ Guang, Pan (May 2006). "East Turkestan Terrorism and the Terrorist Arc: china's Post-9/11 Anti-Terror Strategy". China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 4 (2).  
  14. ^ "Hu Jintao urges Zardari to crush ETIM extremists".  
  15. ^ Bashir, Shaykh (2008-07-01). "Why Are We Fighting China?".  
  16. ^ a b "Chinese Islamists threaten Olympics: US group".  
  17. ^ "Xinjiang riot hits regional anti-terror nerve".  
  18. ^ Eastern Turkistan' terrorists identified"'".  
  19. ^ "'"Xinjiang fighter 'killed by drone.  
  20. ^ Walsh, Declan; Schmitt, Eric (2012-08-24). "Militant Leader Believed Dead in Pakistan Drone Strike". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-26. Among the 18 people reported to have been killed was Emeti Yakuf, a senior leader of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, a group from western China whose members are Chinese Uighur Muslim militants. 
  21. ^ a b "Badruddin Haqqani: 2IC of Haqani Network allegedly killed in NATO attack". FATA Research Center. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  22. ^ Fletcher, Holly; Bajoria, Jayshree (2008-07-31). "The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)". Backgrounder.  
  23. ^ a b Pike, John. "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement / Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party (ETIP)". GlobalSecurity.org. 
  24. ^ de Vogue, Ariane; Powell, Dennis; Ryan, Jason (2009-04-24). "Guantanamo Uyghur Detainees: Coming to America?".  
  25. ^ "Bermuda takes Guantanamo Uyghurs". BBC News. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  26. ^ a b c Ansari, Massoud (2007-08-03). "The New Face of Jihad".  
  27. ^ a b  
  28. ^ "Uyghurs Convicted in East Turkestan Islamic Movement Plot in Dubai". Terrorism Monitor.  
  29. ^ "Islamist group claims responsibility for attack on China's Tiananmen Square". Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  30. ^ Clabaugh, Rich (2009-04-24). "Freed from Guantánamo, a Uighur clings to asylum dreams in Sweden".  
  31. ^ "» World Uyghur Congress". Uyghurcongress.org. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  32. ^ a b c "AFP: US lawmakers seek review of Uighur 'terror' label".  
  33. ^ "China: ETIM's Direct Threat to the Olympics".  
  34. ^ Reed, J. Todd; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat.  
  35. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5223458.stm
  36. ^ United Nations Web Services Section. "The Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee". Un.org. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  37. ^ Cody, Edward (2006-05-10). "China Demands That Albania Return Ex-U.S. Detainees". Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  38. ^ Does not include Hong Kong SAR or Macau
  39. ^ "مجلس الوزراء يعتمد قائمة التنظيمات الإرهابية.". Emirates News Agency (WAM) وكالة أنباء الإمارات. 15/11/2014 05:34:00 م. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  40. ^ WAM (Published: 19:54 November 15, 2014). "UAE publishes list of terrorist organisations". Gulf News. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  41. ^ "UAE cabinet endorses new list of terrorist groups". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) وكالة الأنباء الكويتية. 2014-11-15. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  42. ^ AFP (November 15, 2014). "UAE blacklists 5 Pakistani groups among 83 as 'militant organisations". The Express Tribune. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  43. ^ ANI (Nov 16). "'"UAE names 5 Pak-based groups on list of 83 'militant organizations. Yahoo India News (Karachi). Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  44. ^ Agency: ANI (16 November 2014). "'"UAE names 5 Pakistan based terrorist groups on list of 83 'militant organizations. Yahoo India News (Place: Karachi). Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  45. ^ "Beijing wants Chinese Gitmo detainees".  

References

  • ^a The official name of the organization since 1999 is the "Turkistan Islamic Movement", but in English it is known by its old name and acronym, ETIM.[11][16] Other aliases adopted over the years are "East Turkistan Islamic Party", "Allah Party", and "East Turkistan National Revolution Association".[45]

Notes

See also

The group was also classified as 'terrorist' by the following:

[5] After the 9/11 attacks, ETIM was placed on the

Country Date References
 Russia 2006 [35]

Countries and organizations below have officially listed the Turkestan Islamic Movement as a terrorist organization.

Designation as terrorist organization

Intelligence analysts J. Todd Reed and Diana Raschke acknowledge that reporting in China presents obstacles not found in countries where information is not so tightly controlled. However, they found that ETIM's existence and activities could be confirmed independently of Chinese government sources, using information gleaned from ETIM's now-defunct website, reports from human rights groups and academics, and testimony from the Uyghur detainees at Guantanamo Bay. Reed & Raschke also question the information put out by Uyghur expatriates that deny ETIM's existence or impact, as the Uyghurs who leave Xinjiang are those who object most to government policy, are unable to provide first-hand analysis, and have an incentive to exaggerate repression and downplay militancy. They say that ETIM was "obscure but not unknown" before the September 11 attacks, citing "Western, Russian, and Chinese media sources" that have "documented the ETIM's existence for nearly 20 years".[34]

[33]

On June 16, 2009, Representative [32] The Congressional Research Service reported that the first published mention of the group was in the year 2000, but that China attributed attacks to it that had occurred up to a decade earlier.[32]

Critics say that the threats ETIM itself makes are exaggerated, and that ETIM embellishes its own image and commits [31]

Analysis

In October 2013, a suicide attack in Tiananmen Square caused 5 deaths and 38 injuries. Chinese police described it as the first terrorist attack in Beijing's recent history. Turkistan Islamic Party later claimed responsibility for the attack.[29]

In 2007, ETIM militants in cars shot Chinese nationals in Pakistani Balochistan and sent a videotape of the attack to Beijing, in retaliation for an execution of an ETIM official earlier that July.[26] ETIM also took credit for a spate of attacks before the 2008 Summer Olympics, including a series of bus bombings in Kunming, an attempted plane hijacking in Urumqi,[23] and an attack on paramilitary troops in Kashgar that killed 17 officers.[27] On June 29, 2010, a court in Dubai convicted two members of an ETIM cell of plotting to bomb a government-owned shopping mall that sold Chinese goods. This was the ETIM plot outside of China or Central Asia. The key plotter was recruited during Hajj and was flown to Waziristan to train.[28] In July 2010, officials in Norway interrupted a terrorist bomb plot, another instance of ETIM branching out of its original regions and cooperating with international groups. New York Times correspondent Edward Wong says that ETIM "give[s] them a raison d'être at a time when the Chinese government has... defused any chance of a widespread insurgency... in Xinjiang."[27]

Attacks

The United States captured 22 Uyghur militants from combat zones in Afghanistan in 2006 on information that they were linked to Al-Qaeda.[22] They were imprisoned without trial for five to seven years, where they testified that they were trained by ETIM leader Abdul Haq, at an ETIM training camp. After being reclassified as No Longer Enemy Combatant,[23] a panel of judges ordered them released into the United States. Despite the alarm of politicians that the release of terrorist camp-trained Uyghurs into the United States was unsafe and illegal, they could not be released back to China because of its human rights record.[24] Some of the Uyghurs have been transferred to Palau, and some to Bermuda despite objections by the United Kingdom, but the United States is having difficulties finding governments who will accept the rest.[25]

Guantanamo Bay detainees

Name Aliases Charges Whereabouts
Memetiming Memeti Abdul Haq Leading the organization, inciting ethnic tensions in 2006 and 2007, buying explosives, organizing terrorist attacks against the 2008 Summer Olympics Killed in North Waziristan drone attack[19]
Emeti Yakuf
(Emet Yakuf)
Aibu Abudureheman, Saifula, Abdul Jabar Threatening to use biological and chemical weapons against servicepeople and Western politicians for the 2008 Olympics, disseminating manuals on explosives and poisons Killed in North Waziristan drone attack[20]
Memetituersun Yiming
(Memet Tursun Imin)
Abuduaini Raised funds for ETIM, tested bombs in the run-up to the Olympics Since 2008, Western Asia
Memetituersun Abuduhalike
(Memet Tursun Abduxaliq)
Metusun Abuduhalike, Ansarui, Naijimuding Attacked government organizations, money laundering for ETIM operations, buying vehicles and renting houses for attacks Unknown
Xiamisidingaihemaiti Abudumijiti
(Xemsidinahmet Abdumijit)
Saiyide Recruiting for ETIM in the Middle East, blew up a Chinese supermarket Unknown
Aikemilai Wumaierjiang
(Akrem Omerjan)
Assisted Xiamisidingaihemaiti Abudumijiti in the supermarket attack Unknown
Yakuf Memeti
(Yakuf Memet)
Abudujilili Aimaiti, Abudula, Punjab Sneaked into China illegally to gather information on Chinese neighborhoods, a failed suicide attack against oil refinery Killed in North Waziristan drone attack[21]
Tuersun Toheti
(Tursun Tohti)
Mubaixier, Nurula Organizing a terror team for the 2008 Olympics, buying raw materials for them and requesting chemical formulas for explosives Killed in North Waziristan drone attack[21]

In October 2008, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security released a list of eight terrorists linked to ETIM, including some of the leadership, with detailed charges.[18] They are:

Structure

Terrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna has said that ETIM is closely associated with the World Uyghur Congress (WUC), and that there are "many sympathizers and supporters" of ETIM in the WUC. China has accused the WUC of orchestrating the 2009 ethnic violence in Urumqi; similarly, Gunaratna said that one of ETIM's aims is to "fuel hatred" and violence between the Han and the Uyghur ethnic groups, adding that it represented a threat to China and the Central Asia region as a whole.[17]

The NEFA Foundation, an American terrorist analyst foundation, translated and released a jihad article from ETIM, whose membership it said consisted primarily of "Uyghur Muslims from Western China." The East Turkestan Islamic Movement's primary goal is the independence of East Turkestan.[15] ETIM continues this theme of contrasting "Muslims" and "Chinese", in a six minute video in 2008, where "Commander Seyfullah" warns Muslims not to bring their children to the 2008 Summer Olympics, and also saying "do not stay on the same bus, on the same train, on the same plane, in the same buildings, or any place the Chinese are".[16]

Ideology

However, ETIM resurged after the jihad, and took advantage of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing to gain publicity for its attacks.[11] The ETIM is said to be allied with the Pakistani Taliban (Tehreek i Taliban Pakistan) leading Pakistan being seriously urged by China to take action against militants.[14]

[12], during which the leader of ETIM, Hasan Mahsum, was killed.border with Pakistan and bombed Al Qaeda bases in the mountainous regions along the invaded Afghanistan The group's infrastructure was crippled after the United States [11] to coordinate actions. There, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement dropped the "East" from its name as it increased its domain.Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the Taliban, and the Al Qaeda and other leaders of Osama bin Ladin. In Afghanistan, ETIM leaders met with Afghanistan-controlled Taliban, taking shelter under Kabul In 1998 Mahsum moved ETIM's headquarters to [10] The East Turkestan Islamic Movement was founded in 1993 by two natives of

The area known as Xinjiang.[6] Yet, Russian influence was strong. Russian Orthodox Old Believers emigrated from Russia to Xinjiang in the early 19th century, and the Russian Civil War accelerated this immigration by adding white émigrés.[7] During China's warlord era in the 1910s-1920s, the Soviet Union propped up the separatist Second East Turkestan Republic, and only accepted Chinese rule when the Chinese communists established the People's Republic of China after the Chinese Civil War.[8] Nevertheless, the Soviet Union distributed Soviet passports among the Central Asian ethnics in Xinjiang to facilitate emigration to Kazakh SSR.[7] After the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet Union amassed troops on the Russian border with Xinjiang, and bolstered "East Turkestan" separatist movements, which received moral and material support from other regional militant groups.[9] China accused the Soviets of engineering riots, and improved the military infrastructure there to combat it.[7]

Flag of Turkistan Islamic Party
Flag of Jihad

History

Contents

  • History 1
  • Ideology 2
  • Structure 3
  • Guantanamo Bay detainees 4
  • Attacks 5
  • Analysis 6
  • Designation as terrorist organization 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11

[5]

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