World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Emperor of the French

Article Id: WHEBN0000631053
Reproduction Date:

Title: Emperor of the French  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Napoleon II, Napoleon, List of French monarchs, Napoleon III, House of Bonaparte
Collection: French Emperors, French Titles of Nobility, Lists of French People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Emperor of the French

Emperor of the French
Imperial
Napoleon III
Details
Style His Imperial Majesty
First monarch Napoleon I
Last monarch Napoleon III
Formation 18 May 1804
2 December 1852
Abolition 22 June 1815
4 September 1870
Residence Tuileries Palace, Paris
Pretender(s) Jean Christophe
The Four Napoleons

Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title Emperor on 14 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, in Paris with the Crown of Napoleon.

The title emphasized that the emperor ruled over "the French people", the nation, and not over France, the republic. The old formula "king of France" indicated that the king owned France as a personal possession. The new term indicates a constitutional monarchy.[1] The title was purposefully created to preserve the appearance of the French Republic and to show that after the French Revolution the feudal system was abandoned and a nation state was created, with equal citizens as the subjects of their emperor. (After 1 January 1809, the state was officially referred to as the French Empire.[2]) The title of "Emperor of the French" was supposed to demonstrate that Napoleon's coronation was not a restoration of monarchy, but an introduction of a new political system: the Empire of the French (Empire des Français). Napoleon's reign lasted until 22 June 1815 when he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, exiled and imprisoned on the island of Saint Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821. His reign was interrupted by the Bourbon Restoration of 1814 and his own exile to Elba, from where he escaped less than a year later to reclaim the throne, reigning as Emperor for another 94 days before his final defeat and exile.

Less than a year following the French coup of 1851 by Napoleon's nephew Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, which ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly, the Second French Republic was transformed into the Second French Empire, established by a referendum on 7 November 1852. President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, elected by the French people, officially became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, from the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852.

His reign persisted to the fourth of September, 1870, although he was captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War. He was then forced into exile through England until he died on 9 January 1873.

Since the early death of his only son Louis Napoléon in 1879, the House of Bonaparte has had a number of claimants to the French throne. The current claimant is Charles, Prince Napoléon, who became head of the house of Bonaparte on 3 May 1997. His position is challenged by his son Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, who was named as heir in his late grandfather's testament.

Contents

  • Full titles 1
    • Napoleon I 1.1
    • Napoleon II 1.2
    • Napoleon III 1.3
  • French Empire (1804–1814) 2
  • French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) 3
  • French Empire (1852–1870) 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Full titles

The Emperors of the French had various titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Bonaparte.

Napoleon I

His Imperial and Royal Majesty Napoleon I, By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Republic, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine and the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, Mediator of the Helvetic Confederation.

Napoleon II

His Imperial Majesty Napoleon II, By the Grace of God and the Constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French.

Napoleon III

His Imperial Majesty Napoleon III, By the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, Emperor of the French.[3]

French Empire (1804–1814)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Napoleon I
  • the Great
(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 18 May 1804 11 April 1814 Bonaparte Napoleon I of France

French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Napoleon I
  • the Great
(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 20 March 1815 22 June 1815 Bonaparte Napoleon I of France
Napoleon II
[4]
(1811-03-20)20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832(1832-07-22) (aged 21) 22 June 1815 7 July 1815 Son of Napoleon I Bonaparte Napoleon II of France

French Empire (1852–1870)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Napoleon III
(1808-04-20)20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873(1873-01-09) (aged 64) 2 December 1852 4 September 1870 Nephew of Napoleon I
Cousin of Napoleon II
Bonaparte Napoleon III of France

See also

References

  1. ^ Philip Dwyer, Citizen Emperor: Napoleon in Power (2013) p 129
  2. ^ http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/legislation/c_republic.html
  3. ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/napoleon.htm#naptitles
  4. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.