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Ergotamine

Ergotamine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(6aR,9R)-N-((2R,5S,10aS,10bS)- 5-benzyl-10b-hydroxy-2-methyl- 3,6-dioxooctahydro-2H-oxazolo[3,2-a] pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazin-2-yl) -7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg] quinoline-9-carboxamide
Clinical data
Trade names Cafergot, Ergomar
AHFS/Drugs.com
Pregnancy
category
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Legal status
Routes of
administration
Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Intravenous: 100%,[1]
Intramuscular: 47%,[2]
Oral: <1% [3] (Enhanced by co-administration of caffeine [1])
Metabolism Hepatic [2]
Biological half-life 2 hours [2]
Excretion 90% biliary [2]
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code N02
PubChem CID:
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
UNII  Y
KEGG  Y
ChEBI  N
ChEMBL  Y
Chemical data
Formula C33H35N5O5
Molecular mass 581.66 g/mol
 N   

Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline. It possesses structural similarity to several neurotransmitters, and has biological activity as a vasoconstrictor.

It is used medicinally for treatment of acute migraine attacks (sometimes in combination with caffeine). Medicinal usage of ergot fungus began in the 16th century to induce childbirth, yet dosage uncertainties discouraged the use. It has been used to prevent post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after childbirth). It was first isolated from the ergot fungus by Arthur Stoll at Sandoz in 1918 and marketed as Gynergen in 1921.[4]

Contents

  • Mechanism of action 1
  • Biosynthesis 2
  • Drug uses 3
  • Availability and dosage 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of ergotamine is complex.[5] The molecule shares structural similarity with neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and epinephrine and can thus bind to several receptors acting as an agonist. The anti-migraine effect is due to constriction of the intracranial extracerebral blood vessels through the 5-HT1B receptor, and by inhibiting trigeminal neurotransmission by 5-HT1D receptors. Ergotamine also has effects on the dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. Its side effects are due mainly to its action at the D2 dopamine and 5-HT1A receptors.[6]

Biosynthesis

Ergotamine is a secondary metabolite (natural product) and the principal alkaloid produced by the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and related fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae.[7] Its biosynthesis in these fungi requires the amino acid L-tryptophan and dimethylallyl diphosphate. These precursor compounds are the substrates for the enzyme, dimethylallyl-tryptophan (DMAT) synthase, catalyzing the first step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, i.e., the prenylation of L-tryptophan. Further reactions, involving methyltransferase and oxygenase enzymes, yield the ergoline, lysergic acid. Lysergic acid (LA) is the substrate of lysergyl peptide synthetase, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, which covalently links LA to the amino acids, L-alanine, L-proline, and L-phenylalanine. Enzyme-catalyzed or spontaneous cyclizations, oxygenations/oxidations, and isomerizations at selected residues precede, and give rise to, formation of ergotamine.[8]

Drug uses

Ergotamine produces vasoconstriction peripherally as well as damages the peripheral epithelium. In high doses ergotamine is conducive to vascular stasis, thrombosis and gangrene. It can increase uterine contractivity and occasionally is used therapeutically immediately post-partum to decrease uterine bleeding. See also ergometrine.

Ergotamine continues to be prescribed for migraines.

Contraindications include: atherosclerosis, Buerger's syndrome, coronary artery disease, hepatic disease, pregnancy, pruritus, Raynaud's syndrome, and renal disease.[9]

Availability and dosage

In the United States, ergotamine is available as a suppository, a sublingual tablet, and a tablet always in combination with caffeine. The suppository is available under the brand name Migergot, which contains 2 mg of ergotamine with 100 mg caffeine. The sublingual tablet is available under the brand name Ergomar and contains 2 mg of ergotamine. The combination tablet in combination with caffeine called Cafergot contains 1 mg of ergotamine and 100 mg of caffeine.[10]

This preparation may be used immediately following the aura/onset of pain to abort the migraine. Procedure: For the best results, dosage should start at the first sign of an attack.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sanders, SW; Haering N; Mosberg H; Jaeger H (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in healthy volunteers following oral and rectal dosing". Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30 (3): 331–4.  
  2. ^ a b c d Tfelt-Hansen P, Johnson ES. Ergotamine. In: Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P, Welch KM, editors. The headaches. New York: Raven Press; 1993. p. 313–22.
  3. ^ Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow L, Tfelt-Hansen P. Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in migraine sufferers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 16: 695–9.
  4. ^ AJ Giannini, AE Slaby. Drugs of Abuse. Oradell, NJ, Medical Economics Books, 1989.
  5. ^ Walkembach J, Brüss M, Urban BW, Barann M (October 2005). "Interactions of metoclopramide and ergotamine with human 5-HT3A receptors and human 5-HT reuptake carriers". Br. J. Pharmacol. 146 (4): 543–52.  
  6. ^ Tfelt-Hansen P, Saxena PR, Dahlof C, Pascual J, Lainez M, Henry P, Diener H, Schoenen J, Ferrari MD, Goadsby PJ (2000). "Ergotamine in the acute treatment of migraine: a review and European consensus". Brain 123: 9–18.  
  7. ^ Pharmacognosy of Ergot
  8. ^ Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006). "Ergot alkaloids--biology and molecular biology". Alkaloids Chem. Biol. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology 63: 45–86.  
  9. ^ AJ Giannini. Biological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. Oradell, NJ. Medical Economics Puclishing Co., 1986.
  10. ^ FDA Orange Book http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ob/docs/tempai.cfm
  11. ^ http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=b4a06de6-f837-43a8-ae7a-aadb38dd2a7d#DA
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