Eritrean American

Eritrean American
Total population
25,848 (Eritrea-born, 2007-2011)[1]
18,917 (Eritrean ancestry)[2]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Religion

Eritrean Americans are Americans who are of Eritrean ancestry.

History

An Eritrean restaurant in San Francisco.

Prior to 1991, when Eritrea obtained its independence, it was a part of Ethiopia. Overall, approximately 20,000 people from Ethiopia moved to the West to achieve higher education and conduct diplomatic missions from 1941 to 1974 under the Emperor Haile Selassie I's rule.[3] However, the net movement of permanent immigrants remained low during this period as most temporary immigrants ultimately returned to Ethiopia.[3]

The passing of the 1965 Immigration Act, the Refugee Act of 1980, as well as the Diversity Visa Program of the Immigration Act of 1990, contributed to an increased emigration from Ethiopia to the United States,[4] prompted by a desire to pursue studies abroad and political unrest during the Ethiopian Civil War and Eritrean War of Independence.[5][6] The majority of Eritrean immigrants arrived later in the 1990s, following the Eritrean–Ethiopian War.[5] By 2000, the Eritrean community in the U.S. had grown to around 30,000 members.[6]

Eritrean Americans have since established ethnic enclaves in various places around the country, particularly in the Washington D.C. area. Fairfax Avenue in Los Angeles, California has come to be known as Little Ethiopia, owing to its many Ethiopian and Eritrean businesses and restaurants. Additionally, Eritreans have opened a number of garages and auto repair shops.[6] They also run several taxi establishments, including the Eritrean Cab company based in San Diego.[7]

Demographics

The exact number of Eritrean residents in the United States is unknown due to the fact that Eritreans were Ethiopian nationals prior to Eritrea's independence in the early 1990s.[6] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, approximately 18,917 people reported Eritrean ancestry in 2000.[2] Between 2007 and 2011, there were approximately 25,848 Eritrea-born residents in the country.[1]

Most Eritrean immigrants are concentrated in Washington D.C. and California, especially the San Francisco Bay Area. The community also has a notable presence in the Seattle, Columbus, Minneapolis, Chicago, New York, Atlanta, Houston and Dallas metropolitan areas.[8]

Community organizations

The Eritrean Community Center of Greater New York.

The Eritrean community in the United States is represented by various Eritrean-run organizations. Among these are the Eritrean American Community in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area,[9] Eritrean Community Center of Greater New York,[10] Eritrean American Community in Dallas,[11] Eritrean Community Association in Chicago,[12] Eritrean Association in Greater Seattle,[13] and Eritrean American Community in Sacramento.[14]

In 2001, a chapter of the Eritrean Liberation Front–Revolutionary Council was also established in Chicago. The National Union of Eritrean Women likewise routinely holds meetings and activities in the city.[6]

Additionally, the Virginia-based Eritrean Sports Federation in North America (ERSFNA) annually hosts a soccer tournament for Eritrean residents. It also organizes adult and youth sports community programs in various U.S. cities.[15]

The Eritrean Muslims Association in North America (EMANA) and Eritrean Muslims Council (EMC) serve the Eritrean community's Muslim adherents.[16][17] Christians also gather in a number of Eritrean Orthodox, Protestant and Roman Catholic churches.[6]

Notable Eritrean Americans

Notable U.S. residents of full or partial Eritrean descent include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  3. ^ a b Terrazas, Aaron (June 2007). "Beyond Regional Circularity: The Emergence of an Ethiopian Diaspora". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Chacko, Elizabeth (October 2003). "Identity and Assimilation Among Young Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Washington". Geographical Review 93 (4): 491–506. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2003.tb00044.x. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Powell, John (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 94. ISBN . 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Hepner, Tricia Redeker. "Eritreans". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "Eritrean Cab". Beach California. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Ember, Melvin (1997). American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation. Simon & Schuster Macmillan. p. 264. ISBN . 
  9. ^ Eritrean American Community in the DC Metropolitan Area EAC
  10. ^ "Eritrean Community Center of Greater New York". NCCS. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Eritrean American Community - Dallas, Texas
  12. ^ Eritrean Community Association in Chicago
  13. ^ Eritrean Association in Greater Seattle
  14. ^ Eritrean American Community in Sacramento
  15. ^ "Eritrean Sports Federation in North America (ERSFNA)". Eritrean Sports Federation in North America (ERSFNA). Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  16. ^ "Eritrean Muslims Association in North America (EMANA)". Eritrean Muslims Association in North America. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  17. ^ "www.erimc.org/news.php Eritrean Muslims Council (EMC)". Eritrean Muslims Council. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 

External links

  • Organization of Eritrean-Americans
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