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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Osteochondrodysplasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 DiseasesDB MeSH D010009

Osteochondrodysplasia is a general term for a disorder of the development (dysplasia) of bone ("osteo") and cartilage ("chondro").[1]

Types

Achondroplasia

Main article: Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is a type of autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism. Achondroplastic dwarfs have short stature, with an average adult height of 131 cm (4 feet, 3.8 inches) for males and 123 cm (4 feet, 0.6 inches) for females.

The prevalence is approximately 1 in 25,000.[2]

Cleidocranial dysostosis

Cleidocranial dysostosis is a general skeletal condition named for the collarbone (cleido-) and cranium deformities which people with it often have. Common features include:

Fibrous dysplasia

Main article: Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia causes bone thinning[3] and growths or lesions in one or more bones of the human body.

These lesions are tumor-like growths that consist of replacement of the medullary bone with fibrous tissue, causing the expansion and weakening of the areas of bone involved. Especially when involving the skull or facial bones, the lesions can cause externally visible deformities. The skull is often, but not necessarily, affected, and any other bone(s) can be involved.

Langer-Giedion syndrome

Main article: Langer-Giedion syndrome

Langer-Giedion syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of chromosomal material. Diagnosis is usually made at birth or in early childhood.

The features associated with this condition include mild to moderate learning difficulties, short stature, unique facial features, small head and skeletal abnormalities including bony growths projecting from the surfaces of bones.

Mafucci syndrome

Main article: Mafucci syndrome

Maffucci syndrome is a sporadic disease characterized by the presence of multiple enchondromas associated with multiple simple or cavernous soft tissue hemangiomas. Also lymphangiomas may be apparent.

Patients are normal at birth and the syndrome manifests during childhood and puberty. The enchondromas affect the extremities and their distribution is asymmetrical.

Osteosclerosis

Main article: Osteosclerosis

Osteosclerosis, an elevation in bone density,[4] is normally detected on an X-ray as an area of whiteness, and is where the bone density has significantly increased. Localized osteosclerosis can be caused by injuries that compress the bone, by osteoarthritis, and osteoma.

Other

References

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