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Everolimus

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Title: Everolimus  
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Everolimus

Everolimus
Systematic (IUPAC) name
dihydroxy-12-[(2R)-1-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl]propan-2-yl]-19,30-dimethoxy-15,17,21,23,29,35-hexamethyl-11,36-dioxa-4-azatricyclo[30.3.1.0 hexatriaconta-16,24,26,28-tetraene-2,3,10,14,20-pentone
Clinical data
Licence data US FDA:
Pregnancy
category
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Legal status
  • (Prescription only)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life ~30 hours[1]
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code L01 L04
PubChem CID:
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
UNII  Y
KEGG  Y
ChEMBL  N
Synonyms 42-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)rapamycin
Chemical data
Formula C53H83NO14
Molecular mass 958.224 g/mol
 N   

Everolimus (INN) (earlier code name RAD001) is the 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl) derivative of sirolimus and works similarly to sirolimus as an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

It is currently used as an targeted therapy for use in a number of cancers.

It is marketed by Novartis under the tradenames Zortress (USA) and Certican (Europe and other countries) in transplantation medicine, and Afinitor in oncology. Everolimus also available with Biocon with the brand name of Evertor.

Contents

  • Approvals and indications 1
  • National Health Service 2
  • Clinical trials 3
  • Mechanism 4
  • Role in heart transplantation 5
  • Role in Liver Transplantation 6
  • Use in vascular stents 7
  • Use in aging 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Approvals and indications

Everolimus is approved for various conditions:

  • Advanced kidney cancer (approved in March 2009)[2]
  • Prevention of organ rejection after renal transplant(April 2010)[3]
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS) in patients who are not suitable for surgical intervention (October 2010)[4]
  • Progressive or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors not surgically removable (May 2011)[5]
  • Breast cancer in post-menopausal women with advanced hormone-receptor positive, HER2-negative type cancer, in conjunction with exemestane (July 2012)[6]
  • Prevention of organ rejection after liver transplant(Feb 2013)

National Health Service

NHS England has been criticised for delays in deciding on a policy for the prescription of Everolimus in the treatment of Tuberous Sclerosis. 20 doctors addressed a letter to the board in support of the charity Tuberous Scelerosis Association saying " around 32 patients with critical need, whose doctors believe everolimus treatment is their best or only option, have no hope of access to funding. Most have been waiting many months. Approximately half of these patients are at imminent risk of a catastrophic event (renal bleed or kidney failure) with a high risk of preventable death."[7] In May 2015 it was reported that Luke Henry and Stephanie Rudwick, the parents of a child suffering from Tuberous Sclerosis were trying to sell their home in Brighton to raise £30,000 to pay for treatment for their daughter Bethany who has tumours on her brain, kidneys and liver and suffers from up to 50 epileptic fits a day.[8]

Clinical trials

As of October 2010, Phase III trials are under way in gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and lymphoma.[9] The use of everolimus in refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease has been reported in 2012.[10]

Interim phase III trial results in 2011 showed that adding Afinitor (everolimus) to exemestane therapy against advanced breast cancer can significantly improve progression-free survival compared with exemestane therapy alone.[11] However, everolimus increases mortality in cancer patients.[12]

Furthermore, there is a study that shows that there is a different sensitivity to everolimus between patients depending on their genome.[13] Through a Phase II clinical trial done in patients that presented advanced metastasic bladder carcinoma (NCT00805129) [14] they found just one person that positively responded to everolimus treatment for 26 months. Thus, they decided to sequence the genome of this patient and to compare it to different reference genomes and to other patients' genomes. This way, they discovered that mutations in TSC1 lead to an increase in recurrence and to an increase in the response time to everolimus. Thus, it has been determined that everolimus is more efficient in those patients that present somatic mutations in TSC1.

Mechanism

In a similar fashion to other mTOR inhibitors its effect is solely on the mTORC1 protein complex and not on the mTORC2 complex. This can lead to a hyper-activation of the kinase AKT via inhibition on the mTORC1 negative feedback loop while not inhibiting the mTORC2 positive feedback to AKT. This AKT elevation can lead to longer survival in some cell types. Hence, everolimus has an important effect on cell growth, cell proliferation and cell survival. mTORC1 action is modulated by several mitogens, growth factors and nutrients.

TSC1 and TSC2 (which are the genes involved in tuberous sclerosis disease) act as tumor suppressor genes by regulating mTORC1 activity. Thus, either the loss or inactivation of one of these genes lead to the activation of mTORC1.[15]

Everolimus binds to its protein receptor FKBP12, which directly interacts with mTORC1 inhibiting its downstream signaling. As a consequence, mRNAs that codify proteins implicated in the cell cycle and in the glycolysis process are impaired or altered, so tumor growth is inhibited. Hence, everolimus inhibits tumor cells' growth and proliferation.[15]

Role in heart transplantation

Everolimus may have a role in heart transplantation as it has been shown to reduce chronic allograft vasculopathy in such transplants. It also may have a similar role to sirolimus in kidney and other transplants.[16]

Role in Liver Transplantation

Although, sirolimus, an m-TOR inhibior had generated worries initially while using m-TORs in liver transplantation recipients due to possible early hepatic artery thrombosis and graft loss, use of Everolimus in the setting of liver transplantation is promising. Recent studies have proven the safety of the everolimus when used in early phase after liver transplantation. Jeng et al.[17] in their study of 43 patients conclued the safety of use of everolimus in early phase after living donor liver transplantation. In their study no hepatic artery thrombosis or wound infection was noted. Also, a possible role of everolimus in reducing the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation was correlated. At a target trough level of 3 ng/mL at 3 months was proved to be beneficial in recipients with pre-transplant renal dysfucntion. In their study, 6 of 9 renal failure patients showed significant recovery of renal function, whereas 3 of them showed further deterioration and 1 required hemodialysis. The same study group claims decreased recurrence of hepatocelullar carcinoma recurrence if everolimus was used in early phase after transplantation.[18]

Use in vascular stents

Everolimus is used in drug-eluting coronary stents as an immunosuppressant to prevent restenosis. Abbott Vascular produces an everolimus-eluting stent called the Xience Xpedition. It utilizes the Multi-Link Vision cobalt chromium stent platform and Novartis' everolimus. The product is also currently in use in the United States and as an investigational device in Japan. A similar version called the PROMUS Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System is produced by Boston Scientific and it is currently available in the United States and most major European and Asia-Pacific markets.

Use in aging

Inhibition of

  • Sedrani R, Cottens S, Kallen J, Schuler W (August 1998). "Chemical modification of rapamycin: the discovery of SDZ RAD". Transplant. Proc. 30 (5): 2192–4.  

External links

  1. ^ R.N Formica Jra, K.M Lorberb, A.L Friedmanb, M.J Biaa, F Lakkisa, J.D Smitha, M.I Lorber (March 2004). "The evolving experience using everolimus in clinical transplantation".  
  2. ^ "Afinitor approved in US as first treatment for patients with advanced kidney cancer after failure of either sunitinib or sorafenib" (Press release).  
  3. ^ "Novartis receives US FDA approval for Zortress (everolimus) to prevent organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients" (Press release).  
  4. ^ "Novartis’ Afinitor Cleared by FDA for Treating SEGA Tumors in Tuberous Sclerosis". 1 Nov 2010. 
  5. ^ http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm254350.htm
  6. ^ "US FDA approves Novartis drug Afinitor for breast cancer". Reuters. 20 Jul 2012. 
  7. ^ Lintern, Shaun (14 April 2015). "Policy delays risk 'preventable deaths', doctors warn NHS England". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "Couple forced to sell home after NHS refuse to fund daughter's treatment for rare illness". Daily Express. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  9. ^ http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/novartis-afinitor-cleared-by-fda-for-treating-sega-tumors-in-tuberous-sclerosis/81244159/
  10. ^ Lutz M, Kapp M, Grigoleit GU, Stuhler G, Einsele H, Mielke S (April 2012). "Salvage therapy with everolimus improves quality of life in patients with refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease" (PDF).  
  11. ^ "Positive Trial Data Leads Novartis to Plan Breast Cancer Filing for Afinitor by Year End". 2011. 
  12. ^ Fatal AEs Higher with mTOR Drugs in Cancer. Med Page Today
  13. ^ [4]
  14. ^ [5]
  15. ^ a b [6]
  16. ^ Eisen HJ, Tuzcu EM, Dorent R; et al. (August 2003). "Everolimus for the prevention of allograft rejection and vasculopathy in cardiac-transplant recipients".  
  17. ^ Jeng LB, Thorat A, Hsieh YY; et al. (April 2014). "Experience of using everolimus in the early stage of living donor liver transplantation.".  
  18. ^ Jeng L, Thorat A, Yang H, Yeh C-C, Chen T-H, Hsu S-C. Impact of Everolimus On the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence After Living Donor Liver Transplantation When Used in Early Stage: A Single Center Prospective Study [abstract]. Am J Transplant. 2015; 15 (suppl 3). http://www.atcmeetingabstracts.com/abstract/impact-of-everolimus-on-the-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-when-used-in-early-stage-a-single-center-prospective-study/ Accessed September 1, 2015.
  19. ^ Harrison, David E.; Strong, Randy; Sharp, Zelton Dave; Nelson, James F.; Astle, Clinton M.; Flurkey, Kevin; Nadon, Nancy L.; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Frenkel, Krystyna (2009-07-16). "Rapamycin fed late in life extends lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice". Nature 460 (7253): 392–395.  
  20. ^ Mannick, Joan B.; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Maria; Valiante, Nicholas M.; Praestgaard, Jens; Huang, Baisong; Lonetto, Michael A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Kovarik, John (2014-12-24). "mTOR inhibition improves immune function in the elderly". Science Translational Medicine 6 (268): 268ra179.  
  21. ^ Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Baar, Emma L.; Syed, Faizan A.; Cummings, Nicole E.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Pumper, Cassidy P.; Kimple, Michelle E.; Lamming, Dudley W. (2015-10-13). "Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system". Aging Cell.  

References

See also

[21].sirolimus Everolimus treatment of mice results in reduced metabolic side effects compared to [20] and mTOR inhibition has been suggested as an anti-aging therapy. Everolimus was used in a recent clinical trial by Novartis, and short-term treatment was shown to enhance the response to the influenza vaccine in the elderly, possible by reversing immunosenescence.[19]

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