World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Film tinting

Article Id: WHEBN0003641073
Reproduction Date:

Title: Film tinting  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sonochrome, Desmet method, Video processing, Color grading, Silent film
Collection: Film and Video Technology, Silent Film
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Film tinting

Film tinting is the process of adding color to black-and-white film, usually by means of soaking the film in dye and staining the film emulsion. The effect is that all of the light shining through is filtered, so that what would be white light is, in fact, another color.

Film toning is the process of replacing the silver particles in the emulsion with colored, silver salts, by means of chemicals.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Tinting in the silent era 1.1
    • Tinting in later years 1.2
  • Common tints 2
  • Process 3
  • In restoration 4
  • References 5
  • See also 6

History

Tinting in the silent era

The process began in the 1890s, originally as a copy-guard against film pirates. The film was tinted amber, the color of the safelight on film printers. The discovery of bleaching methods by pirates soon put an end to this. Both the Edison Studios and the Biograph Company began tinting their films for setting moods. Because orthochromatic film stock could not be used in low-light situations, blue became the most popular tint, applied to scenes shot during the day and when projected, signified night.

A variation of film tinting is hand coloring, in which only parts of the image are colored by hand with dyes, sometimes using a Trip to the Moon, made available to modern viewers only after the 2012 release of a restoration of the film by Lobster Films. The distinctive use of color in VoyagoSome prints of the popular Edison film The Great Train Robbery had selected hand-colored scenes. Pathé had 100 young women at its factory at Vincennes who were employed as colorists. They produced the Life of Christ in 1910, an example "still" of which is above.

As late as the 1920s, hand coloring processes were used for individual shots in Greed (1924) and The Phantom of the Opera (1925) (both utilizing the Handschiegl Color Process); and rarely, an entire feature-length movie such as The Last Days of Pompeii (1926) and Cyrano de Bergerac (1925), with color by Pathé's stencil process Pathéchrome.

By the early teens, with the onset of feature-length films, tinting was expanded upon as another mood setter, just as commonplace as music. The Society of Motion Picture Engineers estimated that by 1920, tinting was used for 80 to 90 percent of all films.[1]

The director D.W. Griffith displayed a constant interest and concern about color, and used tinting to a unique effect in many of his films. His 1915 epic, The Birth of a Nation, utilized a number of colors, including amber, blue, lavender, and a striking red tint for scenes such as the "burning of Atlanta" and the ride of the Ku Klux Klan at the climax of the picture. Griffith later invented a color system in which colored lights flashed on areas of the screen to achieve a color effect.

Tinting in the world's oldest-surviving animated feature film, The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926)

In 1921, Kodak introduced pre-tinted stocks, with stained cellulose base, rather than a dyed emulsion upon the base. The colors available originally were lavender, red, green, blue, pink, light amber, dark amber, yellow, and orange.

By the mid to late 1920s, tinting and toning were phased out for a number of reasons, the largest being that it was expensive and time consuming. Since each color had to be dyed separately, then spliced into the show print, it also meant that each print was already weakened by having numerous splices in it, straight from the distributor. The introduction of panchromatic film stock, which registered all light rather than just blue light, also lessened the need for tinting. This meant that it was possible to shoot dark scenes and not have to tint them to relate to the audience that it was night.

Another minor, but prevalent, factor was the coming of sound. In 1929, Kodak added to their tinted stocks a brand known as Sonochrome — pre-tinted stocks for sound films that did not interfere with the soundtrack. But splicing together tinted sound prints interfered more with sound-on-disc processes such as Vitaphone, which needed to be frame accurate to keep in synchronization. Extra splices in a print were prone to human error and out of sync pictures.

Tinting in later years

Tinting was utilized for years up until the early 1950s in select sequences, full monochromatic pictures and short trailers and snipes. MGM invented an interference-free toning process, which was used in films such as The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Warner Brothers's The Sea Hawk (1940). Many MGM movies of the 1930s carried a sepia-like tone called "Pearl".

The Technicolor Corporation continued to experiment with both tinting, toning and colorizing. The last reel of Portrait of Jennie (1948) contained both green and amber tints by Technicolor. Mighty Joe Young (1949) displayed a further concept of tinting by Technicolor, with various shades of red, orange, and yellow creating a fire-like effect for the last reel. The Cinecolor Corporation also created similar effects, and sepia-toned several films as well as tinted select scenes in chapters of the 1951 Columbia serial Captain Video.

Common tints

Over the years, general rules of thumb were developed for what color to use in certain scenes. Many of them were obvious, but a few artistic. Specific names were given to tints to specify certain colors. Striking effects could be achieved by both tinting and toning sequences.

In order of most common:

  • Amber Tint (variations: straw amber, light amber, night amber) - used for daylight interiors. Night amber was sometimes used for exterior night scenes that were lit. Orange was common for night time interiors
  • Yellow Tint (aka: Sunshine) - Used for daylight exteriors exclusively.
  • Blue Tint (variations: Azure, Nocturne) - For night scenes that had no visible light source other than the moon. Blue tone (processed in Ferric ferrocyanide solution) was also somewhat common and usually an amber tint were used for scenes well lit by lamps, candles, etc.
  • Sepia tone - Processed through a silver sulfide ferrocyanide or uranium ferrocyanide solution. Popular as an alternative to Sunshine or Amber. Was very popular in westerns and other pictures of the 1930s through the 1950s because of the dusty tone it gave and technically for its low interference rate on the soundtrack.
  • Red Tint (variations: Scarlet, Inferno, Firelight) - Used for scenes of fire, fury or explosion. Firelight was a light orange/yellow that was used with red tone to create realistic flames. Red tone was created by processing through a copper ferrocyanide solution.
  • Lavender Tint (variations: Purple Haze, Fleur de Lis) - Used in romantic, dusk or dawn, or oriental scenes primarily. Lavender tint was also used as a processing technique to cut down on contrast with duplicate negatives before fine grain positives were popular.
  • Rose (variations: Rose Doreé, Peachblow, Candleflame) - Similar to lavender, sometimes used for low-key lit night interiors.
  • Green Tint (variations: Verdante, Aqua Green) - Scenes tinted in green were generally mysterious or seafaring scenes. Green tone, achieved by processing through vanadium ferrocyanide solution, was commonly used in jungle and nature scenes.[2]

Process

The process for tinting was laborious, although simple in principle. Editing was done in rolls based on tint color, with numbered frames of film in between scenes for later assembly. Once these rolls were printed and processed from the negative, they were immersed in aniline dyes, specified to the colors that were listed in the script or continuity. Hardening fixer was not used on the film in order for the dye to be imbibed into the emulsion quicker and with better results. Once the film had dried on large film drums, it would be assembled in correct order and rewound onto reels for shipping. Toning was similar, but instead of aniline dyes, the film was immersed in chemicals to change the silver image into colored salts.

In restoration

Tinting and toning are important factors in film restoration today. They were an integral part of the moviegoing experience and the processes have been duplicated with modern methods for both video and film, based on the specifications of existing documentations on each film.

References

  1. ^ Koszarski, Richard (1994). An Evening's Entertainment : The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915-1928. University of California Press. p. 127.  
  2. ^ Coe, Brian. The History of Movie Photography. Westfield, NJ: Eastview Editions, 1981. Print.

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.