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Fokker F.VIII

F.VIII
Fokker F.VIII "Jämtland" of Swedish airline ABA, showing the Pratt & Whitney engine installation.
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Fokker
Designer Reinhold Platz
First flight 12 March 1927
Primary users KLM
Malert
Number built 11
Developed from Fokker F.VII

The Fokker F.VIII (or F.8) was a large twin-engined airliner designed and produced by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker in the 1920s.

Contents

  • Design and development 1
  • Operational history 2
  • Finnish service 3
  • Accidents and incidents 4
  • Operators 5
    • Civil 5.1
    • Military 5.2
  • Specifications (Jupiter-engined) 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • Sources 10

Design and development

In 1926, the Dutch airline KLM issued a request for an airliner with more passenger capacity than the F.VII variants in operation at the time. Designer Reinhold Platz immediately started work on the F.VIII in response.

The F.VIII[1] featured mixed construction: fuselage and tail section were constructed as a frame of welded steel covered with plywood (sometimes known as multiplex), canvas and duralumin, but the wing framing was all wood covered with plywood. This had become standard Fokker construction and the result was one of their characteristic cantilever high-winged monoplanes.

The F.VIII was Fokker's first twin-engined airliner, a reflection of the increasing power available from the light radials engines of the time. All their previous designs had an engine in the nose, and its absence in the F.VIII lead to less prop-wash wear and tear on the fuselage and much lower vibration levels for passengers. The first aircraft used 358 kW (480 hp) Bristol Jupiter radial engines built under licence by Gnome-Rhone, strut mounted and uncowled under the wings. KLM later re-engined theirs with 391 kW (525 hp) Pratt and Whitney Wasp T1D1 radials, cowled with Townend rings and mounted further forward than the Jupiters. One aircraft, which for part of its life flew as PH-OTO was used to explore the effects of mounting engines in, rather than below the wing. There were concerns that this arrangement, which became standard in later propeller driven aircraft would seriously disturb the airflow over the upper wing. It used 589 kW (790 hp) Wright Cyclones.

The standard cabin accommodated 15 passengers seated three abreast, but KLM chose a more luxurious 12-seat arrangement, well received at the time.

The prototype made its maiden flight on March 12, 1927. 11 F.VIII aircraft were built, three under licence by Manfred Weiss in Budapest. Fokker designed, but did not build a seaplane version designated F.VIIIw.

Operational history

KLM accepted delivery of the first of their seven on June 24, 1927. They were used exclusively on the European routes. The WM factory, all using Gnome-Rhône Jupiter 9A engines. These Budapest airliners flew on Malert's short haul routes; two were lost in crashes.

In 1936, two of KLM's Wasp-powered aircraft were sold to British Airways for use on their cross channel routes.[2] In 1937, KLM's PH-AED was sold to Venezuela. On the eve of war in 1939, one of KLM's F.VIII's, PH-AEG, was transferred to the Swedish Air Force via ABA. Thus the airplane first flew with civil identification code SE-AEB but later on it got its Swedish Air Force designation, 916. This Fokker type was called Tp 10 in Swedish service. Another ex-KLM aircraft flew Sweden as SE-AHA (sse below).

Finnish service

The Finnish Air Force's sole Fokker F.VIII was ex-KLM Wasp-powered H-NAEI, production number 5046. KLM's West Indies division used it for regular passenger service with registration PH-AEI. In 1937, it was sold to British Airways Ltd, where it was registered as G-AEPU and used to transport passengers across the English Channel. Swedish company G.A. Flygrender purchased the aircraft in 1939, and it was ferried to Sweden via Amsterdam, Copenhagen and Torslanda on April 7, 1939. In Sweden, registered as SE-AHA the aircraft mainly flew in the Gothenburg area.

During the kronor. Thus, Swedish SE-AHA became Finnish OH-FOA and was flown to Finland on 11 November 1940. Once in the Finnish Air Force, it was given code FE-1. Due to the bad condition of its wings, it first had to be overhauled. It took until 4 August 1941 before the plane was transferred to LeLv 46. There, it was mainly used to transport wounded soldiers from the island of Lunkula. Ten flights were made before the aircraft was destroyed on 27 September 1941, due to engine failure caused by air in the fuel system. The crew escaped unharmed despite their crash-landing in the woods; they were transporting at least one seriously injured passenger at that moment.

Accidents and incidents

  • On 22 August 1927, H-NADU of KLM crashed near Sevenoaks, Kent following loss of the tailfin.
  • On August 10, 1938, a Malert F.VIII crashed on climbout from Debrecen Airport, killing all 12 passengers and crew on board.[3]
  • On 27 December 1938, a 10-year-old boy from the island of Urk in the Netherlands was killed when he was struck by the tailfin of a flight delivering the mail during the winter freeze.

Operators

Civil

 Netherlands
 Hungary
 United Kingdom

Military

 Finland
 Hungary

Specifications (Jupiter-engined)

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ de Leeuw, pp 6-7
  2. ^ Jackson, p371
  3. ^

Bibliography

  • de Leeuv, Fokker Commercial Aircraft, (1994). Fokker. The Hague, Haagste Drukkerij
  • A.J.Jackson, British Civil Aircraft 1919-1972 (1973. London: Putnam Press ISBN 0-85177-813-5

Sources

  • Timo Heinonen: Thulinista Hornetiin - Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseon julkaisuja 3, 1992. ISBN 951-95688-2-4
  • Matti Hämäläinen: Pommituslentolaivue 46, Koala-Kustannus 2005. ISBN 952-5186-61-X
  • www.dutch-aviation.nl. The English part of this page contains the text, though not the specs from de Leeuw.
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