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Fulda

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Fulda

Fulda
Panorama of Fulda from the town castle
Panorama of Fulda from the town castle
Coat of arms of Fulda
Coat of arms
Fulda   is located in Germany
Fulda
Fulda
Coordinates:
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Kassel
District Fulda
Founded 744
Government
 • Lord Mayor Gerhard Möller (CDU)
Area
 • Total 104.04 km2 (40.17 sq mi)
Elevation 261 m (856 ft)
Population (2013-12-31)[1]
 • Total 65,036
 • Density 630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 36001–36043
Dialling codes 0661
Vehicle registration FD
Website www.fulda.de

Fulda (German pronunciation: ) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). In 1990, the town hosted the 30th Hessentag state festival.

History

Middle Ages

In 744 Charlemagne's armies in their political and military campaign to fully conquer and convert pagan Saxony.

The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, the son of Charles Martel. The support of the Mayors of the Palace and later, the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was important to Boniface's success. Fulda also received support from many of the leading families of the Carolingian world. Sturm, whose tenure as abbot lasted from 747 until 779, was most likely related to the Agilolfing dukes of Bavaria. Fulda also received large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsace, and from the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors. Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received from these and other important families helped in the establishment of daughter-houses -Johannesberg and Petersberg - near Fulda.

St Boniface baptizing and undergoing martyrdom - from the Sacramentary of Fulda

After his martyrdom by the Frisians, the relics of Saint Boniface were brought back to Fulda. Because of the stature this afforded the monastery, the donations increased, and Fulda could establish daughter-houses further away, for example in Hamelin. Meanwhile Saint Lullus, successor of Boniface as archbishop of Mainz, tried to absorb the abbey into his archbishopric, but failed. This was one reason that he founded Hersfeld Abbey - to limit the attempts of the enlargement of Fulda.

Between 790 and 819 the community rebuilt the main monastery church to more fittingly house the relics. They based their new basilica on the original 4th-century (since demolished) Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, using the transept and crypt plan of that great pilgrimage church to frame their own saint as the "Apostle to the Germans". The crypt of the original abbey church still holds those relics, but the church itself has been subsumed into a Baroque renovation. A small, 9th-century chapel remains standing within walking distance of the church, as do the foundations of a later women's abbey.

The great scholar Rabanus Maurus served as abbot at Fulda from 822 to 842.

18th and 19th centuries

The foundation of the abbey Fulda and its territory originated with an Imperial grant, and the sovereign principality therefore was subject only to the German emperor. Fulda became a bishopric in 1752 and the prince-abbots were given the additional title of prince-bishop. The prince-abbots (and later prince-bishops) ruled Fulda and the surrounding region until the bishopric was forcibly dissolved by Napoleon in 1802.

The city went through a baroque building campaign in the 18th century, resulting in the current “Baroque City” status. This included a remodeling of Fulda Cathedral (1704–12) and of the Stadtschloss (Castle-Palace, 1707–12) by Johann Dientzenhofer. The city parish church, St. Blasius, was built between 1771–1785.

In 1764 a porcelain factory was started in Fulda under Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Heinrich von Bibra, but shortly after his death it was closed down in 1789 by his successor, Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Adalbert von Harstall. Because of its quality and rarity, this porcelain is much prized by collectors.

The city was given to Prince William Frederick of Orange-Nassau (the later King William I of the Netherlands) in 1803 (as part of the short-lived Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda), was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1806, and in 1809 to the Principality of Frankfurt. After the Congress of Vienna of 1814-1815, most of the territory went to the Electorate of Hesse, which Prussia annexed in 1866.[2]

Cold War

Fulda lends its name to the Fulda Gap, a traditional east-west invasion route used by Napoleon and others. During the Cold War, it was presumed to be an invasion route for any conventional war between NATO and Soviet forces. Downs Barracks in Fulda was the headquarters of the American 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment, later renamed the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. The cavalry had as many a 3,000 soldiers from the end of WWII until 1993. Not all of those soldiers were in Fulda proper, but scattered over observation posts and in the cities of Bad Kissingen and Bad Hersfeld. The strategic importance of this region (along the old West/East German border) led to a large US and Soviet military presence.[3]

Transportation

Fulda station is an important transport hub and interchange point between local and long distance traffic of the German railway network, and is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station.[4] It is on the Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway; the North-South line (Nord-Süd-Strecke), comprising the Bebra-Fulda line north of Fulda, and the Kinzig Valley Railway and Fulda-Main Railway to the south; the Vogelsberg Railway, which connects to the hills of the Vogelsberg in the west; and the Fulda–Gersfeld Railway (Rhön Railway) to Gersfeld in the Rhön Mountains to the east.

Fulda is on the Bundesautobahn 7 (BAB 7) and is at the eastern terminus of the Bundesautobahn 66, which ends at a three-way junction with the BAB 7. It is also on the Bundesstraße 27.

International relations

Twin towns/sister cities

Fulda is twinned with:

People

Images

References

  1. ^ "Die Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden".  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Brown, Jerold E., ed. (2001). Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 209–210.  
  4. ^ "Stationspreisliste 2014" [Station price list 2014] (PDF) (in German).  

External links

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