World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ganglion impar

Article Id: WHEBN0004947683
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ganglion impar  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sympathetic trunk, Azygos, Neurolytic block, Anococcygeal nerve, Posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ganglion impar

Ganglion impar
Latin ganglion impar
Anatomical terminology

The pelvic portion of each sympathetic trunk is situated in front of the sacrum, medial to the anterior sacral foramina. It consists of four or five small sacral ganglia, connected together by interganglionic cords, and continuous above with the abdominal portion. Below, the two pelvic sympathetic trunks converge, and end on the front of the coccyx in a small ganglion, the ganglion impar (or ganglion of Walther).


  • Clinical significance 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Clinical significance

Physicians at New Jersey Medical School specializing in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation have published that sometimes even just a single local nerve block injection at the ganglion impar can give 100% relief of coccydynia (tailbone pain, also called coccyx pain), when performed under fluoroscopic guidance.[1]

See also


This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ Foye P, Buttaci C, Stitik T, Yonclas P (2006). "Successful injection for coccyx pain.". Am J Phys Med Rehabil 85 (9): 783–4.  
  • Munir MA, Zhang J, Ahmad M. (2004) "A modified needle-inside-needle technique for the ganglion impar block." Can J Anaesth. 2004 Nov;51(9):915-7.

External links

  • "Ganglion Impar Injections to Treat Tailbone Pain" at
  • "Treatment of coccydynia by injection of local anesthetic to the ganglion impar", at
  • figures/chapter_32/32-6.HTM — Basic Human Anatomy at Dartmouth Medical School
  • Tailbone pain (coccyx pain, coccydynia) Peer-reviewed medical article online at eMedicine (Medscape)

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.