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German occupied Europe

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German occupied Europe

Map of Europe at the height of German control in 1942

German–occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.[1]

Background

Several German occupied countries entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. Some were forced to surrender such as Czechoslovakia; others like Poland (invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Selected countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Yet, others were former members of the Axis powers, and have been occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.

Occupied countries

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country of
occupation
Timeline of occupation See for further details
Albanian Kingdom
(German occupation of Albania)
September 8, 1943 – 1944 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Albanian Kingdom
Bailiwick of Guernsey
(German occupation of Guernsey)
June 30, 1940 – May 9, 1945
Bailiwick of Jersey
(German occupation of Jersey)
June 30, 1940 – May 9, 1945
Commissioner Government

Government of National Salvation
(German occupation of Serbia)

April 30, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
Czechoslovak Republic

Czecho-Slovak Republic


Czechoslovak Republic
(German occupation of Czechoslovakia)

October 1, 1938 – 1945
(Sudetenland)
March 15, 1939 – 1945
(Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia)
1939–1945
(German Zone of Protection in Slovakia)
March 12, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Government of National Unity)
August 29, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Slovak Republic)
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Gau Bayreuth
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Reichsgau Niederdonau
Reichsgau Oberdonau
Reichsgau Sudetenland

Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Kingdom of Hungary
Slovak Republic
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Slovak Republic

Federal State of Austria
(German occupation of Austria)
March 12, 1938 – 1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Reichsgau Kärnten
Reichsgau Niederdonau
Reichsgau Oberdonau
Reichsgau Salzburg
Reichsgau Steiermark
Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg
Reichsgau Wien
Free City of Danzig
(German occupation of Danzig)
September 1, 1939 – 1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
French Republic

Free France


Provisional Government of the French Republic
(German occupation of France)

May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945
(Zone interdite)
November 10, 1942 – 1943/1944/1945
(Zone sud)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
(Zone sud)
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Gau Baden
Gau Westmark
Reichsgau Flandern

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France


Military Administration in France
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
French State

Governorate of Montenegro
(German occupation of Montenegro)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
German occupied territory of Montenegro
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(German occupation of Luxembourg)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Gau Koblenz-Trier
Independent State of Macedonia
(German occupation of Macedonia)
September 8, 1944 – 1944
Independent State of Croatia
(German occupation of Croatia)
April 10, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
Italian Islands of the Aegean
(German occupation of the Dodecanese)
September 8, 1943 – 1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Italian Social Republic
Kingdom of Belgium
(German occupation of Belgium)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Gau Cologne-Aix-la-Chapelle
Reichsgau Flandern
Reichsgau Wallonien

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Kingdom of Denmark
(German occupation of Denmark)
April 9, 1940 – May 5, 1945
Kingdom of Greece
(German occupation of Greece)
April 6, 1941 – 1943/1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Hellenic State
Kingdom of Hungary
(German occupation of Hungary)
March 12, 1944 – 1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Government of National Unity
Kingdom of Italy
(German occupation of Italy)
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945 Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Italian Social Republic

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills

Kingdom of Norway
(German occupation of Norway)
April 9, 1940 – May 8, 1945 Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Reichskommissariat für die besetzten norwegischen Gebiete
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
National Government
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(German occupation of the Netherlands)
May 10, 1940 – 1944/1945 Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories
Kingdom of Romania
(German occupation of Romania)
August 23, 1944 – 1944
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Republic of Užice


Bihać Republic


Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(German occupation of Yugoslavia)

April 6, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945
September 8, 1943 – 1943/1944/1945
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
Reichsgau Kärnten
Reichsgau Steiermark

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
German occupied territory of Montenegro
Kingdom of Hungary
Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Commissioner Government


Albanian Kingdom
Government of National Salvation
Independent State of Croatia
Independent Macedonia

Principality of Monaco
(German occupation of Monaco)
September 8, 1943 – 1945
Republic of Finland
(German occupation of Finland)
September 15, 1944 – April 25, 1945
(Lapland)
Republic of Poland

Republic of Poland
(German occupation of Poland)
(German annexed territories of Poland)

September 1, 1939 – 1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Bezirk Bialystok
Gau East Prussia
Gau Niederschlesien

General Government
Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Reichsgau Wartheland

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Military Administration in Poland


Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Republic of San Marino
(German occupation of San Marino)
September 17, 1944 – September 20, 1944
Provisional Government of Lithuania
(German occupation of Lithuania)
June 23, 1941 – August 5, 1941 Occupied territory of Nazi Germany:
Reichskommissariat Ostland
Slovak Republic
(German occupation of Slovakia)
1939–1945
(German Zone of Protection in Slovakia)
August 29, 1944 – 1944/1945
(Slovak Republic)
Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
German Zone of Protection in Slovakia
Puppet government of Nazi Germany:
Slovak Republic
Territory of the Saar Basin March 1, 1935 – 1939
1939–1945
Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Gau Westmark
Ukrainian National Government
(German occupation of Ukraine)
June 30, 1941–September 1941 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
General Government

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(German occupation of the Soviet Union)

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Belarus)

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Estonia)

Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Latvia)

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Lithuania)

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Moldova)

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Russia)

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
(German occupation of Ukraine)

June 22, 1941 – 1941/1942/1943/1944/1945 Annexed territories of Nazi Germany:
Bezirk Bialystok
General Government

Occupied territories of Nazi Germany:
Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ukraine

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive.
  • Map of Europe in 1942
  • http://www.worldwar2history.info/war/Allies.html
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/germany_advances_through_europe
  • http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/nazioccupation/
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