World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ghica family

Article Id: WHEBN0000411140
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ghica family  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of rulers of Moldavia, Ottoman dynasty, Phanariotes, Dora d'Istria, Alexander I of Serbia
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ghica family

Coat of Arms of the Ghica family

The Ghica family (Romanian: Ghica, Albanian: Gjika, Greek: Gikas, Γκίκαs) were a Romanian noble family active in Wallachia, Moldavia and in the Kingdom of Romania. In the 18th century, several branches of the family went through a process of Hellenization (into the Phanariote social network). The Ghicas also held the (agnatic) rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire (Fürst), a title first bestowed upon Grigore II Ghica in 1673 by Leopold I.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Origins 1.1
    • Rise 1.2
  • Notable members of the family 2
    • Princes of Wallachia 2.1
    • Princes of Moldavia 2.2
    • Prime Ministers of Romania 2.3
    • Others 2.4
  • External links 3
  • References 4

History

Grigore Ghica, the first Prince of Wallachia (1659-1660 and 1673-1678) from the Ghica family.
The Ghica Palace in Bucharest
The Ghica Palace in Colentina, Bucharest, 1859.

Origins

The family's origins are not clear and there isn't yet a consensus among scholars. An Turk from Cyprus" — the founder of the Köprülü family.[6] On the other hand, later members of the Ghica family displayed an Aromanian national consciousness (the Austrian branches being heteroidentified as of Aromanian origin) or promoted Aromanian culture — e.g., Grigore III Ghica's plans for an Aromanian school network in the Ottoman ruled areas of the Balkans.[6] Each of the two theories strongly influenced the Albanian and, respectively, the Aromanian communities in Romania and elsewhere, with each claiming the Ghica's as their own. In any case, until 1777 — the year Grigore III Ghica was assassinated for opposing the annexation of Bukovina by the Habsburgs, the Ghicas' identity oscillated only between a Romanian and a Hellenic (Greek-Phanariote) one; subsequently, a firm Romanian self-identity can be ascribed to the family.[6]

The family's history and fame, as well as its putative Albanian origins, are mostly known to the Western readers from Princess Elena Ghica's memories, Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika ("The Albanians in Romania. The history of the Ghica Princes"). For Dora d'Istria (Elena Ghica's nom de plume), the crumbly theory of an Albanian origin of the family's founder, resurrected after several centuries of latent existence, proved to be very lucrative: it gave a new sense for her Romantic involvement in the Balkan people's emancipation struggle (having previously adopted — and later abandoned — a Hellenophile attitude, by courtesy of her Greek maternal ancestry and under the influence of her Greek tutor Gregorios Papadopoulos), as well as in her anti-establishment attitude generated by the entrenching of the Hohenzollern in the Romanian Principality to the detriment of her family who had high hopes for a return on the throne.[6] She started learning Albanian history, and eventually became — since 1866 — the main advocate in Western Europe of the Albanian cause, despite the fact that she never knew or learned the Albanian language.[6] Her book, Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika, which upon its publication in 1873 in Florence caused the wrath of her family, repudiating her,[6][8] managed to forever shift the public perception towards the Albanian theory for the origin the family, at the expense of the Aromanian one.[6] The book was preceded by a series of articles on the nationalities from South-Eastern Europe and their struggle for independence. After articles on the Romanian (1859), Greek (1860) and Serbian (1865) ethnic identity, Dora d'Istria published in 1866 the article entitled The Albanian nationality according to folksongs. The study was translated into Albanian in 1867 by the Italo-Albanian patriot Dhimitër Kamarda,[9] and was prefaced by a poem with a revolutionary content, written by an Albanian author and addressed to his countrymen, urging them to rise up against the Ottomans.[10] Henceforth, Dora d'Istria became popular in Albanian nationalists circles, whose members did not hesitate to use her name for gaining support for their cause. This development was accepted and nurtured by the Romanian author, and she cultivated correspondences with several notable Albanian patriots, including Kamarda and Jeronim de Rada.[9] After the publication of Gli Albanesi in Romania..., the Albanian nationalists in Italy proceeded to declare Elena Ghica as the uncrowned queen of Albania. These speculations were tacitly entertained by Elena Ghica; similarly, other members of the family were drawn into this Albanian nationalistic tradition: at the end of the century, another member of the family, Romanian writer and socialite Albert Ghica would likewise key up vocal demands for the Albanian throne.[6][9]

Modern Romanian historiography has expressed vexation at the appropriation, undertaken by Albanian historiography (and by the unscientific Western scholarly works relying on faulty and superficial theories), of not only the Romanian feminist activist and writer Elena Ghica, but also of the whole Ghica family, at the proliferation of dubious spellings of the family names, false information concerning the birthplaces and other historical facts, and at the family's a posteriori labeling as the "Albanians of Romania".[11]

Rise

Grigore IV Ghica, Prince of Wallachia (1822–1828)
The Ghica Palace in Comăneşti

Sublime Porte, moved to Moldavia sometimes before October 1624, where, by means of the wealth his father managed to accumulate, he eventually entered into the ranks of court dignitaries.[5] Following the protection afforded by the Moldavian Prince Vasile Lupu, he climbed up the social ladder, first by becoming ambassador to the Porte, and then by marrying Smaragda (Smada) Lână, daughter of Stamate Lână, the Stolnic (Seneschal) of Broşteni.[5]

Following the

  1. ^ Richardson, Charles Francis (1898). The International Cyclopedia: A Compendium of Human Knowledge, Rev. with Large Additions, Volume 6. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Robert Elsie. A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. p. 167. Prince Albert Ghica, also spelled Albert Ghika and in Albanian Albert Gjika, stemmed from the noble Ghica family of Albanian origin. 
  3. ^ Michael Consalvo Bellusci. Origin of the Bellusci Family. p. 10. In the history of this country we find the names of many Albanian families. Among these we find the GHICA family which played a great part in the modern development of Rumania. 
  4. ^ Franciska de Haan. Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central Europe. p. 158. The aristocratic Gjikas, like the Lupujt and Dukajt families, were of Albanian origin and had settled in Wallachia and Moldavia. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Cernovodeanu, La Famille Ghika – court historique. Online at Ghika.net. Retrieved on 7 October 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Liviu Bordaș, Dor de Dunăre şi alte nostalgii cosmopolite — Preţul cosmopolitismului, in Observator Cultural, No. 437, August, 2008.
  7. ^ Legend XXXVII from O sama de cuvinte
  8. ^ Liviu Bordaș, Operele incomplete ale Dorei d’Istria. Istoria unei ediţii la 1870, in Caiete Critice, Bucureşti, nr. 10-11, 2008, pp. 51-56. Online at: Ghyka.net
  9. ^ a b c Paul Cernovodeanu et al., Elena Ghica — Dora d'Istria. Online at Ghyka.net
  10. ^ Nathalie Clayer, Origins of Albanian nationalism, Karthala, Paris, 2007, p.209, apud Paul Cernovodeanu et al., Elena Ghica — Dora d'Istria. Online at Ghyka.net
  11. ^ Cf. the article Liviu Bordas, Dor de Dunăre şi alte nostalgii cosmopolite — Preţul cosmopolitismului ("Longing for the Danube and Other Cosmopolitan Nostalgias — The Price of Cosmopolitanism"), in Observator Cultural, No. 437, August, 2008.
  12. ^ Matei Ghika — Fiche individuelle at Ghika.net. Retrieved on 8 October 2010.
  13. ^ Gheorghe Ghika Vodã I — Fiche individuelle at Ghika.net. Retrieved on 8 October 2010.
  14. ^ Christopher Long, Prince Mattheos (Gregorios) Ghika — Family Group Sheet. Online at Mavrogordato / Mavrocordato Family. Retrieved on 7 October 2010.

References

External links

Others

Prime Ministers of Romania

Princes of Moldavia

Princes of Wallachia

Alexandru II Ghica, Prince of Wallachia (1834–1842)
Portrait of Dora d'Istria by Petre Mateescu (1876).

Notable members of the family

His son Grigore II Ghica, initiated in the intricacies of the Ottoman politics due to his rank as Dragoman, succeeded in acquiring the Moldavian throne on 26 September 1726.[5] During his rule in Moldavia, Grigore II Ghica made proof of great diplomatic skills by leveling an unfortunate conflict with the Crimean Khanate who threatened to ravage the country. In 1733 a swap of thrones took place, with Grigore II going to Wallachia in place of his cousin Constantine Mavrocordatos. Grigore II Ghica's diplomatic skills proved even more remarkable during the Russo-Austrian-Turkish War, when the Prince of Moldavia, at the request of the Porte, acted as the intermediary and mediator between the Ottomans and Russians through correspondence and exchange of envoys with the Russian Field Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Münnich, with John Bell, the secretary of the British embassy in St. Petersburg, with the French ambassador to Constantinople, Louis Sauveur Villeneuve, as well as with the great Ottoman dignitaries.[5]

Grigore I Ghica's children, most notably Matei (Grigore) Ghica, assured the continuation of the lineage. Matei Ghica lived exclusively in Greek Phanar neighborhood of Constantinople. The marriage with Ruxandra Mavrocordat, daughter of Alexander Mavrocordatos, the Great Dragoman of the Sublime Porte, introduced Matei to the Phanariote nucleus — now the religious, cultural and political hegemons of the Christian Ottoman subjects and vassals — and ensured a path of political ascendancy for his descendants.[5] He became Grand Drogoman of The Fleet, and in 1739 he negotiated an agreement with the Sultan whereby the key position of Grand Drogoman of the Sublime Porte would remain within the fold — i.e. among the descendants of a family pact involving the Ghicas, Mavrocordatos and Racoviţăs.[14]

Grigore I Ghica's rule was also not free from disturbances due to the conflict with the Sublime Porte and especially because of the disputes between the Boyar parties. Through his political maneuvers and the assassination of his former mentor Constantine Cantacuzino, he instigated the hatred of nobility against him and his entourage. Taking advantage of the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Levice (1664), Grigore fled to Poland and then to Vienna, in search of Habsburg military aid. His hopes having not been materialized, he returned to Constantinople and acquired the Moldavian throne once again in 1672. During his short second reign, the animosity of the Cantacuzinos exploded violently, and after the defeat of the Turks at Khotyn in 1673, Grigore was forced to flee to Constantinople; the hostility of his opponents lost his throne and he will die in Constantinople in 1674.[5]

[5]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.