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Glossary of Lepidopteran terms

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Glossary of Lepidopteran terms

This glossary describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.

A–C

abdomen
Body of the insect, toward the posterior of the thorax.
admarginal
(adjective): Along the margin.
acaricide
A chemical employed to kill and control mites and ticks.
acariphagous
feeding on mites (also refers to parasitoids of mites).
acetyl choline
Alternative spelling of "acetylcholine".
accessory gland
Any secondary gland of the glandular system.
acrostichal bristles
The two rows of hairs or bristles lying one on either side of the mid-line of the thorax of a true fly.
active space
The space within which the concentration of a pheromone or other behaviorally active substance is concentrated enough to generate the required response, remembering that like light and sound pheromones become more dilute the further they radiate out from their source.
accessory pulsatile organs (APOs)
Small muscular pumps and the veins that accompany them that pump hemolymph into the wings.
aculeate
(Hymenoptera) Any member of a group of families that include the familiar singing ants, bees, and social and hunting wasp.
acuminate
Tapering to a long point.
acylurea
A class of insect growth regulators.
adipocytes
A major cell type of insects that stores fat body and reserves nutrients.
adeagus
The part of the male genitalia which is inserted into the female during copulation and which carries the sperm into the female. Its shape is often important in separating closely related species.
adecticous
Of pupa: the state in which the pupa does not possess movable mandibles, the opposite being decticous.
aedeagus
The sclerotized terminal portion of the male genital tract that is inserted into the female during insemination.
aestivation
Summer dormancy, entered into when conditions are unfavourable for active life i.e. it is too hot or too dry.
age polyethism
The regular changing of roles of colony members as they get older.
air sac
A dilated portion of a trachea.
alar squama
The middle of three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various flies.
alary muscles
muscles along the dorsal diaphragm that may perform circulation.
alata
the parthenogenetic winged morph of vividae, specialized for migration.
alate
Winged; having wings.
aldrin
(common name). A synthetic insecticide; a chlorinated hydrocarbon of not less than 95 per cent 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene; moderately toxic to mammals, acute oral LD,, for rats 44 mg/kg; phytotoxicity: none when properly formulated, but some crops are sensitive to solvents in certain formulations.
alula
Pair of membranous lobes at the posterior angle of the wing of Diptera.
algophagy
feeding on algae.
alitrunk
Name given to the thorax and propodeum of 'wasp-waisted' hymenopterans.
alloparental
When individuals other than the parent assist in the caring for that parents offspring.
allopatric
Two or more forms of a species having essentially separate distributions.
aliphatic
A term applied to the "open chain" or fatty series of hydrocarbons.
alternating generations
When two generations are produced within a life cycle each producing individuals of only one sex, either male first and then female or vice versa.
altruistic
Self-destructive. or potentially self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others.
alula
In insects (not birds) the outermost of the three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various flies: really a part of the wing membrane.
ambrosia
The fungus cultivated by wood-boring beetles of the family Scolytidae.
ametabola
The insects which develop without metamorphosis, namely the Protura, Thysanura, and Collembola.
amide
Compound derived from carboxylic acids by replacing the hydroxyl of the -COOH by the amino group, -NH2-.
amine
An organic compound containing nitrogen, derived from ammonia, NH3, by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by as many hydrocarbon radicals.
amino acid
Organic compounds that contain the amino (NH2) group and the carboxyl (COOH) group. Amino acids are the "building stones" of proteins.
ammonia
A colorless alkaline gas, NH3, soluble in water.
anal
Pertaining to last abdominal segment which bears the anus.
anal angle
The posterior corner of the wing (same as tornus).
anal fold
A fold in the inner margin of the hindwing.
anal valves
Exposed claspers at the end of the abdomen.
anaplasmosis
Infection with Anaplasma, a genus of Sporozoa that infests red blood cells.
anasa wilt
A wilt disease of cucurbits caused solely by the feeding of the squash bug, no parasitic microorganism involved.
androconia
(singula = Androconium) In male butterflies, specialised wing scales (often called scent scales) possessing special glands which produce a chemical attractive to females.
anemic
Deficient in blood quantity or quality.
androconium or androconia (plural)
Specialised microscopic scales on the wings of male butterflies, believed to be scent scales for attracting the female.
annulate
Formed in ring-like segments or with ring-like markings.
antennae
The long feelers situated on the head and close to the eyes. They are however not tactile but used for detecting airborne scents and currents.
  • In Papilionoidea the antennae end in bulging tips called clubs.
  • In Hesperioidea they have hooked tips and the club is found just before the tip.
  • In some Lycaenidae like the genus Liphyra the antenna tapers gradually.
antennation
Touching with the antenna.
anterior
in front of or after the aforementioned structure.
antenodal veins
Small cross-veins at the front of the dragonfly or damselfly wing, between the wing base and the nodus.
anthophagy
feeding on flowers.
antibiosis
An association between two or more organisms that is detrimental to one or more of them.
anticoagulin
A substance antagonistic to the coagulation of blood.
anus
The posterior opening of the digestive tract.
apex / apical area
The anterior corner of the wing.
aphidophagy
feeding on aphids (and parasitoids of aphids).
apitherapy
Medicinal use of the honey bee or its products.
arculus
A crossvein between the radius and cubitus near the base of the wing in certain insects.
arolium
A pad-like median lobe between the tarsal claws.
base / basal area of wing
Region close to the point of attachment to the thorax.
brand
Raised area on the wing surface, circular, ovate, or elongated, which is covered with special scent scales or androconia, found in males of some species. Also called sex mark.
bryophagy
feeding on moss.
carpophagy
feeding on fruits and seeds.
catenulate
Markings consisting of rings connected together like a chain.
  • Catenulated antennae
    Antennae with ringed appearance.
cell
The central area surrounded by veins. It can be closed by veins or open.
  • The vein forming the boundary of the cell along the costal margin is known as the subcostal vein.
  • The vein forming the lower boundary towards the dorsum is called the median vein.
  • In the case of butterflies, the cell is closed by a vein connecting the origins of veins 6 to 4 along the top of the cell which is known as discocellular vein.
ceratophagy (Also spelt keratophagy)
feeding on cornified tissues and hair of animals.
cervix
(Anatomical feature) the structure defining the neck of the insect.
chaeta
See Seta.
cheta
See Seta.
cilia
Fine hairs along the edges of the wing.
clypeus
(Anatomical feature) a sclerite structure below the frons, circumposed by the mandibles and above the labrum.
coccidophagy
feeding on scale insects (and parasitoids of scale insects).
compound eye
An eye consisting of a lerge number of individual photoreceptor units or ommatidia (ommatidium, singular).Figure 2 d below
copromycetophagy
inhabiting feces and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
coprophagy
feeding on the excrements of animals.
costa / costal area
The leading edge of the wing.
coronal suture
(Anatomical feature) an anterior suture line of the head between the compound eyes, below the median ocellus.
coxa
first leg segment, between body and trochanter.
clasper or clasp
A structure in male insects that is used to hold the female during copulation.
clavus
The posterior of the portion of the remigium found on insect wings.
cremaster
most butterfly pupae are attached to a surface by a silken pad spun by the caterpillar and a set of hooks (cremaster) at the tip of the pupal abdomen.
crenulate
Adjective = scalloped. Describes the outer edge of a wing that is convex at the end of each vein and concave in between.

D–F

dentate
As for crenulate but with the projections at the end of each wing being toothlike.
decticous
Functional mandibles present in pupal state.
dendrophagy
feeding on trees.
detritophagy
feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
disc / discal area
The central band passing through the cell.
discoidal cell
In damselflies (Zygoptera) a basal quadrangular cell in the wing venation, which is delimited by veins MA (anterior side), MP (posterior side), MAb (distal side) and the arculus (basal side).
dorsum / dorsal area
The trailing edge or hind-margin of the wing, extending from the base to the tornus. Dorsal alternately, also refers to the back, i.e. the upper part of the body, from above.
ectognathous
(Anatomical feature) having exterior mouthparts, or exposed. A defining feature of insects.
empodium
(Anatomical feature) either a bristle-like or pad-like structure between the tarsal claws of Diptera.
encapsulation
the immuno response by plasmatocytes to the presence of parasitoid egg or larvae which results in the formation of a multilayered capsule that causes the parasitoid to sufficate or starve.
entomonecrophagy
feeding on dead arthropods.
entomophagy
feeding on other insects.
epicranius
(Anatomical feature) the top of the anterior structure of the head, or forehead.
erect
The palpi when vertical, i.e. the axis of the palpi is at right angles to the axis of the body.
eyespot or ocelli
Spots resembling mammalian eyes. Can also refer to simple eyes.
exarate
Pupae with their legs and other appendages free and extended.
fascia (plural fasciae)
A color pattern with a broad band.
face
the area between the base of antennae, oral margin, eyes and cheeks (gena). See figure 3.
femur
third leg segment, between trochanter and tibia.
flagellum
the part of the antenna distal to the pedicel composed of one or more segments, called flagellomeres. See Figure 3.
foramen magnum
(Anatomical feature) the posterior opening of the head capsule, covered by the cervix.
forewing
(Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect closest to the head.
frontal sutures
(Anatomical feature) suture lines that meet with the coroanl sutures to form an inverted Y.
frons
(Anatomical feature) The frontal area of an insect's head. It covers the upper part of the face above the clypeus and below and between the antennae. It supports the pharyngeal dilator muscles and usually bears an ocellus.

G–L

girdle
a strand of silk used to prop up the pupa. Found especially in the Papilionidae.
gena
(Anatomical feature) the area below the compound eyes, the insect equivalent to human cheeks.
glabrous
smooth, without hairs or scales.
herbiphagy
feeding on herbaceous plants.
helminthophagy
feeding on worms classified with helminths (including parasitoids of helminths).
hemocoel
the interior of the insects anatomy, including all organs and hemocyte.
hemocyte or haemolymph
a fluid in the circulatory system of insects containing nutrients, fat, water, etc.
hemophagy
feeding on blood.
hindwing
(Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect farthest from the head.
hyaline
transparent, like glass.
hygropetric
mode of life: living in the thin film of water on wet rocks.
hypognathous
having mouthparts that are ventrad of a vertically oriented head, or having an "under bit".
hypopharynx
Mouthpart. A tonguelike lobe on the floor of the mouth.
interspace
The region between adjacent veins.
irrorated or irroration
Old term used usually to indicate a sprinkling of scales interspersed among scales typically of a different color.
idiobiont
a form of parasitism where the parasitoid paralyzes or leaves the host unable to continue development at oviposition.
keratophagy (Also spelt ceratophagy)
feeding on cornified tissues and hair of animals.
koinobiont
A form of parasitism where the parasitoid lives inside the host while allowing it to live after oviposition.
labium
Mouthpart forming the lower lip. Bears the labial palps.
labrum
(Anatomical feature) the anterior structure below the clypeus covering some of the mouthparts, sometimes called the "upper lip".
lines of weakness
(Anatomical feature) the suture lines where the integument will split to allow for molting.
lichenophagy
feeding on lichens.
lunule
Crescent marks usually found along the margin.

M–O

macrochaete
large bristles and scales.[1]
macropterous
Having long or large elytra, as long, or longer than the abdomen.
malacophagy
feeding on mollusks (and parasitoids of mollusks).
maxilla
Mouthpart. The maxillae are paired and arranged behind the mandibles. May bear palps. See Figures 1 and 3.
mesothorax
the last segment of the thorax, after the metathorax.
metathorax
The second segment of the thorax after the prothorax, and posterior to the mesothorax.
metalmarks
small metallic-looking spots commonly found on the wings of Riodinidae.
micropterous
Having short elytra, shorter than the abdomen.
mixomycetophagy
feeding on myxomycetes fungus.
myiasis
Infestation of fly larvae on or in a vertebrate host.
mycetophagy
feeding on fungus.
necrophagy
consuming of dead animals and their remains.
nervure
Older term for vein. adnervural refers to instance lines running adjacent and alongside the veins.
nodus
(of Odonata ) A prominent cross-vein near the center of the leading edge of a wing.
occipital suture
(Anatomical feature) the structure that defines the occiput. See Figure 1 (below).
occiput (insect)
(Anatomical feature) the region posterior to the vertex on the head. See Figure 2 (below).
ocular structure
(Anatomical feature) the structure of the head containing the ocelli.
obtect
Appendages fused or glued to the body.
osmeterium
fleshy structure on some larvae, often discharging odorous chemicals.
onisciform
A woodlouse shaped, flattened platyform appearance of a larva.[2]
oophagy
feeding on eggs.
opisthognathous
with receding mouthparts, or having mouthparts that slope backward or face backward.
oviposition
the act of laying eggs.

P–R

parasitoid
In parasitism, the participant that benefits, rather than the one that is being parasitized.
pedipalp (or labial palpi or palpi)
Comparatively large processes that originate from below the head and curve forward in front of the face that sometimes appear like a beak. lp on the figure right.
palynophagy
feeding on pollen.
pedicel
the second segment ( antennomere) of the antenna. See figure 3.
phloeophagy
feeding on bark.[3][4][5]
phyllophagy
feeding on leaves.
phytophagy
feeding on plants.
pollinophagy
feeding on pollen.
porrect
The palpi when horizontally projecting in front of the face. In this case, the axis of the palpi is parallel to the axis of the body.
posterior
in a position behind or below the aforementioned.
postoccipital suture
(Anatomical feature) the structure posterior to the occipital suture, surrounding foramen magnum or occipital magnum.
proboscis
tubular feeding and sucking organ.
proclinate
Directed or leaning forward, such as in bristles in particular locations of insects' heads.
prognathous
having mouth parts dorsad of a dorsally oriented head, or "over bite".
proleg
fleshy leg like structures arising from the abdominal segments of caterpillars. These prolegs have crochets or curved hooks.
prothorax
The first segment on the thorax anterior to the mesothorax.
pterostigma (plural pterostigmata)
The prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also, more loosely, called stigma.
pterothorax
The meso- and metathorax of winged insects, that carries the two pairs of wings.
repugnatorial
(generally in combination as in: "repugnatorial glands"): defensive, in particular as applied to glands that release irritant, poisonous, alarming or disgusting fluids or gases when an organism is under threat. Examples of repugnatorial glands include the osmeterium of larvae of the Papilionidae, the stink glands of most Heteroptera, the ozopores of Opiliones, the odoriferous glands of Diplopoda, among many others.
rhizophagy
feeding on roots.

S–Z

saltatorial
adapted for leaping or jumping.
sarconecrophagy
feeding on dead bodies of vertebrates.
sapromycetophagy
inhabiting decaying matter and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
saprophagy
feeding on decaying organic matter.
scape
the proximal segment ( antennomere) of the antenna. See Figure 3.
sequestering
The process of animals accumulating poisonous compounds from the food they are eating in order to become poisonous themselves for their predators. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration refers to the sequestration of one such class of poisonous compounds.
schisophagy
feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
Sensu
Latin term meaning in the sense of.
seta
A stiff chitinous or sclerotised hair or bristle. Also chaeta, cheta
setose
bearing, or covered in setae.
setula
Diminutive of seta. A small chitinous hair or bristle.
setulose
bearing, or covered in setulae.
spiracle
Respiratory openings on the thorax and abdomen that allow air to enter the trachea.
sporophagy
feeding on mycet spores.
stigma (plural stigmata)
Prominent cells on the forewings of some moths. Their size, shape and colour can be useful in identifying some species. Also the prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also called pterostigma.
strigae
Patterns with thin lines.
subgenal suture
(Anatomical feature) suture lines below the gena.
symplesiomorphy
a shared ancestral ("primitive") character state that cannot be used to demonstrate the monophyly of a group.
synapomorphy
a shared homologous and derived character state (evolutionary novelty) that demonstrates the monophyly of a group (clade).
synovigenic
a form of reproduction in which the female continues to produce and to mature eggs throughout its life cycle.
tarsus (plural tarsi)
fifth (last) leg segment, the part that touches the walking surface.
terminal and marginal
Along the margin.
termen
The edge of the wing most distant from the body.
thorax
The part of the body that lies between the head and the abdomen. It has three parts - prothorax, metathorax and mesothorax.
tibia
fourth leg segment, between femur and tarsus.
tomentum
a pubescence consisting of soft, entangled hairs pressed close to the surface of the integument.
tornus / tornal area
The posterior corner of the wing (same as tornus).
trochanter
second leg segment, between coxa and femur.
trophi
The mouthparts of Arthropoda such as insects; typically labrum, mandible, maxilla, labium.
trophus
The singular form of trophi (rarely used).
uncate
hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncinate)
uncinate
hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncate)
unguis (plural ungues)
pretarsus the claws at the tip of most insect pretarsi.
urite
a segment or part of the abdomen in insects.
xylomycetophagy
inhabiting wood and consuming mycetes growing in wood or cultivating them for feeding.
xylophagy
feeding on wood.
vein
Hollow structures formed from the coupling of the upper and lower walls of the wing. They provide both rigidity and flexibility to the wing. (See also Comstock-Needham system.)
vertex
(Anatomical feature) The apex of the head, usually containing ocelli.
zoomycetophagy
feeding on fungus found on other animals
zoophagy
feeding on animals, and/or animal matter.

Figures

See also

References

  • Evans, W.H. (1932) The Identification of Indian Butterflies. (2nd Ed), Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.
  • Gordh G. and D.H. Headrick. . Cabi 2001.
  • Romoser, William S. The Science of Entomology, pp. 26–49. Collier-MacMillan 1973.
  • Wallace, Robert L. et al. Beck and Braithwaite's Invertebrate Zoology, 4th Ed., pp. 248–250. MacMillan 1989.
  • Resh, Vincent H. and R. T. Cardé, Eds. Encyclopedia of Insects, pp. 15–19, 750–755. Elsevier 2003.
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3

External links

  • Dictionary of Insect Morphology
  • Dragonfly terms
  • Entomologists' Glossary
  • Dictionary of Insect Morphology
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