World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Golden Chersonese

Article Id: WHEBN0005817727
Reproduction Date:

Title: Golden Chersonese  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Geography of Southeast Asia, Cristóvão de Mendonça, Bujang Valley, Malay Peninsula, Ptolemy's world map
Collection: Geography of Southeast Asia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Golden Chersonese

The world map from Urb. Gr. 82, done according to Ptolemy's 1st projection c. 1300. The Golden Chersonese is the peninsula to the far east, just prior to the Great Gulf.

The Golden Chersonese or Golden Peninsula (Greek: Χρυσή Χερσόνησος, Chrysḗ Chersónēsos; Latin: Chersonesus Aurea) was the name used for the Malay Peninsula by Greek and Roman geographers in classical antiquity, most famously in Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography.

The Greek name is a calque of the Sanskrit Suvarnadvipa, where dvipa might refer to either a peninsula or an island. In fact, it originally referred to the gold fields of Sumatra[1] but came to be applied by the Indian geographers to both mainland and maritime Southeast Asia.[2] Eratosthenes, Dionysius Periegetes, and Pomponius Mela understood it as the Golden Island[3] without including Malaysia; Ptolemy followed Marinus of Tyre in describing it as a peninsula, without including Sumatra.[4][5][6]

After Hipparchus's 3-volume work against Eratosthenes, most classical geographers—including Marinus and Ptolemy—held that the Indian Ocean was a closed sea. Ptolemy placed the Great Gulf east of the Golden Peninsula but then closed it in the far east with a border of unknown lands. Josephus speaks of a land in the area called "Aurea", which he equates with the Biblical Ophir, whence the ships of Tyre and Israel brought back gold and other trade items.

By the 8th century, Arab geographers were well aware that this was mistaken. Instead, following al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth, they showed a narrow or larger connection between the Indian and World Oceans and placed the eastern limit of the inhabited world at the Island of the Jewel in the Sea of Darkness beyond Malaysia. The Ptolemaic eastern shore became the Dragon's Tail peninsula.

The Golden Chersonese is shown on the mappemonde of Andreas Walsperger, made in Constance around 1448, bearing the inscription, hic rex caspar habitavit (here lived King Caspar). Caspar was one of the Three Magi who worshipped the newborn Christ at Bethlehem.

Aurea Cersonese, the Golden Peninsula, near Java in the Indian Ocean, on the map of Andreas Walsperger, c.1448

Martin of Bohemia, on his 1492 geographical globe, located the islands of Chryse ("Gold") and Argyre ("Silver") in the vicinity of Zipangu (Japan), which was accorded to be "rich in gold" by Marco Polo. An expedition was sent to find the purported islands in this location under the command of Pedro de Unamunu in 1587.[7][8]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Suvarnadvipa and the Chryse Chersonesos by W. J. van der Meulen Indonesia" 18. October 1974. pp. 1–40.  
  2. ^ Bharati, Agehananda The Tantric Tradition New York:1965 Samuel Weiser Page 62
  3. ^ Also partially translated in forms such as the Isle of Chryse, Chryse Island, &c.
  4. ^ G. E. Gerini, Researches on Ptolemy's geography of Eastern Asia (further India and Indo-Malay archipelago), London, Royal Asiatic Society, Asiatic Society Monographs, vol.1, 1909, pp.77-111.
  5. ^ H. Kern, "Java en het Goudeiland Volgens de Oudste Berichten", Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 16, 1869, pp.638-648.[2]
  6. ^ Udai Prakash Arora, “Greek Geographers on the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia”, in Chattopadhyaya, D. P. and Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture (eds.), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, Vol.1, Pt.3, C.G. Pande (ed.), India's Interaction with Southeast Asia, Chapter 6, pp.184-185.
  7. ^ The Travels of Pedro Teixeira, tr. and annotated by W.F. Sinclair, London, Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol.9, 1902, p.10.
  8. ^ E.W. Dahlgren, “Were the Hawaiian Islands visited by the Spaniards before their Discovery by Captain Cook in 1778?”, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Band 57. No.1, 1916-1917, pp.1-222, pp.47-48, 66.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.