World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gonadotropin Preparations

Article Id: WHEBN0025479551
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gonadotropin Preparations  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Follicle-stimulating hormone
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Gonadotropin Preparations

Gonadotropin preparations are drugs that mimic the physiological effects of gonadotropins, used therapeutically mainly as fertility medication. For example, the so-called menotropins consist of LH and FSH extracted from human urine from menopausal women.[1] There are also recombinant variants.

FSH and LH Preparations

hMG (human Menopausal Gonadotrophins), FSH and LH prepared from human urine collected from postmenopausal women. First extracted in 1953.[2] Injected intra-muscularily (IM) or subcutaneously (SC).

Generic

menotropins for injections, USP

Brands

  • Menopur, 5 mL vials containing 75 IU FSH and 75 IU LH.
  • Repronex, vials containing either 75 IU FSH and 75 IU LH, or 150 IU FSH and 150 IU LH.

FSH Preparations

There are two types of FSH preparations. Those derived from the urine of menopausal women and recombinant preparations. The recombinant preparations are more pure and more easily administered, but they are more expensive. The urinary preparations are equally effective and less expensive, but are not as convenient to administer as they are available in vials versus injection pens. One study reported that users of the purified urinary FSH preparation Bravelle experienced less injection site pain compared to the recombinant preparation Follistim.[3]

Urinary Preparations

Purified urinary FSH (75 IU FSH and ≤ 2 IU of LH)
Generic
urofollitropin for injection, purified.
Brands
  • Bravelle, U.S., (≤ 2 IU LH)
  • Metrodin, U.S. and Canada, (≤ 1 IU LH)
  • Fertinorm Hp, (Canada)
Highly purified urinary FSH (75 IU FSH and ≤ 0.1 IU LH/1000 IU FSH)
Generic
urofollitropin for injection, (highly) purified.
Dosage
typically 75 - 300, but as high as 600 IU / day
Brands
Fertinex (≤ 0.1 IU LH/1000 IU FSH)

Recombinant Preparations

Follitropin alfa
Generic
Follitropin alfa injection
Brands
Gonal-F
Follitropin beta
Generic
follitropin beta injection
Brands
  • Follistim
  • Puregon

The package insert for Gonal-F states that based on physio-chemical tests and bioassays that follitropin beta and follitropin alfa are indistinguishable. Two studies showed no difference.[4][5] However, a more recent study showed there is may be a slight clinical difference, with the alfa form tending towards a higher pregnancy rate and the beta form tending towards a lower pregnancy rate, but with significantly higher estradiol (E2) levels.[6]

The package insert for Puregon states that structural analysis shows that the amino acid sequence of follitropin beta is identical to that of natural human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH). Further, the ogliosaccharide side chains are very similar, but not completely identical to that of natural hFSH. However, these small differences do not affect the bioactivity compared to natural hFSH.

FSH Analogs

Corifollitropin alfa

Merck received approval on February 15, 2010 from the European Commission for ELONVA (corifollitropin alfa) a long lasting single injection fusion protein lacking LH activity. Only one injection is required for the first seven days, replacing the first seven daily injections of conventional FSH. Initial results demonstrates similar pregnancy rates as daily recombinant FSH injections.[7][8]

LH (Luteinizing hormone) Preparations

Prepared from recombinant DNA.

Generic
lutropin alfa for injection
Brands
Luveris

hCG (human Chorionic Gonadotropin) Preparations

Used to induce final maturation of follicle and subsequent ovulation. Also used for luteal phase support. Typically a single injection of 10,000 international units is used to induce ovulation. Recent data has shown that subcutaneous injection works as well as intramuscular injection, however this form of administration is not FDA approved.[9]

Urinary Preparations

Derived from the urine of pregnant women.

Generic
(human) chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP
Brands
  • Pregnyl (Merck/Schering-Plough)
  • Follutein
  • Profasi
  • Novarel

Recombinant Preparations

Generic
choriogonadotropin alfa for injection (recombinant human Chorionic Gonadotropin, r-hCG).
Brands
Ovidrel

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.