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Gothenburg

Gothenburg
Göteborg

From left to right: View over Gothenburg and the Ullevi.

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Little London
Coordinates:
Country Sweden
Province Västergötland and Bohuslän
County Västra Götaland County
Municipality Gothenburg Municipality,
Härryda Municipality,
Partille Municipality and
Mölndal Municipality
Charter 1621
Area[1]
 • City 447.76 km2 (172.88 sq mi)
 • Water 14.5 km2 (5.6 sq mi)  3.2%
 • Urban 203.67 km2 (78.64 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,694.86 km2 (1,426.59 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2014 (urban: 2010))[1][2]
 • City 540,132
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Urban 549,839
 • Urban density 2,700/km2 (7,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 968,993
 • Metro density
Demonym Gothenburger (Göteborgare)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 40xxx - 41xxx - 421xx - 427xx
Area code(s) (+46) 31
Website www.goteborg.se

Gothenburg (

  • Goteborg.se – City of Gothenburg website (English)
  • Göteborg travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Goteborg.com – Gothenburg tourism portal (English)
  • VisitSweden – VisitSweden's profile of Gothenburg (English)
  • Virtual Tour Panoramas of Goteborg

External links

  1. ^ a b c "Localities 2010, area, population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population".  
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2010
  4. ^ Pentland, William (2013-07-09). "World's 15 Most Inventive Cities - Forbes".  
  5. ^ a b c Swedish National Encyclopedia (password needed)
  6. ^ Volvo group history: Volvo's founders
  7. ^ Info on the Festival site
  8. ^ Hellquist, E. Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Pamp, B. Ortnamnen i Sverige. Svenska ortnamnsarkiv. AWE/Gebers serie om ortnamnen i våra landskap.
  9. ^ "University of Gothenburg – the University's new English name" (Press release). University of Gothenburg. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "City of Gothenburg". 7.goteborg.se. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  11. ^ Kastrup, Allan. (1975). The Swedish heritage in America: the Swedish element in America and American-Swedish relations in their historical perspective. Swedish Council of America.
  12. ^ a b Henriksson, Dick and Älveby, Rustan. (1994). Vårt Levebröd – Göteborgregionens näringsliv Igår, I dag och I morgon. Publisher: Akademiförlaget. Page 5. ISBN 91-24-16635-9
  13. ^ Gothenburg< Nebraska. (15 September 2010). LASR. Retrieved 15 September 2010
  14. ^ "Climate Gothenburg". Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "Göteborg International Film Festival 2008: Göteborg International Film Festival". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  16. ^ vartgoteborg.se - Världsrekordförsök inleder Göteborgs tolfte vetenskapsfestival, Vårt Göteborg, 11 april 2008
  17. ^ goteborg.com - Festivalens hemsida at the Wayback Machine (archived November 1, 2006)
  18. ^ Forskning och framsteg, 3/08 sid 64 (dead link 2012-04-24)
  19. ^ Göteborg, Sweden to host the 2010 IFLA World Library and Information Congress, IFLA 8 July 2009
  20. ^ Nationalencyklopedin (NE), The Swedish National Encyclopedia (Most of this section is based on NE)
  21. ^ 100 utmärkta hus i Göteborg, Manne Ekman & Margareta Rydbo, Göteborgs Stadsmuseum, Alfa Print AB, Sundbyberg 2007 ISBN 978-91-85488-78-0 s.78
  22. ^ "Sweden Unzipped". New York Times 23 September 2007
  23. ^ Information from the tourist company Göteborg & Co, website www.goteborg.com
  24. ^ "Google Translate". Translate.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  25. ^ Gamla Ullevi, Higabgruppen, website (Swedish) http://www.higab.se/fotbollsarenan/default.asp
  26. ^ http://www.2010finamasters.org/ XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010 website
  27. ^ "Norway, Sweden and Denmark Pipelines map – Crude Oil (petroleum) pipelines – Natural Gas pipelines – Products pipelines". Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  28. ^ a b Statistics Sweden
  29. ^ Statistics Sweden
  30. ^ Exceldocument from the townships homepage
  31. ^ "Statistisk Årsbok 2014". Göteborgs Stad. Retrieved 2014-09-27. 
  32. ^ "About the university". University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  33. ^ Premises and campus Chalmers University of Technology
  34. ^ "Forbes.com". Forbes.com. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  35. ^ Guide till Sveriges arkitektur, red. Waern, Caldenby, Arkitektur förlag
  36. ^ "Världskulturmuseet – Start". Varldskulturmuseet.se. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  37. ^ Göteborg Botanical Garden
  38. ^ Best Amusement Parks 2005 – Liseberg, Gothenburg Sweden. Forbes (2005)
  39. ^ Lista över flygplatser i Sverige
  40. ^ "DFDS scraps Newcastle-Gothenburg line", The Local, 7 September 2006: "Danish shipping company DFDS Seaways is to scrap the only passenger ferry route between Sweden and Britain, with the axing of the Gothenburg-Newcastle route at the end of October."
  41. ^ Statistics from the homepage of the Port of Göteborg
  42. ^ Recycling and Business News "Dr Mike Biddle, MBA Polymers to receive Gothenburg Award for Sustainable Development", 16th November 2012, by Brendan Palmer
  43. ^ Gothenburg Award winners
  44. ^ See: http://goteborg.se/wps/wcm/connect/f8e454a7-0ec9-4669-a44f-a70894adaf55/G%C3%96TEBORGS+STADS+RIKTLINJER+F%C3%96R+INTERNATIONELLT+SAMARBETE.pdf?MOD=AJPERES GÖTEBORGS STAD: RIKTLINJER FÖR INTERNATIONELLT SAMARBETE, see page 5(10): 2 Vänorter och partnerstäder. Accessed on 15 May 2014.
  45. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  46. ^ See: Les villes partenaires en Europe, Göteborg. Accessed on 15 May 2014.

Notes and references

See also

With Lyon (France) there is no formal partnership, but "a joint willingness to cooperate".[46]

Gothenburg is twinned with:[44]

Twin towns and sister cities

The Gothenburg Award is the city’s international prize that recognises and supports work to achieve sustainable development – in the Gothenburg region and from a global perspective. The award, which is one million Swedish crowns, is administrated and funded by a coalition of the City of Gothenburg and twelve companies.[42] Past winners of the award have included Kofi Annan, Al Gore, and Michael Biddle.[43]

International relations

Notable people

With over 80 km (50 mi) of double track the Gothenburg tram is the largest tram/light rail network in Scandinavia. The bus network, however, is almost as important. There are also some boat and ferry services. The lack of a subway is due to the soft ground on which Gothenburg is situated. Tunneling is very expensive in such conditions. There is also a commuter rail in Gothenburg servicing some nearby cities and towns.

Gothenburg's popular tram system covers most of the city which makes it the most extensive in Scandinavia.

Public transport

Gothenburg is an intermodal logistics hub and Gothenburg harbour has access to Sweden and Norway via rail and trucks. Gothenburg harbour is the largest port in Scandinavia with a cargo turnover of 36.9 million tonnes per year in 2004.[41]

Freight

Other major transportation hubs are Centralstationen (Gothenburg Central Station) and the Nils Ericson Terminal with trains and buses to various destinations in Sweden, as well as connections to Oslo and Copenhagen (via Malmö).

Rail and intercity bus

The "England ferry" (Englandsfärjan) to Newcastle over Kristiansand (run by the Danish company DFDS Seaways) ceased at the end of October 2006,[40] after being a Gothenburg institution since the 19th century. DFDS Seaways' sister company, DFDS Tor Line, continues to run scheduled freight ships between Gothenburg and several English ports, and these have limited capacity for passengers and their private vehicles. There are also freight ships to North America and East Asia.

The Swedish company Stena Line operates between Gothenburg/Frederikshavn in Denmark and Gothenburg/Kiel in Germany.

Gothenburg harbour seen from the Älvsborg bridge. Seen to the left is the ship HSS Stena Carisma and to the right MS Stena Scandinavica.

Sea

  • low-cost airlines such as Ryanair and Wizzair. It has connections with 23 scheduled destinations.
  • ICAO: ESGG) is located 20 km (12 mi) east of Gothenburg, and is the largest international airport serving the Gothenburg region in Sweden. With 4.9 million passengers in 2011 it is Sweden's second-largest airport. It is operated by the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration (Luftfartsverket). It has connections with about 40 scheduled destinations.

There are two international airports around Gothenburg:

Air

Gothenburg is located in Västra Götaland
Gothenburg
GOT
GOT
GSE
GSE
Map showing the locations of airports around Gothenburg

Transport

The Volvo museum has exhibits of the history of Volvo and the development from 1927 until today. Products shown range from cars, trucks, marine engines, buses, etc.

Created in the early 1900s was the Vasa Church. It is located in Vasastan and is built of granite in a Neo-Romanesque style.

The Gunnebo House is a country house located to the south of Gothenburg, in Mölndal. It was built in a neoclassical architecture towards the end of the 18th century.

One of Gothenburg's most popular natural tourist attractions is the Vinga and Styrsö islands are popular places to visit.

The amusement park Liseberg is located in the central part of the city. Liseberg is Scandinavia's largest amusement park by number of rides,[38] and the most popular attraction in Sweden by number of visitors per year (more than 3 million). Located near Liseberg is a science discovery centre named Universeum.

The Gothenburg Botanical Garden[37] is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in Europe with three stars in the French Guide Rouge. Next to the botanical garden is Gothenburg's largest park, Slottsskogen, where the Natural History Museum (Naturhistoriska Museet) is located. The park is also home to the city's oldest observatory and a zoo.

The Göteborg City Airport, is a unique aircraft museum in a former military under ground Air Force base.

Scandinavia's largest shopping centre, Nordstan, is located in central Gothenburg. Gothenburg's Haga district is known for its picturesque wooden houses and its cafés.

Gustaf Adolf Square is a town square located in central Gothenburg. Interesting buildings on the square include Gothenburg City Hall (formerly the stock exchange, opened in 1849) and the Nordic Classicism law court. The main canal of Gothenburg also flanks the square.

The main boulevard is called Kungsportsavenyn (commonly known as Avenyn, "The Avenue"). It is about one kilometre (0.62 miles) long and starts at Götaplatsen — which is the location of the Gothenburg Museum of Art, the city's theatre, the city library as well as the concert hall— and stretches out all the way to Kungsportsplatsen in the old city centre of Gothenburg, crossing a canal and a small park. The Avenyn was created in the 1860s and 1870s as a result of an international architecture contest, and is the product of a period of extensive town planning and re-modelling.[35] Avenyn has Gothenburg's highest concentration of pubs and clubs.

Gothenburg is a popular destination for tourists on the Swedish west-coast, and offers a number of cultural and architectural highlights.

Swedish Exhibition & Congress Centre, Scandinavia's biggest assembly.
Liseberg, the largest amusement park in Scandinavia, chosen as one of the top ten amusement parks in the world (2005) by Forbes.[34]

Points of interest

Gothenburg has some 25–30 International school with campuses in Guldheden and central Gothenburg called the International School of the Gothenburg Region.

There are also four folk high schools (Arbetarrörelsens Folkhögskola i Göteborg, Folkhögskolan i Angered, Göteborgs Folkhögskola, and Kvinnofolkhögskolan).

Gothenburg has two universities, both of which started off as colleges founded by private donations in the 19th century. The University of Gothenburg has approximately 25,000 students and is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia[32] and one of the most versatile in Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology is a well-known university located in Johanneberg 2 km (1 mi) south of the inner city, lately also established at Lindholmen in Norra Älvstranden, Hisingen.[33]

Education

Largest groups of foreign residents[31]
Nationality Population (2012)
 Somalia 3,685
 Finland 3,640
 Iraq 3,320
 Poland 2,765
 Norway 2,543
 Iran 2,361
 China 1,665
 United Kingdom 1,652
 Denmark 1,520
 Germany 1,495

Gothenburg has an ethnic Swedish population of approximately 78%.[28] Like most Swedish metropolitan areas the city has a sizeable immigrant population.[29] According to Statistics Sweden in 2005, there are 108,480 immigrants resident in Gothenburg,[30] which is about 22% of the population, out of which 10% are from Iran, 9% from Iraq and 7% from Finland.[28]

Demographics

Government

Historically, Gothenburg was home base of the 18th century Swedish East India Company and were from the founding of the city until the late 1970s a world-leading city in ship building with shipyards as Eriksbergs Mekaniska Verkstads AB, Götaverken, Arendalsvarvet and Lindholmens varv.

Gothenburg is the terminus of the Valdemar-Göteborg gas pipeline, which brings natural gas from the North Sea fields to Sweden, through Denmark.[27]

Banking and finance are also important trades as well as the event and tourist industry.[5]

Apart from trade, the second pillar of Gothenburg has traditionally been manufacturing, and industry which significantly contributes to the city's wealth. Major companies operating plants in the area include SKF, Volvo, and Ericsson. Volvo Cars is the largest employer in Gothenburg, not including jobs in supply companies. The blue collar industries which have dominated the city for long are still important factors in the city's economy, but they are being gradually replaced by high tech industries.

Due to the Gothenburg's advantageous location in the centre of Scandinavia, trade and shipping have always played a major role in the city's economic history, and they continue to do so. Gothenburg port has come to be the largest harbour in Scandinavia.[5]

Fireworks at the opening ceremony of Gothia Cup.

Economy

In June 2015, the Volvo Ocean Race, professional sailing's leading crewed offshore race, will conclude in Gothenburg.

Gothenburg is also home to the Gothenburg Sharks, a professional baseball team in the Elitserien (highest) Division of baseball in Sweden.

Gothenburg hosted the XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010.[26] Diving, swimming, synchronized swimming and open water competitions took place from 28 July to 7 August. The water polo events were played on the neighboring city of Borås.

Gothenburg has hosted a number of international sporting events including the Göteborgsvarvet.

The one and only Swedish heavyweight champion of the world in boxing, Ingemar Johansson, who took the title from Floyd Paterson in 1959, was from Gothenburg.

The 2003 World Allround Speed Skating Championships were held in Rudhallen, Sweden's only indoor speed skating arena. It's a part of Ruddalens IP, which also has a bandy field and several football fields.

The city's most notable sports venues are Scandinavium (ice hockey), and Ullevi (multisport) and the new-built Gamla Ullevi[25] (football).

Gothenburg is the birthplace of Örgryte IS and GAIS share a total of 34 Swedish Championships between them. IFK has also won the UEFA Cup twice. Other notable clubs include BK Häcken (football), Pixbo Wallenstam IBK (floorball), multiple national team handball champion Redbergslids IK, and three time national ice hockey champion Frölunda HC, Gothenburg has also a professional basketball team Gothia Basket. The bandy department of GAIS, GAIS Bandy, played the first season in the highest division Elitserien last season. The group stage match between the main rivals Sweden and Russia in the Bandy World Championship for men 2013 was played at Arena Heden in central Gothenburg.[24]

As in all of Sweden, a variety of sports are followed, including but not limited to football, ice hockey, basketball, team handball, baseball, and figure skating. There is a varied amateur and professional sports clubs scene.

With around 20,000 sailboats and yachts scattered about the city, sailing is a popular sports activity in the region, particularly because of the nearby Gothenburg Archipelago.
Ullevi Stadium, the second largest outdoor sports arena in Scandinavia

Sports

The Gustavus Adolphus pastry, eaten every 6 November in Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus Day, is especially connected to and appreciated in Gothenburg because the city was founded by King Gustavus Adolphus.

The city has a number of star chefs – over the past decade, seven of the Swedish Chef of the Year Awards have been won by Gothenburgers.[22] A popular place to buy fish ingredients is the Feskekôrka ("Fish Church"); an indoor fish market which got its name from the building's resemblance to a Gothic church. Five Gothenburg restaurants have a star in the 2008 Michelin Guide: 28 +, Basement, Fond, Kock & Vin, Fiskekrogen and Sjömagasinet.[23]

Food and drink

The 3D-animated anthropomorphic blue frog known as Crazy Frog originally hails from Gothenburg as well. The eurodance act marketed to kids gained some brief success on several international music charts in the mid-noughties.

There are many music festivals that take place in the city every year. The Metaltown Festival is a two-day festival featuring heavy metal music bands, held in Gothenburg. It has been arranged annually since 2004, taking place at the Frihamnen venue. The previous festival in June 2012, included bands such as In Flames, Marilyn Manson, Slayer, Lamb of God, and Mastodon. Another popular festival, Way Out West, focuses more on rock, electronic and hip-hop genres.

Gothenburg's own commercially successful At the Gates, In Flames, and Dark Tranquillity are credited with pioneering melodic death metal, but in fact bands such as Eucharist (band) from the Gothenburg suburb Veddige, and Ceremonial Oath came first. Other well known bands of the Gothenburg scene are thrash metal band The Haunted, progressive power metal band Evergrey and power metal bands HammerFall and Dream Evil.

Entrance to the Way Out West Festival

Gothenburg has a diverse music community—the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra is the best known when it comes to classical music. Gothenburg also was the birthplace of the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg. Bands like The Soundtrack of Our Lives and Ace of Base are well known pop representatives of the city. There is also an active indie scene. For example, the musician Jens Lekman was born in the suburb of Angered and named his 2007 release Night Falls Over Kortedala after another suburb (Kortedala). Other internationally acclaimed indie artists include the electro pop duos Studio, The Knife, Air France, The Tough Alliance, songwriter José González and pop singer El Perro Del Mar as well as genre bending quartet Little Dragon fronted by vocalist Yukimi Nagano. Another son of the city is one of Sweden's most popular singers, Håkan Hellström, who often includes many places from the city in his songs. The glam rock group Supergroupies derives from Gothenburg.

Music

The August Krüger.

The Gothenburg Law Court is in the Beaux-Arts.

Feskekôrka, or Fiskhallen,[21] is a fishmarket by the Rosenlundskanalen in the heart of Gothenburg. Feskekôrkan was opened on 1 November 1874 and the name comes from being compared with a church.

By the shore of Göta älv is the Gothenburg Opera. It was completed in 1994. The architect Jan Izikowitz was inspired by the landscape and described his vision as "Something that makes your mind float over the squiggling landscape like the wings of a seagull."

The Skanskaskrapan, or more common known as "The Lipstick". It is 86 meters high with 22 floors and coloured in red-white stripes. The skyscraper was designed by Ralph Erskine and built by Skanska in the late 1980s as the headquarters for the company.

Characteristic buildings

A further remarkable construction is Brudaremossen TV Tower, one of the few partially guyed towers in the world.

The modern architecture of the city is being formed by such architects as Gert Wingårdh who started as a Post-Modernist in the 1980s.

After this the predominant style in Gothenburg and rest of Sweden was Functionalism which especially dominated the suburbs like Västra Frölunda and Bergsjön. The prominent Swedish functionalist architect Uno Åhrén served as the city planner here from 1932 through 1943. In the 1950s, the big stadium Ullevi was erected when Sweden hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup.

The early 20th century, characterized by the National Romantic style, was rich in architectural achievements. Masthugget Church stands out as one of the architectural monuments of this period. In the early 1920s, on the city's 300th anniversary, the Götaplatsen square with its Neoclassical look was built.

In the 19th century the first important town plan after the founding of city was created, which led to the construction of the main street, Kungsportsavenyn. The perhaps most significant type of houses of the city, Landshövdingehusen, were built in the end of the 19th century; three storey-houses with the first floor in stone and the other two in wood.

In the 19th century, the wealthy bourgeoisie began to move outside the city walls which had protected the city when the Union of Denmark and Norway was still a threat. The style now was an eclectic, academic, somewhat over decorated style which the middle-class favoured. The working class lived in the overcrowded city district Haga in wooden houses.

The first major architecturally interesting period is the 18th century when the East India Company made Gothenburg an important trade city. Imposing stone houses with a Classical look were erected around the canals. One example from this period is the East India House, which today houses Gothenburg’s City Museum.

There are very few houses left from the 17th century when the city was founded, since all but the military and royal houses were built of wood.[20] A rare exception is Skansen Kronan.

Many buildings in the old part of the city were built along canals

Architecture

Citing the Financial Crisis the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions has announced that Gothenburg will host the 2010 World Library and Information Congress,[19] previously to be held in Brisbane, Australia.

The International Science Festival in Gothenburg is an annual festival since April 1997 in central Gothenburg with thought provoking science activities for the public. The festival is visited by about 100,000 people each year.[16] This makes it the largest popular science event in Sweden[17] and one of the largest popular science events in Europe.[18]

, held every year in September, is the largest such event in Scandinavia. Gothenburg Book Fair Similarly, the [15] The

There are many free theatre ensembles in the city, besides institutions like Gothenburg City Theatre, Backa Theatre (youth theatre), and Folkteatern. On 29 December 2004, the Museum of World Culture was opened in Gothenburg, located near Korsvägen.

The Universeum is a public science centre that opened in 2001, the largest of such a kind in Scandinavia. It is divided into six sections, each containing experiment workshops and a collection of reptiles, fish and insects. The Universeum occasionally gives Swedish secondary school students a chance to debate with Nobel prize-winners and professors.

The sea, trade and industrial history of the city is evident in the cultural life of Gothenburg. The greatest attraction in the city is the amusement park Liseberg (see Points of interest). Another fact related to the industrial heritage of the city is that many of the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals and the university, were created thanks to donations from rich merchants and industrialists, for example the Röhsska Museum.

The Haga district in Gothenburg, made almost entirely out of wood
The Poseidon Statue at Götaplatsen remains a well-known cultural symbol and landmark.

Culture

  • Kungsparken. 13 hectares, built between 1839–1861. Surrounds the canal that circles the city centre.
  • Trädgårdsföreningen. A park and horticultural garden, it is located next to Kungsportsavenyn. Founded in 1842 by the Swedish king Carl XIV Johan and on initiative of the amateur botanist Henric Elof von Normann. In the park there is an acclaimed rose garden with some 4,000 roses of 1,900 species.
  • Slottsskogen. 137 hectares, Created in 1874 by August Kobb. Has a free "open" zoo that includes Harbor seals, penguins, horses, pigs, deer, moose, goats and many birds. Hosts the Way Out West Festival.
  • Änggårdsbergens Naturreservat. 220 hectares. Bought in 1840 by Arvid Gren, a pharmacist, in 1963 donated to the city by Sven and Carl Gren Broberg who stated the area must remain a nature and bird reserve. Lies partly in Mölndal.
  • Delsjöområdets Naturreservat. Approx. 760 hectares. In use since 17th century as a farming area, a lot of forest management was carried out in the late 19th century. Skatås gym & motionscentrum is situated here.
  • Rya Skogs Naturreservat. 17 hectares, in 1928 became a protected area. Contains remnants of a defensive wall built in the mid to late 17th century.
  • Keillers Park. James Keiller donated the park in 1906. He was the son of Scottish Alexander Keiller who founded Götaverken, a shipbuilding company.
  • S.A. Hedlunds Park. Sven Adolf Hedlund, newspaper publisher and politician bought the 15 hectare Bjurslätt farm in 1857, in 1928 it was given to the city.
  • Hisingsparken. Gothenburg's biggest park.
  • Flunsåsparken. Built in 1950. Has many free activities during the summer such as concerts and theatre. See links.
  • Gothenburg Botanical Garden. 175 hectares. Opened in 1923. Won an award in 2003 and in 2006 was 3rd in "The most beautiful garden in Europe" competition. Around 16,000 species of plant and tree. The greenhouses contain around 4500 species including 1600 orchids.

Selection of parks:

Gothenburg has several parks and nature reserves ranging in size from tens of metres to hundreds of hectares. There are also many green areas which are not designated parks or reserves.

Parks and nature

Climate data for Gothenburg, 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.8
(51.4)
11.2
(52.2)
18.9
(66)
28.5
(83.3)
29.8
(85.6)
32.0
(89.6)
33.8
(92.8)
33.5
(92.3)
28.5
(83.3)
20.7
(69.3)
14.2
(57.6)
11.5
(52.7)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
1.7
(35.1)
5.0
(41)
9.9
(49.8)
16.2
(61.2)
19.8
(67.6)
20.5
(68.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.1
(61)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
3.1
(37.6)
11
(51.81)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
2.0
(35.6)
6.0
(42.8)
11.6
(52.9)
15.5
(59.9)
16.6
(61.9)
16.2
(61.2)
12.8
(55)
9.1
(48.4)
4.4
(39.9)
1.0
(33.8)
7.78
(46.02)
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
(26.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.4
(36.3)
7.5
(45.5)
11.6
(52.9)
13.2
(55.8)
12.7
(54.9)
9.7
(49.5)
6.5
(43.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.72
(40.5)
Record low °C (°F) −26.0
(−14.8)
−22.8
(−9)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−11.0
(12.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.8
(35.2)
5.3
(41.5)
3.5
(38.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
−8.5
(16.7)
−13.5
(7.7)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−26.0
(−14.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 68
(2.68)
41
(1.61)
54
(2.13)
42
(1.65)
48
(1.89)
59
(2.32)
72
(2.83)
74
(2.91)
84
(3.31)
87
(3.43)
87
(3.43)
75
(2.95)
791
(31.14)
Avg. precipitation days 15 12 10 12 10 12 14 14 16 15 16 17 163
Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 71 126 182 241 266 243 220 143 94 58 38 1,722
Source: [14]

Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 19 to 20 °C (66 to 68 °F) and lows of 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F), but temperatures of 25–30 °C (77–86 °F) occur on many days during the summer. Winters are cold and windy with temperatures of around −3 to 3 °C (27 to 37 °F), even though it rarely drops below −15 °C (5 °F). Precipitation is regular but generally moderate throughout the year. Snow mainly occurs from December to March, but is not unusual in November and April and can sometimes occur even in October and May.

Gothenburg has an oceanic climate according to Köppen climate classification. Despite its northern latitude, temperatures are quite mild throughout the year and much warmer than places in similar latitude, or even somewhat further south, mainly because of the moderating influence of the warm Gulf Stream. During the summer, daylight extends 18 hours and 5 minutes, but lasts 6 hours and 32 minutes in late December.

Climate

A panorama of central Gothenburg taken from Keillers park, facing south. From left to right: Älvsborg Bridge

Angered, a suburb outside Gothenburg, consists of Hjällbo, Rannebergen, Hammarkullen, Gårdsten and Lövgärdet. It is a Million Programme part of Gothenburg, like Rosengård in Malmö and Botkyrka in Stockholm. Angered has 40,000 inhabitants in total. It lies north from Gothenburg and is isolated from the rest of the city. Bergsjön is another Million Programme suburb north of Gothenburg, Bergsjön has 14,000 inhabitants. Biskopsgården is the biggest multicultural suburb on the island Hisingen, which is a part of Gothenburg separated by the river.

View from Älvsborg Bridge

The Gothenburg Metropolitan Area (Stor-Göteborg) has 816,931 inhabitants and extends to the municipalities of Ale, Härryda, Kungälv, Lerum, Mölndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjörn, Öckerö in Västra Götaland County, and Kungsbacka in Halland County.

Gothenburg is located on the west coast, in Southwestern Sweden, approximately half way between the capitals Copenhagen, Denmark, and Oslo, Norway. The location at the mouth of the river Göta älv, which feeds into Kattegatt, an arm of the North Sea, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. The archipelago of Gothenburg consists of rough, barren rocks and cliffs, which also is typical for the coast of Bohuslän. Due to the Gulf Stream the city has a mild climate and quite a lot of rain.

Gothenburg viewed from space

Geography

View over Gustavus Adolphus, the founding father of Gothenburg.

With the 19th century, Gothenburg evolved into a modern industrial city that continued on into the 20th century. The population increased tenfold in the century, from 13,000 (1800) to 130,000 (1900). In the 20th century, major companies that developed included SKF (est. 1907) and Volvo (est. 1926).

The harbour developed into Sweden's main harbour for trade towards the west, and with Swedish emigration to the United States increasing, Gothenburg became Sweden's main point of departure. The impact of Gothenburg as a main port of embarkation for Swedish emigrants is reflected by Gothenburg, Nebraska, a small Swedish settlement in the United States.[13]

In the 18th century, fishing was the most important industry. However, in 1731 the Swedish East India Company was founded, and the city flourished due to its foreign trade with highly profitable commercial expeditions to China.

1888 map of Gothenburg

In the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Denmark-Norway ceded the then Danish province Halland, to the south, and the Norwegian province of Bohus County or Bohuslän to the north, leaving Gothenburg in a less exposed position. Gothenburg was able to grow into an important port and trade centre on the west coast thanks to the fact that it was the only city on the west coast that was granted, together with Marstrand, the rights to trade with merchants from other countries.[12]

Swedes emigrating to the Americas from Gothenburg

The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield with the national emblem, the Three Crowns, to defend against its enemies.

Along with the Dutch, the town also was heavily influenced by Scots who came to settle in Gothenburg. Many became people of high profile. William Chalmers was the son of a Scottish immigrant and donated his fortunes to set up what later became Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841 the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company that still exists today. His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906.

The site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Färjenäs park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611. The city was heavily influenced by the Dutch, Germans and Scots, and Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city. The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam, Batavia (Jakarta) and New Amsterdam (Manhattan Island). The plan of the streets and canals of Gothenburg closely resembles that of Jakarta, which was built by the Dutch around the same time.[11] The Dutchmen initially won political power and it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg.[12] During the Dutch period the town followed Dutch town laws and there were propositions to make Dutch the official language in the town. Heavy city walls were built during the 17th century. These city walls were torn down after about 1810, because the development of cannons made such walls less valuable as a defence.

In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, lying on the west coast in a very narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland to the south and Norwegian Bohuslen to the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was successfully founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustaf II Adolf).

Gothenburg c. 1700 from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna

History

In

The city was named after the

Name

Contents

  • Name 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
    • Climate 3.1
    • Parks and nature 3.2
  • Culture 4
    • Architecture 4.1
    • Characteristic buildings 4.2
    • Music 4.3
    • Food and drink 4.4
    • Sports 4.5
  • Economy 5
  • Government 6
  • Demographics 7
  • Education 8
  • Points of interest 9
  • Transport 10
    • Air 10.1
    • Sea 10.2
    • Rail and intercity bus 10.3
    • Freight 10.4
    • Public transport 10.5
  • Notable people 11
  • International relations 12
    • Twin towns and sister cities 12.1
  • See also 13
  • Notes and references 14
  • External links 15

, held every year in Gothenburg, is in regards to the number of participants the world's largest football tournament: in 2011, a total of 35,200 players from 1567 teams and 72 nations participated. Gothia Cup. Metaltown and Way Out West During the summer a broad variety of music festivals take place, such as [7] The city is known for hosting some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia. The

Gothenburg is served by Göteborg City Airport, located 15 km (9.32 mi) from the city centre.

Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes both the BK Häcken, GAIS and Örgryte IS association football teams as well as the Frölunda HC ice hockey team.

Gothenburg was founded by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. At the mouth of the Göta älv, the Port of Gothenburg is the largest port in the Nordic countries.[5]

[4].Stockholm and Malmö, and third in Sweden after Forbes The city was ranked as the 12th most inventive city in the world by [3], with a ranking of Gamma−.GaWC by global city Gothenburg is classified as a [1].metropolitan area, on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 540,132, with 549,839 in the urban area and 968,993 inhabitants in the Kattegat. Situated by the Nordic countries and the fifth largest in the Sweden) is the second largest city in  ( )

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