World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Grayling (butterfly)

Article Id: WHEBN0002221663
Reproduction Date:

Title: Grayling (butterfly)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Grayling, Ludshott Common and Waggoners Wells, North Brewham Meadows, Cleeve Common, Maze Park Nature Reserve
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Grayling (butterfly)

Grayling
Female
underside, Greenham Common, Berkshire
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Hipparchia
Species: H. semele
Binomial name
Hipparchia semele
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The Grayling (Hipparchia semele) is a species in the brush-footed butterfly family Nymphalidae.

It is found in Europe below 63°N eastwards to extreme Western Russia. It is absent from Albania, Macedonia and South Greece.In the north of its range it is coastal for some reason and in the South of its range it is replaced by other Hipparchia species. They are only slightly different and together with semele form a cryptic species complex - Hipparchia aristaeus, Hipparchia christenseni, Hipparchia cretica, Hipparchia mersina, Hipparchia pellucida, Hipparchia volgensis.[1]

preferred habitat, with dry and well-drained soil

Named after her, the Grayling butterfly was first discovered by Aimeè Grayling in the summer of 1756.

Contents

  • Habitat 1
  • Biology 2
    • Life cycle 2.1
    • Larval Host plants 2.2
  • Behaviour 3
  • Conservation (Great Britain) 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Habitat

Coast, dunes, salt marsh, undercliffs, clifftops, dry heathland, calcareous grassland, old quarries, earthworks, derelict old spoil heaps, open woodland on stony ground, dry and well-drained soil, with sparse vegetation and plenty of bare ground in open sunny positions.

Biology

Life cycle

Note that information on this species applies to Great Britain and some details may not be consistent with the species in other parts of its range.

There is one generation. The eggs are laid from July to September singly on the foodplant.The eggs are white at first, but turn pale yellow. The egg stage lasts between 2 and 3 weeks. The first instar and second instar larva feed in mid to late summer and then hibernate (while still small), in the 3rd instar, at the base of the tussock. Feeding resumes in the spring and the last instar larvae are nocturnal,hiding in the base of grass tussocks during the day. There are 4 moults in total.The pupa is unattached, in an earth cell. The pupal stage lasts around 4 weeks. The larval instars are August to June,the pupa is formed June to August and the adult flies June to August.

Larval Host plants

Behaviour

Side view

They rest with closed wings, forewings lowered between the hindwings as do many Satyrinae. When disturbed, they raise the forewing so that the large eyespots near its apex become visible. A predator attacking the butterfly could either be startled by the sudden appearance of the pattern, or be enticed into attacking the conspicuous spot rather than the butterfly's body (Stevens, 2005).

Males are territorial and show courtship behaviour. Both sexes are nectar-feeding .

Conservation (Great Britain)

It is now a UK BAP species (Butterfly Conservation, 2007).

References

  1. ^ Tolman, Tom & Lewington, Richard (2008): Collins Butterfly Guide. Collins Publishers. London. 384 pp.
  • Butterfly Conservation (2007), Priority butterfly species listed in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan 2007, Butterfly Conservation, Wareham, UK. 1p. 
  • Stevens, Martin (2005): The role of eyespots as anti-predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera. Biol. Rev. 80(4): 573–588. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006810 (HTML abstract)

External links

  • Butterfly Conservation Website
  • UK Butterflies Website - includes a list of sites around the UK where this species can be found
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.