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Title: Gryphaeidae  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Gryphaea, Ostreina, Pteriomorphia, Giant honeycomb oyster, Pycnodonte
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Temporal range: Middle Triassic to Recent
An intact fossil shell of Exogyra flabellata (Owl Creek Formation, Late Cretaceous, Ripley, Mississippi), held in a human hand
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Ostreoida
Family: Gryphaeidae
Vyalov, 1936

See text

Gryphaeidae, common name the foam oysters or honeycomb oysters, is a family of marine bivalve mollusks, related to the true oysters. This family of bivalves is very well represented in the fossil record, however the living species are very few.


Genera and species within this family are divided into three subfamilies, Exogyrinae, Gryphaeinae and Pycnodonteinae. Both Exogyrinae and Gryphaeinae are completely extinct. Only four genera Hyotissa, Parahyotissa, Pycnodonte and Neopycnodonte in the subfamily Pycnodonteinae have extant species.[1]

Genera and species

Genera and species within the family Gryphaeidae include: Family Gryphaeidae Vialov, 1936 (some genera also known as Devil's toenails)

  • Subfamily Exogyrinae Vialov, 1936
    • Genus †Amphidonte Fischer von Waldheim, 1829
    • Genus †Costagyra Vialov, 1936
    • Genus †Exogyra Say, 1820
    • Genus †Fluctogyra Vialov, 1936
    • Genus †Gryphaeostrea Conrad, 1865
    • Genus †Gyrostrea Mirkamalov, 1963
    • Genus †Nanogyra Beurlen, 1958
    • Genus †Nutogyra Vialov, 1936
    • Genus †Planospirites Lamarck, 1801
    • Genus †Vultogryphaea Vialov, 1936
  • Subfamily †Gryphaeinae Vialov, 1936
    • Genus †Africogryphaea Freneix, 1963
    • Genus †Deltoideum Rollier, 1917
    • Genus †Gryphaea Lamarck, 1801
    • Genus †Liostrea DouvillŽ, 1904
    • Genus †Pernostrea Munier-Chalmas, 1864
    • Genus †Praeexogyra Charles, 1952
  • Subfamily Pycnodonteinae Stenzel, 1959
    • Genus †Gigantostrea (Sacco, 1897)
    • Genus Hyotissa Stenzel, 1971
    • Genus †Labrostrea Vialov, 1936
    • Genus Neopycnodonte Stenzel, 1971
    • Genus Pycnodonte (Fischer von Waldheim, 1835)
  • Subfamily Incertae sedis
    • Genus †Parahyotissa Harry, 1985
    • Genus †Rhynchostreon


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