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Haplogroup R-M207

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Title: Haplogroup R-M207  
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Haplogroup R-M207

Haplogroup R-M207

Possible time of origin 26,800 (24,000 [1] - 34,300) years ago (Karafet 2008)
Possible place of origin Central Asia
Ancestor P-M45
Descendants Paragroup R-M207, R-M173, R-M479
Defining mutations R = M207 (UTY2), P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9 and V45 (ISOGG 2010)

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup R-M207 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It marks a major split in paleolithic lineages some descendant lines are common throughout Europe and Central Asia, and sometimes found in parts of the West Asia and North Africa. This line is a descendant of haplogroup P-M45.

Origins

This haplogroup is believed to have arisen around 24,000–34,000 years ago (Karafet 2008), somewhere in Central Asia, where its ancestor Haplogroup P-M45 is most often found at polymorphic frequencies (Wells 2001).

Haplogroup R* was found in the remains of a Palaeolithic boy MA-1 (Mal'ta) near Lake Baikal in Siberia, dating to 24,000 years ago.[1]

Distribution

Y-haplogroup R-M207 is found throughout Europe and Central Asia. Small frequencies are found in Indigenous Australians (Kayser 2003). It also occurs in the Caucasus and Siberia.

Subclade distribution

Paragroup R-M207

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 23,000-year old-remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[2]

R-M173

Spread of Haplogroup R-M173 in Native populations.

R-M173 is common throughout Europe, and Eurasia (West Asia, Central Asia) and was historically known as R1. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000). It is notably found among the Shors (19.6%), Teleuts (12.8%), Tofalars (12.5%), Khakassians (7.6%), Russians (6.8%) and Evenks (6.0%).[3] In lower frequencies it is also found among the Mongols (4.3%), Kalmyks (2.9%), Todjins (2.8%), Altai Kiji (1.1%), Tuvinians (0.9%) and Buryats (0.8%).[3]

In the Americas, it is not a pre-Columbian founding lineage. The presence of R-M173 in the Americas is probably partly or wholly the result of Eurasian admixture (Malhi 2008 and Lell 2002). However, it is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, and spreads specially in Algonquian peoples from United States and Canada (Malhi 2008).

R-M479

Haplogroup R-M479 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found in Pakistan North, Portugal, Spain, Tatars (Bashkortostan, Russia), Italy North, and Ossetians South (South Caucasus) (Myres 2010).

Phylogenetic trees

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup R-M207. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup R-M207. The first three levels of subclades are shown. Additional detail is provided on the linked branch article pages (Krahn 2012).

  • P-M45
    • R-M207 M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, L1031
      • R-M173 M173, M306, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
      • R-M479 M479

See also

Genetics

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades

Y-DNA backbone tree

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
  • Minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome (ver. 10-Jun-2014)PDF[n 1]
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91.  
  R 207   1b1b2a1a

References

  1. ^ , 505, 87–91.NatureRaghavan, M. et al. 2014. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans,
  2. ^ Raghavan, Maanasa; Pontus Skoglund, Kelly E. Graf, Mait Metspalu, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Simon Rasmussen, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, Ludovic Orlando, Ene Metspalu, Monika Karmin, Kristiina Tambets, Siiri Rootsi, Reedik Mägi, Paula F. Campos, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Elza Khusnutdinova, Sergey Litvinov, Ludmila P. Osipova, Sardana A. Fedorova, Mikhail I. Voevoda, Michael DeGiorgio, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Søren Brunak et al. (2 January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature 505 (7481): 87–91.  
  3. ^ a b Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. Hum Genet (2006) 118: 591–604. doi:10.1007/s00439-005-0076-y

Further reading

  • Myres (2010). "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe". 
  • Lell, Jeffrey T.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Starikovskaya, Yelena B.; Su, Bing; Jin, Li; Schurr, Theodore G.; Underhill, Peter A.; Wallace, Douglas C. (2002). "The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American". The American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (1): 192–206.  
  • Malhi (2008). "Distribution of Y Chromosomes Among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan Population History". 
  • Wells. "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". 
  • Kivisild (2003). "The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations". 
  • Cinnioglu (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". 

External links

Discussion and projects

  • Yahoo group Y-DNA Haplogroup R
  • Family Tree DNA R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project
  • Family Tree DNA R-Arabia Y-DNA Project
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