World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hixkaryana language

Article Id: WHEBN0000717981
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hixkaryana language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject:
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hixkaryana language

Hixkaryána
Native to Brazil
Region Upper Nhamundá River, Amazonas
Native speakers
600  (2000)[1]
Carib
  • Parukotoan
    • Waiwai
      • Hixkaryána
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hix
Glottolog hixk1239[2]

Hixkaryana [3] is one of the Carib languages, spoken by just over 500 people on the Nhamundá River, a tributary of the Amazon River in Brazil. It may have been the first language to be described as having an object–verb–subject word order (by linguist Desmond C. Derbyshire), though determining this is "difficult".

Phonology

Hixkaryana has the following consonant phonemes:

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar
or palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d ɟ k
Fricative ɸ s ʃ h
Tap ɾ ɽˡ
Approximant j w
  • /ɽˡ/ is a retroflex tap with a lateral release.
  • The orthography used is as follows: /tʃ ɟ/ = tx dy; /ɸ ʃ/ = f x; /ɲ/ = ny; /ɽˡ/ = ry; /j/ = y.

The vowels are /e/, /ɯ/, /u/, /ɔ/, and /æ/, written e, ɨ, u, o, and a.

Grammar

In Hixkaryana, arguments are indexed on the verb by means of person prefixes. These prefixes form an inverse-like pattern in which the argument highest in the hierarchy 2nd > 1st > 3rd is indexed on the verb. If the object of a transitive verb outranks the subject according to this hierarchy, the appropriate O-prefix is used; otherwise, an A-prefix is used.

A-prefixes O-prefixes
1A 0-/ɨ- 1O r(o)
2A m(ɨ)- 2O o(j)-/a(j)-
1+2A t(ɨ)- 1+2O k(ɨ)-
3A n(ɨ)-/j-

Intransitive verbs take prefixes mostly similar to the transitive prefixes given above, with an active–stative . The arguments' grammatical number is indexed on the verb by means of portmanteau suffixes that combine tense, aspect, mood, and number.

In most cases, the person prefixes unambiguously determine which of the arguments is the subject and which is the object. When both the subject and the object are third person, however, the person prefix is inadequate to fully determine the identity of the arguments. In these situations, therefore, word order is crucial in determining their identity. Hixkaryana may have an object–verb–agent word order. The example below, "toto yonoye kamara", cannot be given the AVO reading "the man ate the jaguar"; the OVA reading – "the jaguar ate the man" – is the only possible one.

toto yonoye kamara
toto y- ono -ye kamara
person 3SG- eat -DIST.PAST.COMPL jaguar
"The jaguar ate the man."

Indirect objects, however, follow the subject:

bɨryekomo yotahahono wosɨ tɨnyo wya
bɨryekomo y- otaha -ho -no wosɨ tɨnyo wya
boy 3SG- hit -CAUS -IMM.PAST woman her-husband by
"The woman caused her husband to hit the boy."

Moreover, word order in non-finite embedded clauses is SOV. [1] Like most other languages with objects preceding the verb, it is postpositional.

References

  1. ^ Hixkaryána at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hixkaryana". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh

External links

  • Metathesis in Hixkaryana
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.