World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Homosexuality in sports

Article Id: WHEBN0026788997
Reproduction Date:

Title: Homosexuality in sports  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Gus Johnston, Homosexuality in sports in the United States, Porto Pride, Out In The Square, Lesbian Feminist Circle
Collection: Lgbt Sports
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Homosexuality in sports

LGBT sportspeople have, in modern times, faced intolerance common in many vocations and arguably worse than some due to the heteronormativity of sports teaching in schools.

There have been several notable outspoken homosexual athletes, including

  • Homosexuality In Sports Now Impossible To Ignore - AP, Steve Wilstein, 21 June 1995
  1. ^ LZ Granderson (October 28, 2008). "'"Three-time MVP 'tired of having to hide my feelings. ESPN The Magazine. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  2. ^ The Legacy of Billie Jean King, an Athlete Who Demanded Equal Play
  3. ^ Bugg, Sean (May 15, 2003). "Out of the Park: Former pro-baseball player Billy Bean pursues a new field of dreams". Metro Weekly. Retrieved June 11, 2014. 
  4. ^ "The brief history of gay athletes". Espn.go.com. 1998-12-18. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  5. ^ http://www.atlantagaysports.com/
  6. ^ "Welcome to "The Games that Change the World" - Federation of Gay Games". Gaygames.com. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  7. ^ Wilkinson & Pearson 2009 (http://gas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/23/4/542)
  8. ^ "Heteronormative". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  9. ^ http://gas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/19/6/829
  10. ^ A. KRÜGER (1999). The Homosexual and Homoerotic in Sport, in: James RIORDAN & Arnd KRÜGER (eds.): The International Politics of Sport in the 20th Century. London: Routledge, pp.191 – 216. ISBN 0-419-21160-8
  11. ^ "Donnelly and Young (1988) The construction and confirmation of identity in sport subcultures". Getcited.org. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  12. ^ In the Game: Gay Athletes and the Cult of Masculinity - Eric Anderson - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  13. ^ "John Amaechi: changing the way sport reporters examine gay athletes". J Homosex 56 (7): 799–818. 2009.  
  14. ^ "Taylor Claims Gay Issue Not Easy For Stars".  
  15. ^ "NCLR: issues & cases > sports > sports project overview". Nclrights.org. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  16. ^ Aalai, Azadeh. "Why Athletes' Coming Out Matters". Psychology Today. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  17. ^ "Group says Penn State coach biased - Women's College Basketball - ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. 2005-10-11. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ http://www.equipe-montreal.org/
  20. ^ http://teamvan.vcn.bc.ca/sports/lower-mainland-sports-teams--clubs3/associates2.home
  21. ^ http://dailyxtra.com/toronto/news/the-519-proposes-lgbt-sports-and-recreation-centre
  22. ^ Bevan, Nathan (2007-05-20). "Ref's gay torment". Wales on Sunday. Retrieved 16 July 2007. 
  23. ^  
  24. ^ Slater, J. (September 17, 2013). "Openly Gay Male Athletes Jason Collins, Robbie Rogers, and Orlando Cruz struggling for impact".  

References

See also

In 2013, soccer's Robbie Rogers and basketball’s Jason Collins each publicly announced their homosexuality.[24]

2010s

In 1999, the New York City Gay Hockey Association was organized.

In 1986, following the second Gay Games, Tony Jasinski organized the Washington Renegades RFC was formed as the first gay rugby team in the United States.

In 1985, the Los Angeles Blades was organized as the first gay hockey team in the United States.

In 1982, the West Hollywood Aquatics was formed as a swim and water polo team. That same year, the West Hollywood Wrestling Club was organized as the first gay competitive wrestling team in the US.

In 1981, the Gay and Lesbian Tennis Alliance was formed.

In 1980, the International Gay Bowling Organization (IGBO) was formed.

The New York Ramblers was started in 1980 when an ad was placed in the Village Voice to gay men who wanted to play soccer as a team called the Rambles.

1980s

In 1978, the Los Angeles Tennis Association was established.

The Big Apple Softball League (initially known as the Manhattan Community Athletic Association) was initially formed in 1977 for gay softball players in the New York City area. That same year, the North American Gay Amateur Athletic Alliance was formed for future gay softball teams.

In 1974, the LA Pool League was established as the first gay competitive pool league in the United States.

United States teams

The first decade of the 21st century saw two high-profile Welsh rugby union figures come out while active. First, in 2007, international referee Nigel Owens came out.[22] Then, in 2009, Gareth Thomas, at the time the country's most-capped player (and later a rugby league international), came out. Thomas was believed to be the first professional male player in a team sport to come out while active.[23]

Ishigaki Ju Jitsu Club began in 1994 and pride's itself on being the "Only LGBT Ju Jitsu Club in the World'.

In 1996, Grace's Cricket Club was organized as the first gay cricket club in the world.

The first openly-gay rugby team in the world, the Kings Cross Steelers, was formed in 1995 in London. The first openly-gay rugby team in Northern Ireland, the Ulster Titans, was formed in 2007, and the first Scottish gay rugby team, the Caledonian Thebans RFC, was formed in 2002.

The first openly-gay football team formed in the United Kingdom is Stonewall F.C., which was formed in 1991. The next year, Gay Football Supporters Network was formed; a GFSN National League was formed 2002 among GFSN members who wanted to participate in amateur competition as well as support major professional teams.

United Kingdom

The first gay rugby team in Ireland, Emerald Warriors RFC, was established in 2003.

Ireland

Paris Foot Gay was established in 2003.

France teams

In December 2013, The 519 received Toronto City Council approval to build a sport and recreation centre focused on sport inclusion. Once built, the new centre will provide a home to Toronto's over 6,000 LGBT sport participants.[21]

represent LGBT sport within their respective cities. [20] OutSport Toronto and Team Vancouver[19] Canada boasts a large LGBT sport community, having hosted the inaugural

Canada

The Sydney Convicts RFC were launched in 2004 as Australia's first gay rugby union team.

Australia

Various international LGBT sport-specific organizations have been established as well since the 1970s.

In 2006, a schism occurred between the Federation of Gay Games and the Montreal organizing committee for the Gay Games, leading to the Montreal committee organizing a rival multi-sports event, the North American and Asia-Pacific Outgames.

In the absence of openly-LGBT sportspersons, LGBT-focused leagues and events have been created since the late 1970s. One of the earliest-recorded gay sports event organizing committees is the EuroGames for LGBT athletes in Europe.

Gay football and rugby players marching in Pride London 2011.
Gay martial artists marching in Pride London 2011.

LGBT leagues, teams and events

The case of Jennifer Harris against Penn State and more specifically their women's basketball coach Rene Portland.[17] In 2006, a gay rights advocacy group, The National Center for Lesbian Rights, accused Rene Portland of forcing Jennifer Harris to transfer because of bias against lesbians. The advocacy group claimed that Portland was biased against lesbians for decades and cited a 1986 interview in which she claimed she talked to recruits and parents of recruits about lesbians stating, "I will not have it in my program." There were also claims of Portland telling key recruits (in order to keep them from going to rival schools) that the other team was "full of lesbians." The lawsuit was eventually settled out of court and Penn State found Portland in violation of policy. She was fined $10,000 by the university in lieu of a one game suspension and warned that another infraction would result in the termination of her employment.[18] Rene Portland eventually resigned from her position as women's head basketball coach. This case has been seen as a success for the LGBT movement in ridding sports of homophobic discrimination.

Legal cases in the USA

There is also a gender difference when it comes to the responses to male and female athletes who come out as LGBT. Male athletes coming out is treated more as a major announcement whereas female athletes face an expectation that their athleticism somehow implies they are more masculine, and therefore unsurprisingly LGBT. Brittney Griner softened the blowback from announcing her sexuality, by casually announced her coming out in an interview almost immediately after being drafted into the WNBA. This was a month before Jason Collins came out and there was a media uproar for him while there was barely any coverage over Griner's announcement.[16]

Although professional team sports remain dominated by heterosexuality, individual sports, such as tennis have had more openly gay athletes as is evidenced by the lack of out players in professional teams sports, and the increasing numbers of individual athletes who have publicly come out as LGBT. Recent attempts by organizations such as the National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) have also been made to break down homophobic attitudes in collegiate and professional team sports. NCLR has worked with the San Francisco 49ers, as well as collegiate athletic departments at universities such as North Carolina, Florida, and Stanford at revising team policies to more openly accommodate LBGT athletes.[15]

This trend, however, has not been seen in professional sports, where homosexuality still remains largely stigmatized in the four major North American professional sports leagues. Only Jason Collins of the NBA has come out while active, and only eight players have come out after their careers were over: Wade Davis, Kwame Harris, Dave Kopay, Roy Simmons, and Esera Tuaolo (NFL); Billy Bean and Glenn Burke (MLB); and John Amaechi (NBA).[13] This same trend can also be found in England's Professional Footballers' Association (PFA), as a recent ad campaign devised by the PFA against homophobia failed because no professional football player was willing to associate themselves with the advertisement.[14]

In a 2009 study on the well being of same-sex-attracted youth in the United States, Wilkinson and Pearson found that lower self-esteem and higher rates of depression in same-sex attracted youth were correlated with the prevalence of football in high schools (2009). Sociology researchers Sartore and Cunningham also found a similar stigmatization in the view of homosexual coaches, as high school parents were shown to have an unwillingness to allow their children to be coached by a homosexual (2009). They also found a similar attitude from high school athletes themselves toward participating on teams coached by either gay or lesbian coaches (2009). In spite of the apparent prevalence of homophobic thinking in athletic culture, recent scholarship has documented an increasing trend toward openly gay athletes in high school and collegiate level sports.[12]

Heteronormativity can be seen as the dominant paradigm in sports culture, stemming all the way into children's athletics in school.[7] Heteronormativity describes "the myriad ways in which heterosexuality is produced as a natural, unproblematic, taken-for-granted, ordinary phenomenon." It is defined as a world/ common view of heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexuality.[8] This way of thinking is often taken to the extreme in sports culture, as a wide body of sociological scholarship has documented the emphasis of hegemonic masculinity in sports.[9] Arnd Krüger has shown that the history of homosexuality in sports in closely linked to the history of sports and goes back until antiquity.[10] The priority of heteronormative thinking in athletics has led to a traditional view in sports culture that is highly intolerant of homosexuality.[11] This homophobic attitude has been documented in adolescent sports especially, as a recent study by Osborne and Wagner showed that male adolescents who participated in football were significantly more likely to hold homophobic attitudes than other peers their age.

Homophobia in sports culture

Contents

  • Homophobia in sports culture 1
  • Legal cases in the USA 2
  • LGBT leagues, teams and events 3
    • Australia 3.1
    • Canada 3.2
    • France teams 3.3
    • Ireland 3.4
    • United Kingdom 3.5
    • United States teams 3.6
      • 1980s 3.6.1
      • 1990s 3.6.2
      • 2010s 3.6.3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

While, overall the trend is towards open acceptance, different sports vary widely and homosexual athletes still face many challenges. International sports organisations have come under scrutiny for holding competitions in countries where LGBT equality is out of step with their own policies.

[6][5]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.