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Hoosier

References

  1. ^ a b c "What is a Hoosier?".  
  2. ^ a b Haller, Steve (Autumn 2008). "The Meanings of Hoosier. 175 Years and Counting". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History ( 
  3. ^ Finley, John. The Hoosier's Nest and Other Poems, pp. 11–17. Moore, Wilstach, & Baldwin (Cincinnati), 1866. Accessed 17 March 2012.
  4. ^ a b Graf, Jeffrey. "The Word Hoosier".  
  5. ^ Haller, 6.
  6. ^ Smith, Jonathan Clark (June 2007). "Not Southern Scorn but Local Pride: The Origin of the Word Hoosier and Indiana's River Culture".  
  7. ^ a b Webb, Stephen H. "Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake". Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. XCVIII (March 2002). Trustees of Indiana University. Accessed 17 October 2013.
  8. ^ Piersen, William D. (June 1995). "The Origin of the Word "Hoosier": A New Interpretation".  
  9. ^ The History of Indiana. Textbook. c. 1960.
  10. ^ a b Johnson, Leland & al.Triumph at the Falls: The Louisville and Portland Canal, p. 42. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Louisville), 2007.
  11. ^ Dunn, 16–17.
  12. ^ Graf.
  13. ^
    Thomas E. Murray carefully analyzed the use of "hoosier" in St. Louis, Missouri, where it is the favorite epithet of abuse. "When asked what a Hoosier is," Murray writes, "St. Louisans readily list a number of defining characteristics, among which are 'lazy,' 'slow-moving,' 'derelict,' and 'irresponsible.'" He continues, "Few epithets in St. Louis carry the pejorative connotations or the potential for eliciting negative responses that hoosier does." He conducted tests and interviews across lines of age and race and tabulated the results. He found the term ecumenically applied. He also noted the word was often used with a modifier, almost redundantly, as in "some damn Hoosier."

    In a separate section Murray speaks of the history of the word and cites Baker and Carmony (1975) and speculates on why Hoosier (in Indiana a "neutral or, more often, positive" term) should remain "alive and well in St. Louis, occupying as it does the honored position of being the city's number one term of derogation." A radio broadcast took up where Murray left off. During the program Fresh Air, Geoffrey Nunberg, a language commentator, answered questions about regional nicknames. He cited Elaine Viets, a Post-Dispatch columnist (also quoted by Paul Dickson), as saying that in St. Louis a "Hoosier is a low-life redneck, somebody you can recognize because they have a car on concrete blocks in their front yard and are likely to have just shot their wife who may also be their sister."
    —Jeffrey Graff, "The Word Hoosier"[4]
  14. ^ Hugill, Stan (1961). Shanties from the Seven Seas. Mystic, Connecticut: Mystic Seaport Museum.  
  15. ^ Indiana University. "Portrait".

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