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This article is about the buddha. For the actor, see Amitabh Bachchan. For other uses, see Amitabha (disambiguation).

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Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभ, Amitābha (wordstem), Sanskrit pronunciation: [əmɪˈt̪aːbʱə]) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school of Buddhism. Amitābha is the principal buddha in the Pure Land sect, a branch of Buddhism practiced mainly in East Asia, while in Vajrayana Amitābha is known for his longevity attribute and the aggregate of distinguishing (recognition) and the deep awareness of individualities. According to these scriptures, Amitābha possesses infinite merits resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva named Dharmakāra. "Amitābha" is translatable as "Infinite Light," hence Amitābha is often called "The Buddha of Infinite Light."

Doctrine

According to the forty-eight vows, which set out the type of buddha-field Dharmakāra aspired to create, the conditions under which beings might be born into that world, and what kind of beings they would be when reborn there.

In the versions of the sutra widely known in China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, Dharmakāra's eighteenth vow was that any being in any universe desiring to be born into Amitābha's Pure Land and calling upon his name even as few as ten times will be guaranteed rebirth there. His nineteenth vow promises that he, together with his bodhisattvas and other blessed Buddhists, will appear before those who call upon him at the moment of death. This openness and acceptance of all kinds of people has made the Pure Land belief one of the major influences in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism seems to have first become popular in northwest India/Pakistan and Afghanistan, from where it spread to Central Asia and China.

The sutra goes on to explain that Amitābha, after accumulating great merit over countless lives, finally achieved buddhahood and is still residing in his land of Sukhāvatī, whose many virtues and joys are described.

The basic doctrines concerning Amitābha and his vows are found in three canonical Mahāyāna texts:[1]

Through his efforts, Amitābha created the "Pure Land" (净土, Chinese: jìngtŭ; Japanese: jōdo; Vietnamese: tịnh độ) called Sukhāvatī (Sanskrit: "possessing happiness") . Sukhāvatī is situated in the uttermost west, beyond the bounds of our own world. By the power of his vows, Amitābha has made it possible for all who call upon him to be reborn into this land, there to undergo instruction by him in the dharma and ultimately become bodhisattvas and buddhas in their turn (the ultimate goal of Mahāyāna Buddhism). From there, these same bodhisattvas and buddhas return to our world to help yet more people.

Amitābha is the Buddha of the comprehensive love. He lives in the west (represented as a meditating Buddha) and works for the enlightenment of all beings (represented as a blessing Buddha). His most important enlightenment technique is the visualization of the surrounding world as a paradise. Who sees his world as a paradise, awakens his enlightenment energy. The world can be seen as a paradise by a corresponding positive thought (enlightenment thought) or by sending light to all beings (wish all beings to be happy). After the Amitabha doctrine, one can come to paradise (in the Pure Land of Amitābha), if they visualize at their death Amitābha in the heaven (sun) over their head (western horizon), think his name as a mantra and leave the body as a soul through the crown chakra.

Vajrayāna Buddhism

Amitābha is also known in Tibet, Mongolia, and other regions where Tibetan Buddhism is practiced. In the Highest Yoga Tantra class of the Tibetan Vajrayana Amitābha is considered one of the Five Dhyāni Buddhas (together with Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Ratnasambhava, and Vairocana), who is associated with the western direction and the skandha of saṃjñā, the aggregate of distinguishing (recognition) and the deep awareness of individualities. His consort is Pāṇḍaravāsinī.[2][3][4][5][6] His realm is called either Sukhāvatī (Sanskrit) or Dewachen (Tibetan). His two main disciples (just as the Buddha Shakyamuni had two) are the Bodhisattvas Vajrapani and Avalokiteshvara, the former to his left and the latter to his right. In Tibetan Buddhism, there exists a number of famous prayers for taking rebirth in Sukhāvatī (Dewachen). One of these was written by Je Tsongkhapa on the request of Manjushri,

The Tibetan Panchen Lamas[7] and Shamarpas[8] are considered to be emanations of Amitābha.

He is frequently invoked in Tibet either as Buddha Amitābha – especially in the Phowa practices or as Amitāyus – especially in practices relating to longevity and preventing an untimely death.

In Japanese Vajrayāna, or Shingon Buddhism, Amitābha is seen as one of the thirteen Buddhist deities to whom practitioners can pay homage. Shingon, like Tibetan Buddhism, also uses special devotional mantras for Amitābha, though the mantras used differ. Amitābha is also one of the Buddhas featured in the Womb Realm Mandala used in Shingon practices, and sits to the west, which is where the Pure Land of Amitābha is said to dwell.

Mantras

Amitābha is the center of a number of mantras in Buddhist Vajrayana practices. The Sanskrit form of the mantra of Amitābha is ॐ अमिताभ ह्रीः (Devanagari: oṃ amitābha hrīḥ), which is pronounced in its Tibetan version as Om ami dewa hri (Sanskrit: oṃ amideva hrīḥ). The Japanese Shingon Buddhist mantra is On amirita teizei kara un which represents the underlying Indic form oṃ amṛta-teje hara hūṃ.

In addition to using the mantras listed above, many Buddhist schools invoke Amitābha's name in a practice known as nianfo 念佛 in Chinese and nembutsu in Japanese.

Names in various languages

The proper form (wordstem) of Amitābha's name in Sanskrit is Amitābha, masculine, and the nominative singular is Amitābhaḥ. This is a compound of the Sanskrit words amita ("without bound, infinite") and ābhā ("light, splendor"). Consequently, the name is to be interpreted as "he who possesses light without bound, he whose splendor is infinite".

The name Amitāyus (nominative form Amitāyuḥ) is also used for the Sambhogakāya aspect of Amitabha, particularly associated with longevity.[9] He is mostly depicted sitting and holding in his hands a vessel containing the nectar of immortality. Amitayus is also one of the three deities of long life (Amitayus, White Tara & Ushnishavijaya) . Amitāyus being a compound of amita ("infinite") and āyus ("life"), and so means "he whose life is boundless".

In Chinese, mistakenly pronounced as Ā mí tuó Fó (阿彌陀佛), the correct pronunciation is ē mí tuó fó (注音符號: ㄜ ㄇㄧˊ ㄊㄨㄛˊ ㄈㄛˊ), where "Ē mí tuó" is the Chinese representation of the first three syllables of either Amitābha or Amitāyus, and is Chinese for Buddha (a very early borrowing of the first syllable of the Sanskrit word).

The name Amitābha is given in Chinese as Wúliàngguāng (無量光; "Infinite Light "), while the name Amitāyus is given as Wúliàngshòu (無量壽; "Infinite Life"). These names are not, however, very commonly used.

In Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, the same Chinese characters used for Amitabha are used to represent his name, though they are pronounced slightly differently:

  • Vietnamese: A-di-đà Phật
  • Korean: Amita Bul
  • Japanese: Amida Butsu.

In Japanese, he is also called Amida Nyorai (阿弥陀如来), meaning " the Tathāgata Amitābha".

In Tibetan, Amitābha is called 'od.dpag.med and, as Amitāyus, tshe.dpag.med.

Iconography


It can be difficult to distinguish Amitābha from Śākyamuni (and any buddhas in general) as both are portrayed as possessing all the attributes of a buddha but no distinguishing marks. Amitabha can, however, often be distinguished by his mudrā: Amitābha is often depicted, when shown seated, displaying the meditation mudrā (thumbs touching and fingers together (as in the Kamakura statue of Amitābha) or the exposition mudrā, while the earth-touching mudrā (right hand pointed downward over the right leg, palm inward) is reserved for a seated Śākyamuni alone. He can also be seen holding a lotus in his hands while displaying the meditation mudrā.

There is a difference between Amitayus and Amitabha. Amitayus~the Buddha of Infinite Life and Amitabha~the Buddha of Infinite Light are essentially identical, being reflective images of one another. Sutras in which Shakyamuni expounds the glories of Sukhavati, the Pure Lands, speak of the presiding Buddha sometimes as Amitabha and sometimes as Amitayus. When depicted as Amitayus he is depicted in fine clothes and jewels and as Amitabha in simple monk's clothing. They are also simply known as Amida in the Chinese and Japanese tradition. The image of the gold colored statue in the article is of Amitayus as he is wearing a 5 pointed crown, which is the easiest way to distinguish them. Amitayus is an emanation of Amitabha. Amitabha is the head of the Lotus family, where as Amitayus is not the head of the Lotus Family.[10]

When standing, Amitābha is often shown with left arm bare and extended downward with thumb and forefinger touching, with the right hand facing outward also with thumb and forefinger touching. The meaning of this mudra is that wisdom (symbolized by the raised hand) is accessible to even the lowest beings, while the outstretched hand shows that Amitabha's compassion is directed at the lowest beings, who cannot save themselves.

When not depicted alone, Amitābha is often portrayed with two assistants: Avalokiteśvara on the right and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on the left.

In Vajrayana, Amitābha is the most ancient Buddha among the Dhyani Buddhas. He is of red color originating from the red seed syllable hrih. He represents the cosmic element of "Sanjana" (name). His vehicle is the peacock. He exhibits Samadhi Mudra his two palms folded face up, one on top of the other, lying on his lap. The lotus is his sign. When represented on the stupa, he always faces toward west. He is worshiped thinking that one can have salvation. Sometimes he holds a Patra on the same posture.

Within Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara is not one consistent gender. In Shin Buddhism, the Bodhisattva is called "Kannon" and in Chinese Buddhism, the name "Guānyīn" is given to the same Bodhisattva, who changes genders depending on interpretation and imagery. This Bodhisattva has been depicted as a man and a woman; some porcelain or jade statuettes or figurines visibly have breasts and feminine facial features while others have a flat male chest. The common idea behind this is that the Bodhisattva transcends categories of gender, as Buddhism as a whole tries to defy categorical and logical thinking that demands definitions in its entirety.

Archeological origins


The first known epigraphic evidence for Amitābha is the bottom part of a statue found in Govindnagar, Pakistan and now located at the Mathura Museum. The statue is dated to "the 28th year of the reign of Huviṣka" (i.e., sometime in the latter half of the 2nd century CE, during the period of the Kuṣāṇa Empire), and was apparently dedicated to "Amitābha Buddha" by a family of merchants.[11]

The first known sutra mentioning Amitābha is the translation into Chinese of the Pratyutpanna Sūtra by the Kuṣāṇa monk Lokakṣema around 180 CE. This work is said to be at the origin of Pure Land practice in China.

The appearance of such literature and sculptural remains at the end of the 2nd century suggests that the doctrine of Amitābha probably developed during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Furthermore, there are sculptures of Amitabha in Dhyani Mudras as well as bronzes of Amitabha in Abhaya Mudra from the Gandhara era of the 1st century CE suggesting the popularity of Amitabha during that time. One of the last prayer busts of Amitabha can be found in the trademark black stone of the Pala Empire which was the last Buddhist empire of India and lost its influence in the 12th century due to Islamic invasions.

See also

Notes

External links

  • The Buddha Speaks of Amitabha Sutra (Pure Land)
  • Shingon Buddhism: Amida Nyorai/Buddha of Infinite light and Life
  • H.H. Chetsang Rinpoche about Amitabha and Dewachen
  • French Site : Amitabha Terre Pure
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