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Hulunbuir League

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Hulunbuir League

This article is about the city in Inner Mongolia. For the district of Mongolia, see Khölönbuir, Dornod.
Hulunbuir
ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ
呼伦贝尔
Prefecture-level city
呼伦贝尔市

Hulunbuir (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)

Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia

Coordinates: 49°12′N 119°42′E / 49.200°N 119.700°E / 49.200; 119.700Coordinates: 49°12′N 119°42′E / 49.200°N 119.700°E / 49.200; 119.700

Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Municipal seat Hailar District
Area
 • Total 263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 2,549,278
 • Density 9.7/km2 (25/sq mi)
 • Major nationalities Han - 81.85%
Mongols - 8.6%
Manchu - 4.13%
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 021000
Area code(s) 0470
Website

Hulunbuir or Hūlúnbèi'ěr (Mongolian: ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷᠬᠣᠲᠠ; Chinese: 呼伦贝尔市) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in the People's Republic of China. Its administrative center is located at Hailar District, its largest urban area. Major scenic features are the high steppes of the Hulun Buir grasslands, the Hulun and Buir lakes (the latter partially in Mongolia), and the Khingan range. Hulun Buir borders Russia to the north and west, Mongolia to the south and west, Heilongjiang province to the east and Hinggan League to the direct south. Hulunbuir is a linguistically diverse area: next to Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian dialects such as Khorchin and Buryat, the Mongolic language Dagur and some Tungusic languages are spoken there.

History

During the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Hulunbuir was part of the Liaodong Commandery.[1] During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), Hulunbuir was part of Heilongjiang province. The 1858 Treaty of Aigun established today's approximate Sino-Russian border, at a great loss to Heilongjiang's territory. In 1901, the Chinese Eastern Railway linked Hulunbuir to the rest of northeast China and to Russian Far East. From 1912-1949, during the Republic of China (ROC) period, Hulunbuir was part of Xing'an and Heilongjiang provinces. A treaty between the Russian Empire and the ROC on November 7/October 24, 1915 designated Hulunbuir a "special" region under Chinese sovereignty, but in practice Russia had partial control over day-to-day administration. In 1929, the Soviet Union broke this agreement and invaded Hulunbuir.[2] After the Japanese occupation of China, Hulunbuir became part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, which was not recognized by the Chinese. In the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China gained the support of Inner Mongol leaders like Ulanhu by promising the irredentist expansion of Inner Mongolia into areas that had majorities of Han and Manchu peoples.[3]

After the 1949 Communist revolution, Hulunbuir was annexed into Inner Mongolia, but the region kept economic ties to the rest of the northeast via the Chinese Eastern Railway.[4] During the Cultural Revolution, the parts of historical Manchuria inside Inner Mongolia were briefly restored to their original provinces; Hulunbuir was given back to Heilongjiang from 1969 to 1979.[4] Until October 10, 2001, Hulunbuir was administered as a League. The area is 263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi) and population 2.710 million as of 2004, while the gross domestic product was RMB 21.326 billion. The jurisdiction area of the city is larger than all but 8 Chinese province-level divisions (and 42 U.S. states), although the actual urban agglomeration is just a very small part of the region, and the average population density of the area is very low.

Names

The city was once a league () of Inner Mongolia, until 10 October 2001. During the Qing Dynasty, it was known in Mandarin as Hūlúnbùyǔ'ěr (simplified Chinese: 呼伦布雨尔; traditional Chinese: 呼倫布雨爾).

Administrative subdivisions

Hulunbuir is divided into 13 different county-level jurisdictions: one district, five county-level cities, four banners and three autonomous banners.

Map
1.5
# Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
1 Hailar District ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qayilar toɣoriɣ)
海拉尔区 Hǎilā'ěr Qū 344,947 1,440 181
2 Manzhouli City ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Manjuur qota)
满洲里市 Mǎnzhōulǐ Shì 152,473 701 360
3 Zhalantun City ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Jalan Ayil qota)
扎兰屯市 Zhālántún Shì 366,326 16,800 26
4 Yakeshi City ᠶᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Yaɣsi qota)
牙克石市 Yákèshí Shì 352,177 27,590 14
5 Genhe City ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Gegen Ɣool qota)
根河市 Gēnhé Shì 110,441 19,659 9
6 Ergun City ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Ergün-e qota)
额尔古纳市 É'ěrgǔnà Shì 76,667 28,000 3
7 Arun Banner ᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Arun qosiɣu)
阿荣旗 Āróng Qí 278,744 12,063 27
8 New Barag Right Banner ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Baraɣun qosiɣu)
新巴尔虎右旗 Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Yòu Qí 36,356 25,102 1
9 New Barag Left Banner ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Jegün qosiɣu)
新巴尔虎左旗 Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Zuǒ Qí 40,258 22,000 2
10 Old Barag Banner ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaɣučin Barɣu qosiɣu)
陈巴尔虎旗 Chénbā'ěrhǔ Qí 58,244 21,192 3
11 Oroqin Autonomous Banner ᠣᠷᠴᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Orčon-u öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
鄂伦春自治旗 Èlúnchūn Zìzhìqí 223,752 59,800 5
12 Evenk Autonomous Banner ᠡᠸᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Eveŋki öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
鄂温克族自治旗 Èwēnkèzú Zìzhìqí 134,981 19,111 7
13 Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Morin Dabaɣ-a Daɣur öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗 Mòlìdáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí 276,912 10,500 30
Part of Oroqin Autonomous Banner is subordinate to Da Hinggan Ling Prefecture in Heilongjiang.


Hulunbuir is the largest city in the world based on surface area.

Geography and climate

The city proper of Hulunbuir itself (Hailar) has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dwb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc), although the northern part of the prefecture-level city is solidly subarctic. Winters are long, very dry and severe, due to the semi−permanent Siberian High, while summers are short, though very warm, and rather wet, due to the East Asian monsoon. At Hailar, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68 °F) in July, while the annual mean is −0.96 °C (30.3 °F). With at least 55% of possible sunshine in all months and an annual total greater than 2,700 hours, sunny weather dominates year-round. Approximately 70% of the annual rainfall occurs during the three summer months.

Demographics (as of 2000)

ethnic group population share
Han 2,199,645 81.85%
Mongols 231,276 8.6%
Manchu 111,053 4.13%
Daur 70,287 2.62%
Hui 30,950 1.15%
Evenks 25,418 0.95%
Koreans 8,355 0.31%
Russians 4,741 0.18%
Oroqen 3,144 0.12%
Xibe 956 0.04%
Other 1,403 0.05%

References

Further reading

External links

  • Hulunbuir government website (in Chinese)
  • Inner Mongolian postcodes (in English)

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