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Hydrogen deuteride

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Hydrogen deuteride

Hydrogen deuteride
Skeletal formula of hydrogen deuteride
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
EC number
UN number 1049
ChEBI  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula H[2H]
Molar mass 3.02204 g mol−1
Melting point −259 °C (−434.2 °F; 14.1 K)
Boiling point −253 °C (−423.4 °F; 20.2 K)
Hazards
EU classification Extremely Flammable F+
R-phrases R12
S-phrases S16, S33, S36, S38
NFPA 704
4
0
0
Autoignition temperature 571 °C (1,060 °F; 844 K)
Related compounds
Related hydrogens Deuterium

Hydrogen
Tritium

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY   YesY/N?)

Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule composed of the two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H deuterium. Its molecular formula is HD.

Natural abundance

Hydrogen deuteride is a minor component of naturally occurring molecular hydrogen. In particular, hydrogen deuteride is one of the minor but noticeable components of the atmospheres of all the giant planets, with abundances from about 30 ppm to about 200 ppm. HD has also been found in supernova remnants,[1] and other sources.

Occurrence of HD vs. H2 in gas giants
Planet HD H2
Jupiter ~0.003% 89.8% ±2.0%
Uranus ~0.007% 83.0% ±3.0%
Neptune ~0.019% 80.0% ±3.2%

Radio emission spectra

HD and H2 have very similar emission spectra, but the emission frequencies differ.[2]

The frequency of the astronomically important J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD at 2.7 THz has been measured with tunable FIR radiation with an accuracy of 150 kHz.[3]

References

  1. ^ Neufeld, David A.; Hollenbach, David J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Snell, Ronald L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sonnentrucker, Paule (2007). "SpitzerSpectral Line Mapping of Supernova Remnants. I. Basic Data and Principal Component Analysis". The Astrophysical Journal 664 (2): 890.  
  2. ^ Quinn, W.; Baker, J.; Latourrette, J.; Ramsey, N. (1958). "Radio-Frequency Spectra of Hydrogen Deuteride in Strong Magnetic Fields". Phys. Rev. 112 (6): 1929.  
  3. ^ Evenson, K. M.; Jennings, D. A.; Brown, J. M.; Zink, L. R.; Leopold, K. R. (1988). "Frequency measurement of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD". Astrophysical Journal 330: L135.  

Further reading

  • Spitzer observations of hydrogen deuteride
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