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Hyperestrogenism

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Title: Hyperestrogenism  
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Subject: Aromatase excess syndrome, Aromatase deficiency, Inborn errors of steroid metabolism, Hypergonadism, Estrogens
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Hyperestrogenism

Hyperestrogenism, or estrogen excess, is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of estrogenic activity in the body.[1]

Causes

Hyperestrogenism can be caused by ovarian tumors,[2] genetic conditions such as aromatase excess syndrome (also known as familial hyperestrogenism), or overconsumption of exogenous sources of estrogen, including medications used in hormone replacement therapy and hormonal contraception.[3]

Signs and symptoms

Signs of hyperestrogenism may include heightened levels of one or more of the estrogen sex hormones (usually estradiol and/or estrone), lowered levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and/or luteinizing hormone (due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by estrogen), and lowered levels of androgens such as testosterone (generally only relevant to males).[1] Symptoms of the condition in women may consist of menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and enlargement of the uterus and breasts.[2][1] It may also present as isosexual precocity in children[2][1] and as hypogonadism, gynecomastia, feminization, impotence, and loss of libido in males.[3] If left untreated, hyperestrogenism may increase the risk of estrogen-sensitive cancers such as breast cancer later in life.

Treatments

Treatment may consist of surgery in the case of tumors,[1] lower doses of estrogen in the case of exogenously-mediated estrogen excess, and estrogen-suppressing medications like gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and progestogens. In addition, androgens may be supplemented in the case of males.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Norman Lavin (1 April 2009). Manual of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 274.  
  2. ^ a b c Ricardo V. Lloyd (14 January 2010). Endocrine Pathology:: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advances. Springer. p. 316.  
  3. ^ a b Lewis R. Goldfrank; Neal Flomenbaum (24 March 2006). Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 443.  


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