World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0004555418
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hyperpituitarism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: MODY 3, MODY 4, Sertoli cell-only syndrome, Ovarian disease, MODY 5
Collection: Pituitary Disorders
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E22
ICD-9 253.1
eMedicine ped/1092
MeSH D006964

Hyperpituitarism is the primary hypersecretion of pituitary hormones. It typically results from a pituitary adenoma. Most pituitary adenomas are functional and secrete a hormone that produces clear symptoms characteristic of their condition.[1] In children with hyperpituitarism, disruption of growth regulation and/or sexual maturation is common, either because of hormone hypersecretion or because of manifestations caused by local compression of the adenoma. Pituitary adenomas are rare in children, accounting for only 3-6% of all adenomas, whereas they comprise 30% of adenomas in adults.

There are three hormones that are oversecreted resulting in the pituitary adenoma: prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH).[2]

Excess prolactin may result in a prolactinoma. The symptoms may vary, depending on the age and sex of the child. Prepubertal children typically experience a combination of headaches, visual disturbance, and growth failure. Pubertal females frequently have symptoms of pubertal arrest or hypogonadism due to suppression of gonadotropin secretion or local compression of the pituitary. Pubertal males may have symptoms of headaches, visual impairment, and pubertal arrest or growth failure.[3]

Excess ACTH commonly results in weight gain. Hirsutism and premature adrenarche may occur in prepubertal children. Pubertal arrest, acne, fatigue, and depression are also common.[1]

Excess GH results in gigantism. The severity of gigantism depends on whether the epiphyseal plate is open. Before epiphyseal fusion, accelerated growth velocity is prominent. As epiphyseal fusion approaches, the spectrum of symptoms resembles that in adults (e.g., coarsening of facial features, change in ring and shoe size).[4]

The four most common types of hyperpituitarism are prolactinoma, corticotropinoma (Cushing's disease), somatotropinoma (gigantism), and thyrotropinoma (a rare pituitary cancer).[2]


  • Clinical manifestations 1
  • Associated conditions 2
  • Symptoms 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Clinical manifestations

Depending on the cell type(s) affected, clinical manifestations of hormone excess may include:

Associated conditions

When there is an enlargement of the pituitary tissue, hyperpituitarism is often associated with:


Symptoms caused by hormone excess and associated mass effects include:

See also


  1. ^ a b Colao, A, Loche, S, Cappabianca, P. Pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategies. The Endocrinologist. 2000;10:314-27.
  2. ^ a b Diaz-Thomas, A., Shim, M. Hyperpituitarism. Medscape Reference. WebMD. 2012.[1]
  3. ^ Ciccarelli, A, Daly, AF, Beckers, A. The epidemiology of prolactinomas. Pituitary. 2005;8:3-6.
  4. ^ Colao, A, Lombardi, G. Growth-hormone and prolactin excess. Lancet. Oct 31 1998;352(9138):1455-61.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.