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Title: Hypoprolactinemia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Prolactin, Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis, Ovarian disease, Tertiary hyperparathyroidism, Hyperprolactinaemia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Classification and external resources

Hypoprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by a deficiency in the serum levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormone prolactin.[1][2]


  • Causes 1
  • Diagnosis 2
  • Symptoms 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5


Hypoprolactinemia can result from autoimmune disease,[2] hypopituitarism,[1] growth hormone deficiency,[2] hypothyroidism,[2] excessive dopamine action in the tuberoinfundibular pathway and/or the anterior pituitary, and ingestion of drugs that activate the D2 receptor, such as direct D2 receptor agonists like bromocriptine and pergolide, and indirect D2 receptor activators like amphetamines (through the induction of dopamine release).[3]


Guidelines for diagnosing hypoprolactinemia are defined as prolactin levels below 3 µg/L in women,[4][5] and 5 µg/L in men.[6][7][8]


Hypoprolactinemia is associated with ovarian dysfunction in women,[4][5] and metabolic syndrome,[9] anxiety symptoms,[9] arteriogenic erectile dysfunction,[10] premature ejaculation,[6] oligozoospermia (low concentration of sperm in semen), asthenospermia (reduced sperm motility), hypofunction of seminal vesicles, and hypoandrogenism in men.[7] In one study, normal sperm characteristics were restored when prolactin levels were brought up to normal values in men with hypoprolactinemia.[8]

Hypoprolactinemia can be a cause of lactation failure after childbirth.[1][11][12]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Jerome F. Strauss III; Robert L. Barbieri (28 August 2013). Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 53–.  
  2. ^ a b c d Andrew S. Davis PhD (25 October 2010). Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 1134–.  
  3. ^ Trevor W. Stone (9 May 1996). CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators. CRC Press. pp. 214–.  
  4. ^ a b Kauppila A, Martikainen H, Puistola U, Reinilä M, Rönnberg L (Mar 1988). "Hypoprolactinemia and ovarian function". Fertil Steril. 49 (3): 437–41.  
  5. ^ a b Schwärzler P, Untergasser G, Hermann M, Dirnhofer S, Abendstein B, Berger P (Oct 1997). "Prolactin gene expression and prolactin protein in premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries". Fertil Steril. 68 (4): 696–701.  
  6. ^ a b Corona G, Mannucci E, Jannini EA, Lotti F, Ricca V, Monami M, Boddi V, Bandini E, Balercia G, Forti G, Maggi M (May 2009). "Hypoprolactinemia: a new clinical syndrome in patients with sexual dysfunction". J Sex Med. 6 (5): 1457–66.  
  7. ^ a b Gonzales GF, Velasquez G, Garcia-Hjarles M (1989). "Hypoprolactinemia as related to seminal quality and serum testosterone". Arch Androl. 23 (3): 259–65.  
  8. ^ a b Ufearo CS, Orisakwe OE (September 1995). "Restoration of normal sperm characteristics in hypoprolactinemic infertile men treated with metoclopramide and exogenous human prolactin". Clin Pharmacol Ther. 58 (3): 354–9.  
  9. ^ a b Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lotti, Francesco; Ricca, Valdo; Monami, Matteo; Boddi, Valentina; Bandini, Elisa; Balercia, Giancarlo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario (2009). "Hypoprolactinemia: A New Clinical Syndrome in Patients with Sexual Dysfunction". Journal of Sexual Medicine 6 (5): 1457–1466.  
  10. ^ Pituitary Hormones—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. 21 June 2013. pp. 62–.  
  11. ^ Prabhakar VK, Shalet SM (2006). "Aetiology, diagnosis, and management of hypopituitarism in adult life". Postgrad Med J 82 (966): 259–66.  
  12. ^ Robert F. Dons; Frank H. Wians, Jr. (17 June 2009). Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders: Clinical Lab Testing Manual, Fourth Edition. CRC Press. pp. 103–.  
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