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Il1b

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Il1b

Interleukin 1, beta
PDB rendering based on 31bi.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; IL-1; IL1-BETA; IL1F2
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) also known as '"leukocytic pyrogen"', "'leukocytic endogenous mediator'", "'mononuclear cell factor'", "'lymphocyte activating factor'" and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.[1][2][3][4] There are two genes for Interleukin-1 (IL-1): IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (this gene). IL-1β precursor is cleaved by cytosolic caspase 1 (interleukin 1 beta convertase) to form mature IL-1β.

Contents

  • Function 1
  • Properties 2
  • Clinical significance 3
    • Therapies that target IL1B 3.1
  • Orthographic note 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

Function

The fever-producing property of human leukocytic pyrogen (Interleukin 1) was purified by Dinarello in 1977 (PNAS) with a specific activity of 10-20 nanograms/kg. In 1979, Dinarello reported that purified human leukocytic pyrogen was the same molecule that was described by Igal Gery in 1972.[5][6][7] He named it lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF) because it was a lymphocyte mitogen. It was not until 1984 that interleukin 1 was discovered to consist of two distinct proteins, now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta.[2]

IL-1β is a member of the interleukin 1 family of cytokines. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2.[8]

Properties

The molecular weight of the proteolytically processed IL1B is 17.5 kDa. IL1B has the following amino acid sequence:

  • APVRSLNCTL RDSQQKSLVM SGPYELKALH LQGQDMEQQV VFSMSFVQGE ESNDKIPVAL GLKEKNLYLS CVLKDDKPTL QLESVDPKNY PKKKMEKRFV FNKIEINNKL EFESAQFPNW YISTSQAENM PVFLGGTKGG QDITDFTMQF VSS

The physiological activity determined from the dose dependent proliferation of murine D10S cells is 2.5 x 108 to 7.1 x 108 units/mg.

Clinical significance

Increased production of IL-1B causes a number of different autoinflammatory syndromes, most notably the monogenic conditions referred to as CAPS, due to mutations in the inflammasome receptor NLRP3 which triggers processing of IL-1B.[9]

Therapies that target IL1B

Canakinumab is a human monoclonal antibody targeted at IL-1B, and approved in many countries for treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.

Orthographic note

Because many authors of scientific manuscripts make the minor error of using a homoglyph, sharp s (ß), instead of beta (β), mentions of "IL-1ß" [sic] often become "IL-1ss" [sic] upon automated transcoding (because ß transcodes to ss). This is why so many mentions of the latter appear in web search results.

See also

References

  1. ^ Auron PE, Webb AC, Rosenwasser LJ, Mucci SF, Rich A, Wolff SM, Dinarello CA (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of human monocyte interleukin 1 precursor cDNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81 (24): 7907–11.  
  2. ^ a b "Catabolin" is the name given by Jeremy Saklatvala for IL-1 alpha. March CJ, Mosley B, Larsen A, Cerretti DP, Braedt G, Price V, Gillis S, Henney CS, Kronheim SR, Grabstein K (1985). "Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNAs". Nature 315 (6021): 641–7.  
  3. ^ Clark BD, Collins KL, Gandy MS, Webb AC, Auron PE (1986). "Genomic sequence for human prointerleukin 1 beta: possible evolution from a reverse transcribed prointerleukin 1 alpha gene". Nucleic Acids Res 14 (20): 7897–1914.  
  4. ^ Bensi G, Raugei G, Palla E, Carinci V, Tornese Buonamassa D, Melli M (1987). "Human interleukin-1 beta gene". Gene 52 (1): 95–101.  
  5. ^ Gery I, Gershon RK, Waksman BH (1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. I. The responding cell". J. Exp. Med. 136 (1): 128–142.  
  6. ^ Gery I, Waksman BH (1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. II. The cellular source of potentiating mediator(s)". J. Exp. Med. 136 (1): 143–155.  
  7. ^ Gery I, Handschumacher RE (1974). "Potentiation of the T lymphocyte response to mitogens. III. Properties of the mediator(s) from adherent cells". Cell. Immunol. 11 (1-3): 162–9.  
  8. ^ "Entrez Gene: IL1B interleukin 1, beta". 
  9. ^ Masters SL, Simon A, Aksentijevich I, Kastner DL (2009). "Horror autoinflammaticus: the molecular pathophysiology of autoinflammatory disease (*)". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27: 621–68.  

Further reading

  • Smirnova MG, Kiselev SL, Gnuchev NV, Birchall JP, Pearson JP (2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of the otitis media with effusion". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 13 (2): 161–72.  
  • Griffin WS, Mrak RE (2002). "Interleukin-1 in the genesis and progression of and risk for development of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease". J. Leukoc. Biol. 72 (2): 233–8.  
  • Arend WP (2003). "The balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (4-5): 323–40.  
  • Chakravorty M, Ghosh A, Choudhury A, Santra A, Hembrum J, Roychoudhury S (2004). "Ethnic differences in allele distribution for the IL8 and IL1B genes in populations from eastern India". Hum. Biol. 76 (1): 153–9.  
  • Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (1): 87–94.  
  • Maruyama Y, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B (2005). "Role of interleukin-1beta in the development of malnutrition in chronic renal failure patients". Blood Purif. 23 (4): 275–81.  
  • Roy D, Sarkar S, Felty Q (2006). "Levels of IL-1 beta control stimulatory/inhibitory growth of cancer cells". Front. Biosci. 11: 889–98.  
  • Copeland KF (2005). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Rev Med Chem 5 (12): 1093–101.  
  • Prinz C, Schwendy S, Voland P (2006). "H pylori and gastric cancer: shifting the global burden". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (34): 5458–64.  
  • Kamangar F, Cheng C, Abnet CC, Rabkin CS (2006). "Interleukin-1B polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk--a meta-analysis". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (10): 1920–8.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.


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