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Indo-European vocabulary


Indo-European vocabulary

The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.


  • Notes 1
  • Kinship 2
  • People 3
  • 4 Pronouns, particles
  • Numbers 5
  • Body parts 6
  • Animals 7
  • Agriculture 8
  • Bodily functions and states 9
  • Mental functions and states 10
  • Natural features 11
  • Directions 12
  • Basic adjectives 13
  • Construction, fabrication 14
  • Self-motion, rest 15
  • Object motion 16
  • Time 17
  • References 18
  • External links 19


The following conventions are used:

  • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although we give forms in modern languages for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages. In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes.
  • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.)
  • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language:
    • For the Germanic languages and for Welsh, the infinitive is given.
    • For Latin (c. 100 BC), the Baltic languages, and the Slavic languages, the first-person singular present indicative is given, with the infinitive supplied in parentheses.
    • For Greek (c. 400 BC), Old Irish (c. 800 AD), Armenian (c. 405 AD) and Albanian (modern), only the first-person singular present indicative is given.
    • For Sanskrit (c. 1000 BC and later), Avestan (c. 1200 BC or earlier), Old Persian (c. 600 BC to 300 BC), Parthian (248 BC-224 AD), the third-person singular present indicative is given.
    • For Tocharian, the stem is given.
    • For Hittite, either the third-person singular present indicative or the stem is given.
  • In place of Latin, an Oscan (c. 100 BC) or Umbrian (c. 200 BC) cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, c. 1400 BC; Lycian, c. 400 BC) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite (c. 1400 BC).
  • For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A (c. 800 AD) and Tocharian B (c. 800 AD) cognates are given whenever possible.
  • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish (c. 800 AD) and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh (c. 800 AD) is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in the modern form. A Middle Irish (c. 1000 AD) cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish (c. 0 AD), Cornish (?? c. 1200-1700 AD?) and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh.
  • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian (c. 1350 - 1600 AD) cognates are given when possible. (Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian (c. 1600 AD) forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.
  • For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic (c. 1000 AD) cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic.
  • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English (c. 1000 AD) form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given.
  • For Gothic (c. 350 AD), a form in another Germanic language (Old Norse, c. 1200 AD; Old High German, c. 900 AD; or Middle High German, c. 1200 AD) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
(predominant dialects used:) modern, c. 2000 AD; Late West Saxon OE, c. 1000 AD c. 350 AD c. 100 BC Classical Attic, c. 400 BC Vedic Sanskrit, c. 1700-1100 BC (?) (Rig Veda) Old Avestan, c. 1700-1200 BC (??); Younger Avestan, c. 900-400 BC (??); Old Persian, c. 525 BC (Behistun inscription) Old Church Slavonic, c. 1000 AD modern Lithuanian, c. 2000 AD; Old Prussian, c. 1350-1600 AD Old Irish, c. 800 AD; modern Welsh, c. 2000 AD Classical Armenian, c. 405 AD modern, c. 2000 AD Tocharian A and B, c. 800 AD c. 1400 BC
*meH₂tér- "mother" mother (< OE mōdor) ON móðir "mother" māter "mother" mḗtēr "mother" mātár- "mother" Av mātar- "mother" OCS mati (matere) "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" OIr māthir "mother" mayr "mother" motër "sister" A mācar, B mācer "mother"
*pH₂tér- "father" father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" patḗr "father" pitár- "father" Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father" OCS batya "father" OIr athir "father" hayr "father" A pācar, B pācer "father"
*bhréH₂ter- "brother" brother (< OE brōþor) brōþar "brother" frāter "brother" phrā́tēr "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" bhrā́tar- "brother" Av brātar-, OPers brātar-, Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative" OCS bratrŭ "brother" Lith brõlis, OPrus brati "brother OIr brāth(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" ełbair (gen. ełbaur) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother"
*swésor "sister" sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" éor "relative" svásar- "sister" Av x ̌aŋhar- "sister" OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuõ (seser̃s), OPrus sestra "sister" OIr siur, W chwaer "sister" k`oir (k`eṙ), k`or-k` "sister"[1] A ṣar, B ṣer "sister"
*dhugH₂-tér- "daughter" daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" thugátēr "daughter" duhitár- "daughter" Av dugədar-, duɣδar-, NPers duxtar, duxt "daughter" OCS dcher- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter" dowstr "daughter" A ckācar, B tkācer "daughter" túwatara "daughter"
*suHnú- "son" son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiús "son" sūnú- "son" Av hunuš "son" OCS synŭ "son" Lith sūnùs, OPrus suns "son" ustr "son" çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son"
*nepot- "nephew, grandson" obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nepōs (nepōtis) "grandson, nephew" népodes "descendants" nápāt- "grandson, descendant" Av napāt-, naptar-, OPers napāt- "grandson, descendant" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nei "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew"
*dāiH₂u̯ēr- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE tācor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dāēr "husband's brother" devar- "husband's brother" OCS dever "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" taigr "husband's brother"
*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuos "daughter-in-law" snuṣā- "daughter-in-law" OCS snúcha "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" nu "daughter-in-law"
*su̯eḱrū́- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihr "mother-in-law" socrus"mother-in-law" ekurā "mother-in-law" śvaśrū- "mother-in-law" OCS svekri "mother-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vje´herr "father-in-law"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dhǵhemon- "person" OE guma "person, man", brȳdguma "bridegroom"[2] guma "man" homō "person" OCS kum "person, relative" OLith žmuõ "person"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dhĝhom-yo- A śom "boy"; B śaumo "person"
*H₂ner- "man, hero" ON Njǫrðr (name of a God) Ner-ō (personal name), neriōsus "strong" anḗr (andros) "man" nár- (nom. ) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. ) "man, person" OCS nravŭ "custom" Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; OPrus nàrs "courage" W ner "hero" air (aṙn) "man, person" njer "man, person"
*wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" vīrá- "man, hero" Av vīra- "man, hero" OCS parya, paren- "guy, young man" Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W gwr "man" burrë "man" A wir "young"
*gʷén-eH₂- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") qēns (qēnáis), qinō "woman, wife" gunḗ (gunaikos) "woman, wife" < *gʷun-eH₂ gnā (gnā́s-) "wife of a god", jániḥ, jánī "woman, wife" Av gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, NPers zan "woman, wife" OCS žena "woman, wife" Lith žmoná "wife", OPrus gena "woman, wife" OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *gʷén-eH₂ (*gʷn-eH₂-s), (neut.) "wife < *gʷén; W ben-yw "womanly" kin "woman, wife" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *gʷen-yeH₂; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *gʷn-ōn A śäṁ (pl. śnu), B śana "woman, wife" Luwian wanatti "woman, wife"

Pronouns, particles

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*egH₂ "I" I (< OE ic̣) ik "I" egō "I" < *egoH₂ egṓ, egṓn "I" ahám "I" < *egH₂-om Av azǝm, OPers adam "I" < *egH₂-om OCS azŭ "I" Lith àš, OLith , OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" ñuk "I" ūk "I" influenced by ammuk "me"
*H₁me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE , mec < *H₁me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" mē(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" mām "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m, "me (acc. encl.)" Av mąm "me" OCS "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)" *H₁me-ge mua, mue "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mu "me (acc. encl.)"
*H₁meǵhi "me (dat.)", *(H₁)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE ) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", mḗ, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me (Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me" inj "me (dat.)" ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mi "me (dat. encl.)"
*H₁meme-, *H₁mene- "of me, mine"; * H₁mo-yo-, * H₁me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE mīn < *H₁mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" meī "of me"; meus "my" < *H₁me-yo- emeĩo "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/mā "my" < *H₁mo- Av mana, OPers manā "of me"; Av ma (m/n), (f) "my" OCS mene "of me", moj "my" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fyn "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "of me, my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi miš "my" < *H₁me-yo-
*tu "you" (nom. sg.) thou (< OE þū "you") þu "you" "you" Doric (standard ) t(u)vám "you"; Av "you" OCS ty "you" Lith , OPr tu "you" OIr tū, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *egō
*wei "we"; *n̥s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE ), us (< OE ūs < PGerm *uns < *n̥s) weis "we", uns "us" nōs "we, us" hēm- "we, us";[3] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n̥sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asmān "us" < *n̥sme + acc. -ān, encl. naḥ "us" < *nos Av vaēm "we", ahma "us", encl. nǝ̄, nā̊, nō "us" OCS gen. nasŭ "ours" < *nōs-sōm Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. nōuson "ours" < *nōs-sōm OIr ni "we, us" *s-nēs, gen. ar n- < *n̥s-rō-m; W ni, ny "we" < *nēs na "we" < *nŏs, ne "us" < *nōs A was, B wes "we" wēs "we" < *wei-es, anzāš "us", encl. naš "us"
*yū "you (nom. pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé,[4] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ēow[5] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") jūs "you (nom. pl.)", izwis[5] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" vōs "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme yūyám "you (nom. pl.)", yuṣmā́n "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -ān, encl. vaḥ "you (obl. pl.)" Av yūžǝm, yūš "you (nom. pl.)", yūšmat̃ "you (abl. pl.)", encl. vā̊ "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vasŭ "yours (pl.)" Lith jũs "you (nom. pl.)", jũsų "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr sī, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw-, uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *ō-swī, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme
*s(w)e- "oneself"; (reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self', seolf) swes (ref. gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself) ink῾s vetë A ṣn-i, B ṣañ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref. pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.)
*kʷid, kʷod "what" what (< OE hwæt) ƕa "what" quid "what?", quod "what…, that…" "what?", "what…" kím "what" OCS čь-to "what?" Lith kàs "what?"; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" i "what?" si "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?"
*kʷis, kʷos, kʷei/kʷoi "who" who (< OE hwā < *kʷoi) ƕas "who?" quis "who?", quī "who..." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who…" káḥ, kíḥ "who?" Av kō (ka-hyā, ča-hyā) "who?, which?", čiš "who" OCS kъ-to (česo) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" о "who?" acc. "who?" A kus, B kuse "who, which" kuis "who, which"
*-kʷe "and; any" -(u)h "and", ƕaz-uh "whoever" -que "and", quis-que "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", káś-ca "whoever" Av ča, OPers čā "and"; Av čiš-ca, OPers čiš-čiy "whoever" Bulg če "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-če, "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not";[6] Lepontic -pe "and" o-k` "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever"
*n̥- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a-, an- "un-" a-, an-, na- "un-" Av, OPers a-, an- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne-, OPrus ni- "not" OIr in-, ē-, an-, W an- "un-" an- (?) "un-" AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on- "un-"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together" sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gulī "one each, single" heĩs, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH₂ sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama-, OPers hama- "any, all" OCS samŭ "self, alone, one" Lith sam-, są- "with"; OPrus sa-, sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "similar" mi "one" A sas, B ṣe "one" < *sems
*ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ān) ains "one" ūnus (archaic oinos) oĩnos "one (on a die)", oĩ(w)os "alone" (ēka- < *oi-ko-; Late Proto-Indic aika-vartana "one turn (around a track)") Av aēva-, OPers aiva- "one, only, alone" OCS inŭ "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ōen, W un "one" andr-ēn "right there", ast-ēn "right here" ? Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-; ??? një "one" < *ňân < PIE *eni-oino-[7] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit"
*dwóH₁ , neut. *dwóy(H₁) "two" two (< OE twā) twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dúō "two" dvā́(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. baē "two" OCS dŭva "two" Lith , OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem. dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two" dā-, Lycian cbi-/tbi- "two"
*tréyes (fem. *tisres,[8] neut. *tríH₂) "three" three (< OE þrīe) þreis "three" trēs "three" treĩs "three" tráyaḥ (fem. tisráḥ) "three" Av ϑrayō, ϑrayas (fem. tisrō, neut. ϑri), OPers çi-, Parth hrē "three" OCS trĭje "three" Lith trỹs, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem. téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erekʻ "three" tre "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"
*kʷetwóres (fem. *kʷétesres, neut. *kʷetwṓr) "four" four (< OE fēower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénkʷe "five") quattuor "four" téssares "four" masc. catvā́raḥ (acc. catúraḥ), neut. catvā́ri, fem. cátasraḥ "four" Av masc. čaϑwārō (acc. čaturąm), fem. čataŋrō "four"; NPers čahār "four" OCS četyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four" OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. cethēoir, influenced by fem. tēoir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four" čʻorkʻ "four" katër "four" A śtwar, B śtwer "four"
*pénkʷe "five" five (< OE fīf) fimf "five" quīnque "five" pénte "five" páñca "five" Av panča "five" OCS pętĭ "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five" OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five" hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B piś "five"
*swéḱs "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial. wéx "six" ṣáṣ "six" Av xšvaš "six" OCS šestĭ "six" Lith šešì, OPrus uššai "six" OIr , W chwe(ch) "six" vec̣ "six" gjashtë "six" A ṣäk, B ṣkas "six"
*septḿ̥ "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven" Av hapta "seven" OCS sedmĭ "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" evt`n "seven" shtatë "seven" A ṣpät, B ṣukt "seven" sipta- "seven"
*H₁oḱtō(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" octō "eight" oktṓ "eight" aṣṭā́(u) "eight" Av ašta "eight" OCS osmĭ "eight"[9] Lith aštuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" OIr ocht n- "eight";[10] W wyth "eight" ut` "eight" < *optō, influenced by *septḿ̥ "seven" tetë "eight" < *H₁oḱtō-t- A okät, B okt "eight"
*(H₁)néwn̥ "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava "nine" OCS devętĭ "nine" < *newn̥-ti- (Influenced by dékm̥t "ten") Lith devynì (influenced by dékm̥t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n-, W naw "nine" inn /inən/ "9" < *enwn̥ nëntë "nine" < *newn̥-ti- AB ñu
*déḱm̥t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dáśa "ten" Av dasa "ten" OCS desętĭ "ten" Lith dẽšimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten" tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *déḱm̥t-i- A śäk, B śak "ten"
*wī́ḱm̥̥tiH₁ "twenty" < *dwi-dḱm̥̥t-iH₁ "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) vīgintī "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viṁśatí "twenty", dviṁśatí "twenty" Av vīsaiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) OCS dvadsati- "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" k`san "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikäṃ "twenty"
*ḱm̥tóm "hundred" < *dḱm̥tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" śatám "hundred" Av satǝm "hundred" OCS sŭto "hundred" Lith šim̃tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" A känt, B kante "hundred"

Body parts

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*(d)ákru- "tear" tear (< OE tēar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacruma "tear" dákru "tear" áśru "tear" Av asrū- "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith ašara "tear OIr dēr, W deigr "moist"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *draḱur A ākär "tear", B pl. akrūna "tears" isḫaḫru "tear"
*dn̥ǵhuH₂-, *dn̥ǵhwéH₂ "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tuggō "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) jihvā́ "tongue" < *ǵiǵhwā Av hizvā < *ǵiǵhwā, OPers hizān, Parth ezβān "tongue"[11] OCS języ-kŭ "tongue" < *n̥ǵhū-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith liežuvis "tongue" teng "tongue" lezu "tongue" < *leǵhwā (after *leiǵh- "lick") A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" (*kantwa < *tankwa)
*ésH₂r̥, *esH₂nés "blood" archaic aser "blood" éar "blood" ásr̥k, ásr̥t (asnáḥ) "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. ašņa) "blood", Lith menesines "meneustral period" ariun "blood" < *ésH₂r̥- A ysār "blood" ēsḫar (esḫanas) "blood"
*ǵénu, ǵnéus; ǵ(o)nH₂dhos "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c̣inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnáthos, gnathmós "jaw" < *ǵnH₂dh- hánu-ṣ "jaw" < *ǵhenu-s Av zānu- "jaw-" < *ǵhenu-s, OPers danūg < *danu-ka-, Parth zanax "chin, jaw" OPrus żauna "jaw", Lith žiauna "jaw" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gen, pl. geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" ?cnaut "jaw, cheek" A śanwe-m "jaw"
*ǵénu, ǵnéus "knee" knee (< OE cnēo) kniu "knee" genū "knee" gónu (Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-khnu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-gnu jā́nu "knee", pra-jñuḥ "bow-legged" Av acc. žnūm, dat./abl. pl. žnubyō "knee", fra-šnu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth zānūk, NPers zānū "knee" cunr, pl. cunk-k`, gen. cng-ac̣ "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *ǵnu-n(o)- A kanweṃ, B keni "two knees" genu "knee"
*H₁dónt-, *H₁dn̥t- "tooth" tooth (< OE tōþ < *H₁dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- dēns (dentis) "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- odṓn (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt-, cf. Aeol. édontes "teeth" dan (acc. dántam, gen. datáḥ) "tooth" Av dantan-, dātā "tooth" Russian desná "gum" < *H₁dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr dēt "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t-mn̥
*H₂óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" ásthi (asthnáḥ) "bone" Av ast-, asti- (gen. pl. astąm, instr. pl. azdbīš) "bone" OCS kostĭ "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib" *astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- oskr "bone" < *ost-ko- asht, ahstë "bone" B āy, pl. āsta "bone" ḫastāi- "bone"
*H₂ous- "ear" ear (< OE ēare) áusō "ear" auris "ear" oũs "ear" Av uši "both ears"; NPers hoš "ear" OCS ucho (ušese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr āu, ō "ear" unkn "ear" < *us-on-ko-m vesh "ear" < *ōus, *ōs-
*H₃okʷ- "eye" eye (< OE ēage) áugō "eye" oculus "eye" < *ōkʷelo-s ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn̥ ákṣi (akṣṇáḥ) "eye" Av aši "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn "eye", ač-k` "eyes" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye"
*ḱerd- "heart"; *ḱred-dhē- "to believe" heart (< OE heorte) haírtō "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; crēdō "I believe" < *krezdō- < *ḱred-dhē- kardíā, Homeric kradíē, Cypriot korízdā "heart" < *ḱr̥d(y)ā; poetic kẽr (kẽros) "heart" < *ḱērd hṛd "heart" < post-PIE *ǵhr̥d; hṛdaya "heart"; śrad-dadhāti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zǝrǝd "heart" < post-PIE *ǵhr̥d; zrazdā- "to believe" < *srazdā[12] OCS srŭdĭce "heart" OPrus siran "heart", serds "core", Lith širdis "heart", šerdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center"; Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe" sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl. käryāñ "hearts" karz (kardias) "heart"
*nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON nǫs "nose" nāris "nose" nas- "nose" Av nāh-, nā̊ŋhan-, OPers acc. sg. nāham "nose" OCS nosŭ "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose"
*pōds, *ped- "foot" foot (< OE fōt) fōtus "foot" pēs (pedis) "foot" poús (podós) "foot" pāt (padáḥ) "foot" Av pad-, OPers pād, Parth pāδ "foot" OCS pěšǐ "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith pėda "foot" OIr īs "below" < PIE loc. pl. *pēd-su ot-n "foot" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata-, Luvian pata- "foot"
*yḗkʷr̥, yekʷnés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" hẽpar (hḗpatos) "liver" yákr̥t (yaknáḥ) "liver" Av yākarǝ, NPers ǰigar, Pashto yī̆na "liver" ?ChSl ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver" ?MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*éḱwos "horse" OE eoh "horse" aíƕa- "horse"[13] equus "horse" híppos "horse" áśvaḥ "horse" Av aspa-, OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yéḱwos OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith ašva "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-ālos A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"
*gʷōus[14] "cattle" cow (< OE ) Old Saxon , OHG chuo "cow" bōs (bovis) "cattle";[15] Umbrian acc. bum "cow" boũs, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáuḥ (gṓḥ)[14] "cow" Av gāuš (gāuš)[14] "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *govędo; OCS gu-mǐno "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow" OIr bó (bóu/báu)[16] "cow"; OW buch "cow" < *boukkā, bu-gail "cowherd" < *gʷou-kʷolyos kov "cow" gak "boar" A ko "cow", B keu "cow" HierLuv wawa-, Lycian wawa-, uwa- "cow"
*H₂ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ēow "sheep", ēowu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *āvi-či- OCS ovĭ-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ōi "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" < *owi-pā- B eye "sheep", ā(u)w "ewe" Luvian hāwa/i-, Lycian χawa- "sheep"
*H₂rtḱos "bear" ursus "bear" árktos "bear" ŕ̥kṣaḥ "bear" YAv arša, Ossetian ars "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" arǰ "bear" arí "bear" ḫartaqqas (name of a beast of prey)
*ḱwon- "hound, dog" hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kúōn (kunós) "dog" śvan(śunaḥ) "dog" Av spā (acc. spānǝm, pl. gen. sū̆nam), MPers sak, Kurdish sah, Wakhi šač "dog" OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith šuo "dog" OIr cu (con), W ci "dog" šun (šan) "dog" AB ku "dog" (acc. A koṃ, B kweṃ) kun- "dog"
*muH₁s- "mouse" mouse (< OE mūs) ON mús "mouse" mūs "mouse" mũs "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" OPers muš "mouse" (? not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers mūš "mouse") OCS myšĭ "mouse" mowk "mouse" mi "mouse"
*suHs- "pig" sow (< OE ) ON sýr "sow" sūs "pig" hũs, sũs "pig" sū-kara "pig"; Hindi sūvar "pig" Av (gen. sg.) "pig" Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns "piglet" OIr socc sáil "sea pig"; W hwch "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig"
*wl̥kʷos "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vŕ̥kaḥ "wolf" Av vǝhrka- "wolf" OCS vlĭkŭ "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf"
*ǵhans- "goose" goose (< OE gōs) OHG gans "goose" (h)ānser "goose" khḗn "goose" haṁsáḥ "goose" Av zāō "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z’γ "kind of bird" OCS gǫsǐ "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith žasis "gooose" OIr gēiss "swan" gatë "heron"
*H₂enH₂-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ānas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ātí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck" Russian utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ǵr̥H₂-no- "grain" corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" grānum "grain" OCS zrŭno "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith žirnis "pea", girnapuse "millstone" OIr grān, W grawn "grain" grurë "grain"
*H₂éǵros "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agrī) "field" agrós "field" ájraḥ "meadow" art "soil"
*H₂erH₃- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" arō (arāre) "to plow", arātrum "plow" aróō "I plow" < *H₂erH₃-oH₂, árotron "plow" OCS orjǫ (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(ə)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *arətrom < *H₂erH₃-trom araur "plow" < *arātrom arë "arable land" < *H₂r̥H₃-uer- AB āre "plow"
*H₂melǵ- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulgeō (mulgēre) "to milk" amélgō "I milk" mā́ršti, mā́rjati, mr̥játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av marǝzaiti, mǝrǝzaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ CS mŭlzu (mlěsti) "to milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith melžti "to milk" MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk"
*melH₂- "to grind" meal (< OE melu) malan "to grind" molō (molere) "to grind" múllō "I grind" mr̥ṇāti, mr̥nati "(he) grinds" Av mrāta- "tanned soft" OCS meljǫ (mlětĭ) "to grind" OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" malem "I crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds"
*meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-dēaw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" méli (mélit-) "honey" milinda "honey-bee" OIr mil, W mel "honey" mełr (mełu) "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"
*médʰu "honey", "mead"" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" méthu "wine" mádhu "sweet drink, honey" Av mađu OCS medŭ "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead" B mit "honey"
*sal- "salt" salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" sāl (salis) "salt" háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS solǐ "salt" OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A sāle, B salyiye "salt"
*seH₁- "to sow (seed)", *séH₁mn̥ "seed" sow (< OE sāwan) saian "to sow"; OHG sāmo "seed" serō (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH₁-oH₂, sēmen "seed" sī́ra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS sějǫ (sějati) "to sow", sěmę "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith sėti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr sīl, W hil "seed" < *seH₁-lo- isḫūwāi "(he) sows"
*yugóm "yoke" yoke (< OE ġeoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugám "yoke" Av yaoj-, yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke"

Bodily functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂enH₁- "to breathe" OE ōþian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþōjanã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H₂en-yeH₂[17] OIr anāl "breath" < *H₂enH̥₁-tlo- holm "wind" Gheg âj Tosk ēnj "I swell" AB āñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B anāsk- "breathe in"
*swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "sleep (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)" somnus "sleep (n.) húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápnaḥ "dream (n.)" Av xᵛafna- "sleep (n.)" OCS sŭnŭ "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr sūan, W hun "sleep (n.)" k`un (k`noy) "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" A ṣpäṃ, B. ṣpane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup-, suppariya- "to sleep"
*sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE swǣtan "to sweat") ON sveiti sūdor "sweat (n.)" (e)ĩdos "sweat (n.)" svḗda- "sweat (n.)" Av xᵛaēda- "sweat (n.)" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- k`irt-n (k`irt-an) "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-drōxty- B syā-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé-
*H₁ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" edō (ēsse) "to eat", ēst "(he) eats" édō "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj. aδāiti "(he) should eat" OCS jamĭ "I eat" < *H₁ēd-mi, jastŭ "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", esti, Lith "to eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H₁ed-ti owtem "I eat" < *ōd- ha "to eat" ēdmi "I eat"
*peH₃- "to drink" bibō (bibere) "to drink", pōtus "drink (n.)" pī́nō, pépomai "I drink" pā́ti, píbati "(he) drinks" Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" drunk? OCS pijǫ (piti) "to drink" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W iben "we drink" əmpem "I drink" "I drink" pāsi "he swallows"
*ǵenH₁-, *gi-ǵnéH₁(-sḱ)-, *ǵn̥-néH₁- "to give birth" kind (< OE (ġe)cynd); OE cennan "produce" -kunds "born"; OHG kind "child" gignō (gignere) "to produce" (OLat. genō); nā-scor (nāscī) "to be born" < *ǵn̥H₁-skṓ-r gígnomai "I become" jánati "(he) gives birth", jajanti "they give birth" Av zīzǝnti, zīzanǝnti "they give birth" OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *ǵn̥-ye-tro;[17] W genni "to be born" cnanim "is born, bears" < *ǵnH̥₁-n-, cnay (aor.) "was born, bore" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *ǵenH̥₁-tr-[18] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized"
*H₂eug-, H₂weg- "to grow, increase" eke (< OE ēacian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig. caus. *H₂wog-s-éy-onom augeō (augēre) "to increase (tr.)" a(w)éksō "I increase (intr.)", aúksō, auksánō "I increase (tr.)" úkṣati "(he) becomes stronger", vakṣáyati "(he) causes to grow" Av uxšyeiti "(he) grows", vaxšaiti "(he) causes to grow" OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr fēr, W gwair "fat" < *weg- A oksiṣ "(he) grows"; A okṣu, В aukṣu "grown"
*gʷiH₃wo- "alive", *gʷiH₃wo-teH₂ "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" vīvus "alive"; vīta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" jīvá-, jīvaka- "alive", jīvitam, jīvā́tuḥ, jīvathaḥ "life" Av gayō, acc. ǰyātum "life", -ǰyāiti- "life-"; Av ǰva-, OPers ǰīva- "alive" OCS živŭ "alive", žitĭ, životŭ "life" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith givas "alive", givatė "snake" OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-tūts keam "I live" < *gʷi-yā-ye-mi[17] B śai- "to live" < *gweiH₃-ō
*mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr̥-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (morī) "to die" < *mr̥-yōr, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós) "mortal" marati, máratē, mriyátē "(he) dies", mṛtá- "dead" Av merə- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man" OCS mĭrǫ, mrěti "to die" Lith miŕštu (miŕti) "to die", merdėti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < mr̥-wós meṙanim "I die", meṙaç "dead" mert "died"

Mental functions and states

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*ḱleu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hlūd) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clueō (cluēre) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" śr̥ṇóti "(he) hears" < *ḱl̥-neu- Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *ḱlu-n- OCS slyšati "to hear" OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear" lsem "I hear", aor. luaj "I heard" < *ḱlu-ḱe Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *ḱlu(H)-eH₁- A klyoṣ-, B klyauṣ- "to hear"
*weid- "to see, to find" videō (vidēre) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw" vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found" Av vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti "(he) finds" OCS viždǫ (viděti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see", Lith veidas "face" gtanem "I find", egit "he found"
*weid- "to know" wit (< OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" perf. oĩda "I know" vetti, vēdate, vidáti "(he) knows", perf. véda "I know" Av perf. vaēδa "I know", vīdarǝ "they know" OCS věmĭ (věděti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine" OIr find, W gwynn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ūwe "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo-
*ǵénH₃-, *ǵnéH₃-sḱ-, *ǵn̥-né-H₃- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cnāwan < *ǵnēH₃-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *ǵn̥-n-H₃-onom, kann "I know" (g)nōscō ((g)nōscere) "to recognize", nōvī "I know" gignṓskō (aorist égnōn) "I recognize" jānā́mi "I know" < *janā́mi < *ǵn̥-nH₃-mi Av zanā-ṯ, zanąn, Afghan. pē-žanī "(he) understands, recognizes" < *ǵn̥-ne-H₃-ti; OPers a-dānā (impf.) "he knew" < *ǵn̥-ne-H₃-mi, xšnāsātiy (subj.) "he should know" < *ǵneH₃-sḱe-eti OCS znajǫ (znati) "to know" < *ǵneH₃-yoH₂ OPrus zinatun "to recognize, know", Lith žinoti "to know OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise" aorist caneay "I recognized" njoh "I know" < *ǵnēH₃-sḱoH₂ A knā-, e.g. knānmaṃ "knowing" < *ǵneH₃-, kñas-äṣt "you have become acquainted" < *ǵnēH₃-s-
*n̥- + *ǵneH₃-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE uncūþ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ignōtus, ignōrāntem "unknown, ignorant" agnṓs (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n̥- + *ǵnéH₃-ts ajñāta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith nežinoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can "unknown" A ā-knats, B a-knātsa "ignorant"
*men- "to think" mind (< OE (ġe)mynd "memory" < *mn̥t-ís); OE munan "to think" munan "to think"; muns (pl. muneis) "thought" < *mn̥-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn̥t-ís meminī "I remember"; mēns (mentis) "mind" < *mn̥t-is mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad" mányate "(he) thinks" Av mainyeite "(he) thinks"; OPers mainyāhay "I think" OCS mĭněti "to mean" OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", minėti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" i-manam "I understand" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memmāi "says"
*sekʷ- "to see, to say" see (< OE sēon); say (< OE sec̣gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sokʷéyonom) saíƕan "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sokʷē- īnseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" śacate "(he) says" OCS sočiti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say". sekti' "to tell a story" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-skʷo-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ṣotre, B ṣotri "sign" sakuwāi- "to see"
*wekʷ- "to say" OE wōma "noise" < *wōkʷ-mō(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom. built on *wokʷ-no-) vocō (vocāre) "to call", vōx (vōcis) "voice" eĩpon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ikʷ-om < *e-we-ukʷ-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", vāk "voice", vácas- "word" Av vač- "speak, say", vāxš "voice", vačah "word" OPrus enwackēmai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wokʷ-tlo-m gočem "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ḫuek-, ḫuk- to swear to"
*preḱ-, *pr̥-sḱ- < *pr̥ḱ-sḱ- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE freġnan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forscōn "to ask, to research" precor (precārī) "to pray", poscō (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr̥ccháti "(he) asks" Av pǝrǝsaiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr̥-sḱ-; OPers aor.? aparsam "(he) asked" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith prašyti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harc̣anem (aor. e-harc̣) "I ask" A prak-, B prek- "to ask"
*H₁neH₃mn̥ or *H₁nomn̥- "name" name (< OE nama) namō (acc. pl. namna) "name" nōmen "name" ónoma "name" nā́ma (instrumental sg. nā́mnā) "name" Av nāma "name" OCS imę "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n̥men' OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n-, OW anu "name" anown "name" Gheg emër, Tosk emën "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" lāman- "name"

Natural features

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₂ster- "star" star (< OE steorra) staírnō "star" stēlla "star" astḗr "star" stṛ inst. pl. stŕ̥bhiḥ, nom. pl. tāraḥ, fem. nom. sg. tarā "star" Av acc. stā̆rǝm (ablauting)[19] "star" OCS gvězda "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star" astł "star" pl. A śreñ, B ściriñ "stars" ḫasterza "star"
*dyēus, déiwos[20] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE Tīwes-dæġ lit. "day of Tīw"[21]) ON tīvar "gods", Týr "Tīw" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Diū-piter (Diovis) "Jupiter"; diēs "day", deus, dīvus "god"[22] Zdeús (Di(w)ós)[20] "Zeus" d(i)yāúḥ (diváḥ, dyōḥ)[20] "heaven", dēváḥ "god" Av daēva- "demon" (OCS dĭnĭ (dĭne) "day" < *din-is), Russian divo "miracle" Dava-ti, dav "to give, giver" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr dīe, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (dē), OW duiu- "God" tiv "day" (gdhinj "I make day"(? mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH₂)
*seH₂wol-, *sH₂un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunnō "sun" sōl "sun" Homeric hēélios "sun" < *sāwélios súvar (súraḥ) "sun, light, heavens", sūra-, sūrya "sun" Av hvarǝ (hūrō) "sun, light, heavens" OCS slĭnŭce "sun" < *sulnika-, Russian po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saulė "sun", savaitė "week" OIr sūil "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *sūlo- or *sūli-
*meH₁ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE mōna), month (< OE mōnaþ) mēna "moon", mēnoþs "month" mēnsis "month" Att mḗn, Ion meis, Dor mḗs "month", mḗnē "moon" mā́s "moon"; mā́sa "month" Av mā̊ (mā̊ŋhō) "moon"; NPers māh "moon, month" OCS měsęcĭ "moon, month" < *mēs-n̥-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith mėnulis "moon", mėnesis "month" OIr mī (mīs) "month" < *mēns;; W mis "month" amis (amsoy) "month" < *mēnsos muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B meṃ "moon"
*dheǵhom- "earth" humus "earth" khthṓn (khthonós) "earth", khamaí "on the earth" kṣā́ḥ (acc. kṣā́m, gen. jmáḥ) "earth" Av zā̊ (acc. ząm, gen. zǝmō) "earth" OCS zemĭ, zemlja "earth" OPrus zemê "earth", Lith žemė " earth" OIr "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tkaṃ (tkanis), B keṃ "earth" tēkan (tagnās) "earth"
*wódr̥ (udéns) pl. *wédōr (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) watō (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húdōr (húdatos) "water" udakám (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water" Av aoδa- "spring", vaiδi- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russian vedro "bucket", OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo- get "river" < *wedō ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" wātar (wetenas) "water"
*doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE trēo) triu "tree, wood" dóru "spear" dā́ru (drṓs) "wood" Av dāru- "tree, wood" OCS drěvo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drevė "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree"
*H₂weH₁n̥to- "wind", *H₂weH₁- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE wāwan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", áēsi "(he) blows" vā́taḥ (vānt-)[23] "wind", vāti "(he) blows" Av vātō "wind", vāiti "(he) blows" OCS vějǫ (vějetŭ) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind", Lith vėjas "wind", vėtra "heavy wind" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" ḫūwanz[24] "wind"
*sneigʷh- "to snow" snow (< OE snāw < *snoigʷhos, snīwan "to snow" < *sneigʷhonom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ninguō (ninguere) "to snow" nípha (acc.) "snow", neíphei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaēža-' "to snow"; Shughni žǝnij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sněgŭ "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains"
*péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés "bonfire"[25] fire (< OE fȳr < *fuïr[25]) fōn (funins)[25] "fire"; OHG fuïr[25] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *pūr, acc. purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- pũr (purós) "fire" pāru (pēru) "sun, fire" Czech pýř "glowing ash" OPrus pannu "fire" hur (hroy) "fire" < *pū̆r-, hn-oc̣ "furnace" < *pū̆n- A por, B puwar, puwār, pwār "fire" paḫḫur "fire"
*gʷʰerm- "warm" ?warm (< OE wearm); OE ġierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ?warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" thermós "warm" gharmáḥ "heat" Av garǝma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat" Russian žar "heat", goret' "to warm" < *gʷʰer OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith žarijos "cinders", žėrėti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gʷʰor-nos ǰerm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A śärme "heat (of summer)"
*leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE lēoht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" lūceō (lūcēre) "to shine", lūx "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light" Av raočant- "shining", raočah "light"; OPers raučah "light" OCS luča "ray, flash" < *loukyā OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" lois (lusoi) "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi, OPers pariy "forward" OCS prě- "forward" OPrus pro-, pra- "trough, across", Latvian pāri "across" OIr ir-, W er "forward" heṙow "far" për, pej, pe "forward" parā, Lycian pri "forth"
*upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av 'upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po-verh - "above" OPrus uppin "cloud", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" i ver "up" epër "over, above"
*H₂ents "forehead", *H₂entí, *H₂entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- and "there", ənd "for" < *H₂enti A ānt, B ānte "surface, forehead" ḫānz, ḫanti "in front"
*en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-īka- "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ Av ainika "face" < ?*eni-Hkʷ OCS on-, vŭn-, "in" OPrus en "in", Lith į "in" OIr in- "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y-, yn-, B in- "in" an-dan "inside"
*apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" (ab-u "from ...?") ab "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apačià "bottom" < *apotyā prapë "back" < *per-apë āpa "behind, back" (or ? < *epi)

Basic adjectives

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*medhyo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mádhya- "middle" Av maiδya- "middle" OCS meždu "between", Russian meža "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *medhu-; MW mei- "middle" < *medhyo- mēǰ "middle" mijdis,mes "in between,middle"
*meǵ- "big" much (< OE myc̣el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" mahā́nt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OCS moguchiy "powerfull, big", OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith mažas "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag-, maige "big" meç "big" madh, madhi "big" A mak, B makā "much" mekkis "big"
*gʷerH₂- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" grāvis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurúḥ "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers girān "heavy" < *grāna- (influenced by *frāna "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B krā-mär "burden" < *gʷroH₂-mVr-
*H₁le(n)gʷh-, *H₁ln̥gʷh-ro-, *H₁ln̥gʷh-u-[26] "light (in weight)" light (< OE lēoht) leihts "light" < *H₁lengʷh-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H₁ln̥gʷh-ros levis "light" < *H₁legʷh-us elakhús "small" < *H₁ln̥gʷh-us, elaphrós "light, quick" < *H₁ln̥gʷh-ros laghú-, raghú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu-, fem. rǝvī "fast", superl. rǝnjišta- "fastest" OCS lŭgŭkŭ "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" Illyr lembus "light vehicle" < *H₁lengʷh-os B lankutse "light"
*H₁reudh-, *H₁roudh-os, *H₁rudh-rós[26] "red" red (< OE rēad < *H₁roudh-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H₁roudh-os ruber "red" < *H₁rudh-rós eruthrós "red" < *H₁rudh-rós rudhirá- "red" < *H₁rudh-rós mixed with *H₁rudh-i-; rṓhita- "red"; lōhá- "reddish" < *H₁roudh-os Av raoiδita- "red" OCS rudŭ "red" Lith raũdonas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust" A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H₁rudh-rós
*alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ōþer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá-, ántara- "other" Av anya-, ainya-, OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *ǫtorŭ OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other" ayl "other" A ālya-kə, B alye-kə "another" Lydian aλa- "other"
*néwo- "new" new (< OE nīwe) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS novŭ "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr nūë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new"
*H₂yuHn̥- "young" young (< OE ġeong < *H₂yuHn̥ḱós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (yū́naḥ) "young" Av yvan-, yavan- (yūnō) "youth, young man" OCS junŭ "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ōac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H₂yuHn̥ḱós
*sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" enos "old" sanah "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old"
*nogw- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gymnós "naked" nagnah "naked" OCS nagŭ "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked" nekumant- "naked, bare"

Construction, fabrication

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dhwer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúrō "door" forēs (pl.) "door" thurā "door" dvā́r, dvā́raḥ (pl.) "door" Av dvarǝm (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvarayā "at the gate" OCS dvĭri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal",dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu-, W dor "door" < *dhureH₂ dowṙ "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within"
*domo-, *domu- "house", "home" timber (< OE timber "house, building material") timrjan "to build, erect" domus (domūs) "house" dómos "house" dámaḥ "house" Av dąm, dąmi "in the house"; dǝmā̆na-, nmāna- "house" < *dm-ā̆na- OCS domŭ "house" OPrus dimstis "porch", Lith dimstis "entryway" MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" town "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem-, B tam- "be born"
*kʷekʷlo- "wheel" wheel (< OE hwēol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *kʷekʷlós) ON hjōl, hvēl "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *kʷékʷlos circulus "circle" kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av čaxra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut"
*s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE sēowan) siujan "to sew" suō (suere) "to sew" humḗn "sinew" sī́vyati "(he) sews", syūtá- "sewn" OCS šijǫ (šiti) "to sew" OPrus šutun "to sew", Lith siūti "to sew", Latg šyut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), šuel (?), šuil (?) "thread"
*teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" texō (texere) "to weave" téktōn "carpenter", tíktō "I give birth" takṣati, tā́ṣṭi "(he) fashions" Av tašaiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-tašanā "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers tāšīδan "to do carpentry" OCS tešǫ (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith tašyti "to hew" OIr tāl "axe" < *tōkslo- takkeszi "puts together"
*webh- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (*wabjan) OHG weban "to weave" huphaínō "I weave" ubhnā́ti "ties together" Av ubdaēna- "made of cloth"; NPers bāfad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" W gwau "knit,weave" venj "I weave" < *webhnyō B wāp- "to weave"
*werǵ- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc̣an) waúrkjan "to work" urgeō (urgēre) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érdō, hrézdō "I work" < *wérǵ-yoH₂, *wréǵ-yoH₂ varcaḥ "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av varəza- "work, activity", vərəzyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" varka, variti "to boil, to brew" vorog "enemie" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wreǵ-tu- gorç "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk-, B wārk- "to shear"
*wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, vaŋhaiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian veš "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuvės "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress"
veshje "clothing"
B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes"

Self-motion, rest

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*H₁es- "to be", *H₁es-ti "is"
Cf. Indo-European copula
is (< OE is) ist "is" est " is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti ásti "is," Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jestŭ "is" OPrus ast "is", ēst "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti ē "is" është "is" B ste "is" ēszi "is"
*bhuH₂- "to become"
Cf. Indo-European copula
be (< OE bēon); OE būan "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fuī "I was" phúomai "I become", éphū "became" bhávati "become, is", ábhūt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith būti "to be" OIr buith "being" busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunjō
*sed-, *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sedeō (sedēre) "to sit", sīdō "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH₂ hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo-, hizdō "I set" < *si-zd-oH₂ sátsi "(he) sits", aor. ásadat "sat"; sī́dati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti Av ni-šaŋhasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdyā-t "(he) should sit", hiδaiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers caus. niya-šād-ayam "I set" OCS sěždǫ (sěděti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sedėti "to be sitting", sėstis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; W seddu "to sit" nstim "I sit" *ni-zdyō, hecanim "I sit on, I ride"
*legh- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic̣gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lékhomai "I lie down" leṭyati "(he) lies down" OCS ležǫ (ležati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B lyśalyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down"
*ḱei- "to lie (down); bed, cozy, dear, familiar" home (< OE hām "village, home" < *ḱoi-mos) háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *ḱoi-mis cīvis "city dweller, citizen" < *ḱei-wis keĩtai "lies" śētē (older śáyē) "(he) lies", śērē "they lie" Av saēte "(he) lies", sōire "they lie" OCS sěmĭja "servants" OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith šeima "family", kaimas "village", keistas "strange" OIr cōim, cōem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *ḱeiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies"
*steH₂- "to stand (i.e. be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG stān, stēn "to stand" stō (stāre) "to stand", sistō (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric hístāmi "I stand" tíṣṭhati "(he) stands" Av hištaiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf. a-ištata "(he) stood" OCS stajǫ (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stovėti "to stand" OIr tair-(ṡ)issiur "I stand" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay"
*H₁ei- "to go" OE ēode "went" iddja "went" eō (īre) "to go" eĩmi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av aēiti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS hoditi "to go, to walk, to move", hod "move" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-āt- iǰanem (aorist ēǰ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- ik "to go" *H₁(e)i-K- A "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *yā- īt "go!"
*gʷem- "to come" come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come" veniō (venīre) "to come" baínō "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor. ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ǰamaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-ǰǝ̄n "(he) goes", pl. gǝmǝn "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born" kam "I stand", ekn "(he) came" ngā "I walk" < *ga-nyō A käm-, kum-, B käm-, kam-, śem "to come"
*sekʷ- "to follow" OE sec̣g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequī) "to follow" hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av hačaitē, hačaiti "(he) follows" shagati "to walk" OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breath lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows"

Object motion

PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*bher- "to carry" bear (< OE beran) baíran "to carry" ferō (ferre) "to carry" pherō "I carry" bharati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" OCS berǫ (bĭrati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"
*weǵh- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE weġ); wain "wagon" (< OE wæġn)[27] ga-wigan "to move, shake" vehō (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wekhétō "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives" Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vezǫ (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith vežti "to drive" OIr fēn, W gwain (type of wagon) < *weǵh-no-; W ar-wain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive"
*H₂eǵ- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" agō (agere) "to drive, do" ágō "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak-, B āk- "go, lead"
*dheH₁-, dhH̥₁- "to place, put" do (< OE dōn) deds "deed" faciō (facere) "to do" < *dhH̥₁-k-yoH₂; con-ditus "built" (orig. "put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-θatos < *dhH̥₁-tos títhēmi "I put" < *dhí-dheH₁-mi dádhāti "(he) puts" < *dhé-dheH₁-ti Av daδāiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adadā "(he) established" OCS děti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith deti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-dīt < *-dheH₁-t ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *dhH̥₁-teH₂ A tā-, täs-, tas-, B tes- "to lay" < *dheH₁-s- dāi "puts"
*deH₃-, dhH̥₃- "to give" dō (dare) "to give" dídōmi "I give" dádāti "(he) gives" Av dadāiti "(he) gives"; OPers impv. dadātuv "let him give" OCS damĭ "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr dān, W dawn "gift" ta-m "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH̥₃-sm̥ dāi "takes"
*kap- "to grab" have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban) haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capiō (cabere) "to take" káptō "I snatch, swallow" kapaṭī "two handfuls" NPers časpīdan, čapsīdan, cafsīdan "to grasp, seize" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing. OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have"
*ghabh- "to seize, take" give (< OE ġiefan) giban "to give" habeō (habēre) "to have" gábhastiḥ "forearm, hand" Polish gabać "seize" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"
*gʷʰen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" dē-fendō (dēfendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fendō (offendere) "to bump, offend" theínō "I kill" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂, épephnon "I killed" < redup. + *gʷʰn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gʷʰen-ti, ghnánti "they strike, kill" Av ǰainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-γne (mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf. ajanam "I struck down" OCS ženǫ (gŭnati) "drive (animals to pasture)", žĭnjǫ (žęti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill" ǰnem "I strike" < *gʷʰen-oH₂, ǰnǰem "I destroy" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ gjanj "I hunt" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gʷʰn̥-sk- kuēnzi "kills" < *gʷʰen-ti
*leikʷ-, *li-ne-kʷ- "to leave behind" OE lēon "to lend" leiƕan "to lend" linquō (linquere) "to leave behind" leípō, limpánō "I leave behind" riṇákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd. pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers rēxtan "to pour out" OBulg otŭ-lěkŭ "something left over", lišiti "to rob" < *leikʷ-s- OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr lēicid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lk`anem "I leave behind"


PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite
*dhĝhyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ġeostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" khthés "yesterday" hyáḥ "yesterday" < *ghyés Av zyō, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-dē, W doe "yesterday" dje "yesterday"
*nokʷts (nekʷts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nokʷtis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nokʷts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr. pl. náktīḥ) "night" OCS noštĭ "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" natë "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening"
*H₂eusōs "dawn", *H₂eus-tero- "east", *H₂euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ēasterne) ON austr "east" aurōra "dawn", aurum "gold" Doric āṓs "dawn" uṣā́ḥ (uṣásaḥ), acc. uṣā́sam "dawn" Av ušā̊ (ušaŋhō), acc. ušā̊ŋhǝm "dawn" OCS za ustra "(in) the morning" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold", Lith aušra "dawn", auksas "gold" OIr fāir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *wōsri- ?os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold"
*ǵhyem-, ǵheim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" kheĩma "winter" híma "winter" Av zyā̊ (acc. zyąm, gen. zimō) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith žiema "winter" OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter" jiun "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" gimmanza "winter"
*wés-r̥, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" vēr "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av vaŋri "in spring";; OPers ϑūra-vāhara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", vesu "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-āko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n̥t-eino- garun (garnan) "spring"< *wesr-
*wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut-, ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá-, vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wtšnyy (read wat(u)šanē) "old" OCS vetŭchŭ "old" OLith vẽtušas "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" vit (pl. vjet) "year" witt- "year"
*yeH₁r- "year" year (< OE ġēar) jēr "year" hōrnus "this year's" < *hōyōr- hōra "time, year" < *yoH₁r- ?paryāríṇĪ "only calving after a year" Av yārə "year" Russ CH jara "spring" OLith Jórė "spring festival" W iar "hen", MIr eir-īn "fowl" tari "year"


  1. ^ k`oir < *swesōr; k`eṙ < *swesros; k`or-k` < *swesŏres
  2. ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man")
  3. ^ hēm- < *ām- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n̥sm-
  4. ^ *us-we is the original form, modified to *us-me in many languages under the influence of 1st. pl. *n̥s-mé. Very often when *us-we remained, the initial u- was lost; this happened at least in Germanic, Avestan and Celtic>
  5. ^ a b OE ēow (acc., dat.) and ēow-ic̣ (acc., with the same -c̣ ending visible in 1st. sg. acc. mēc̣ "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat. pl)", with unexplained loss of -z-. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i-. (Ringe, 2006)
  6. ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".
  7. ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanović, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H₂en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS onŭ "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one". Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H₂en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ëńán > Proto-Albanian *ńâ > një. M. Huld (Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH₂, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p. 75 (Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002).
  8. ^ Accent location unknown.
  9. ^ Built upon osmŭ "eighth" < *H₁oḱt-mo-.
  10. ^ With nasalization after *septḿ̥ "seven".
  11. ^ Raham Asha, Phonology of Pārsīg
  12. ^ Influenced by zǝrǝd "heart".
  13. ^ Only in *aíƕatundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth".
  14. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Singular Plural
    Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen
    PIE gʷōus gʷōm gʷous gʷówei gʷōwes gʷōs gʷowōm
    Sanskrit gáuḥ gā́m gṓḥ gávē gā́vaḥ gā́ḥ gávām
    Avestan gāuš gąm gāuš gave gā̆vō gā̊ gavąm
  15. ^ Expected form is *vōs, not *bōs; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian.
  16. ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.
  17. ^ a b c A synchronic rule in PIE deleted laryngeals in the sequence VRHy or R̥Hy.
  18. ^ Cf. Sanskrit janitár-, Greek genetḗr, genétōr, Latin genitor "procreator".
  19. ^ acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. nom. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄uš, gen. strǝ̄m, dat. stǝrǝbyō
  20. ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem:
    Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl
    PIE d(i)yēus dyēum dyĕu diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dyēu ?
    Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í
    Sanskrit d(i)yāúḥ dyā́m ? diváḥ, dyōḥ divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhiḥ
  21. ^ Tīw < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus.
  22. ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiwī > Lat. dīvī. From each stem a full declension was formed.
  23. ^ Still scanned as three syllables in some passages of the Rigveda, Ringe (2006) p. 77.
  24. ^ Ringe (2006) p. 77, sourced to Melchert (1994) p. 54.
  25. ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms. After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés would regularly produce *pāwr̥, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr̥, punés. This compressed to *pūr, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *pūr, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, however, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic fōn: Collective péH₂wōr -> pH₂uṓr (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > puōr > Proto-Germanic fuwōr > fwōr > fōr -> fōn (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change. His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different. He derives fōn from *fwōn, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr̥ or possibly from a stem *pur-. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well-understood.
  26. ^ a b *H₁le(n)gʷh- and *H₁reudh- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u-, along with -i- in compounds. Other examples are *H₂erǵ- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ṛjrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ārkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *dheub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *dhub-u-, Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).
  27. ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch.

External links

  • [1] Query Julius Pokorny's landmark Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, the standard reference for Indo-European vocabulary. Complete coverage of cognates of each root (although Hittite and Tocharian coverage is spotty), highly accurate forms. Beware, roots are given in pre-laryngeal form and glosses are in German.
  • American Heritage Indo-European Roots Index
  • Database query to the online version of Pokorny's PIE dictionary
  • Index to the online version of Pokorny's PIE dictionary
  • Jonathan Slocum, Indo-European Lexicon from the University of Texas Linguistic Research Center
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