Interleukin-3

Interleukin 3 (colony-stimulating factor, multiple)
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: RCSB
Identifiers
IL3 Gene
RNA expression pattern

Interleukin 3, also known as IL-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.[1][2]

Function

Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. It acts by binding to the interleukin-3 receptor.

IL-3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells or, with the addition of IL-7, into lymphoid progenitor cells. In addition, IL-3 stimulates proliferation of all cells in the myeloid lineage (granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells), in conjunction with other cytokines, e.g., Erythropoietin (EPO), Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 amino acids long, and the naturally occurring IL-3 is glycosylated. The human IL-3 gene is located on chromosome 5, only 9 kilobases from the GM-CSF gene, and its function is quite similar to GM-CSF.

Discovery

Interleukin-3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. He found a T cell derived factor that induced the synthesis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hematopoietic cells and termed it interleukin-3.[3][4]

Interactions

Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA.[5][6]

See also

References

Further reading

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