World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Iran Constitution of 1906

Article Id: WHEBN0008027662
Reproduction Date:

Title: Iran Constitution of 1906  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rezā Shāh, Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Senate of Iran
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Iran Constitution of 1906



The Persia Constitution of 1906[2] was Persia's first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Ismail Mumtaz.[3] It divides into five chapters with many articles that developed over several years.

The electoral and fundamental laws of 1906

The electoral and fundamental laws of 1906 established the electoral system and the internal frameworks of the Majlis (Parliament) and the Senate.

By the royal proclamation of August 5, 1906, Mozzafar al-Din Shah created this first constitution "for the peace and tranquility of all the people of Persia." Muhammad Ali Shah Qajar is credited with chapters 4 and 5.

The electoral law of September 9, 1906

The electoral law of September 9, 1906 defined the regulations for the Elections to the Majlis.

Disfranchised

Article 3 of this chapter stated that (1) women, (2) foreigners, (3) those under 25, (4) "persons notorious for mischievous opinions," (5) those with a criminal record, (6) active military personnel, and a few other groups are not permitted to vote.

Election qualifications

Article 4 stated that the elected must be (1) fully literate in Persian, (2) "they must be Iranian subjects of Iranian extraction," (3) "be locally known," (4) "not be in government employment," (5) be between 30 and 70 years old, and (6) "have some insight into affairs of State."

Article 7 asserted, "Each elector has one vote and can only vote in one [social] class."

The fundamental laws of December 30, 1906

The fundamental laws of December 30, 1906 defined the role of the Majlis in the system and its framework. It further defined a bicameral legislature. Article 1 established the National Consultative Assembly[4] based "on justice." Article 43 stated, "There shall be constituted another Assembly, entitled the Senate."

The supplementary fundamental laws of October 7, 1907

The supplementary fundamental laws of October 7, 1907 established the charter of rights and overall system of governance.

Role of clerics

Article 1 and 2 of the laws, established Islam as the official religion of Persia/Iran, and specified that all laws of the nation must be approved by a committee of Shi'a clerics. Later, these two articles were mainly ignored by the Pahlavis, which sometimes resulted in anger and uprising of clerics and religious masses: (See: Pahlavis and non-Islamic policies) Template:Cquote

One should notice however that the Law only says that the laws mustn't be against Islam, but not that the laws have to be Islamic, which is a big difference. Laws can indeed be un-Islamic and not be at variance with any specified Islamic law. One mustn't forget that the Constitutional Revolution had for great role to suppress the too great power that the clergy and the religion had. It is important to notice that the Revolution gave rights to minorities such as Zoroastrians, Christians and Jews. [2]

Rights

Article 7 disallowed suspension of the constitution. Article 8 afforded "equal rights before the Law."

Article 9 accorded "All individuals (including foreigners per Article 6) are...safeguarded in respect to their lives, property, homes, and honor, from every kind of interference...." Articles 15-17 provided further security to land-owners.

With regard to the press, Article 20 promulgated, "All publications, except heretical books and matters hurtful to the perspicuous religion [of Islam] are free."

Tribunals of Justice

Article 71 entrenched "judicial tribunals...for the redress of public grievances, while judgment in all matters falling within the scope of the Ecclesiastical Law is vested in just mujtahids possessing the necessary qualifications."

See also

References and notes

External links

  • Iran's 1906 Constitution and Its Supplement
  • Constitution of Iran, 1906 (farsi)
  • Constitutional Revolution from Iran Chamber Societyfr:Constitution de l'Iran

uk:Конституція Ірану 1907 року

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.